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See detailCurrent Status of Bottom-Up Fabrication Approaches for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Micro-Concentrator Solar Cells
Pérez-Rodríguez, Ana; Goncalinho Poeira, Ricardo Jorge UL; Alves, Marina et al

in 17TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CONCENTRATOR PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS (CPV-17) (2022, September 02)

Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells have reached a record efficiency of 23.35% and are established as a renewable energy technology. However, future large-scale fabrication might be hindered by the availability and ... [more ▼]

Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells have reached a record efficiency of 23.35% and are established as a renewable energy technology. However, future large-scale fabrication might be hindered by the availability and high cost of raw materials. To reduce the amount of solar cell material, strong efforts have been devoted to the development of the micro-concentrator photovoltaics concept for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells, which combines the well established concentrator photovoltaics (CPV) technology with the miniaturization of the solar cells. In this work, we review different bottom-up approaches for the fabrication of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 micro solar cells, that potentially allow the reduction of raw material, and we present the latest results on a magnetron sputtering based method for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 micro solar cells. [less ▲]

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See detailInkjet-printed indium sulfide buffer layer for Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 thin film solar cells
Debot, Alice UL; Chu, Van Ben; Adeleye, Damilola UL et al

in Thin Solid Films (2022)

We report an environmentally friendly inkjet-printed indium sulfide (In2S3) buffer layer using benign chemistry and processing conditions. A pre-synthesized indium-thiourea compound is dissolved in a ... [more ▼]

We report an environmentally friendly inkjet-printed indium sulfide (In2S3) buffer layer using benign chemistry and processing conditions. A pre-synthesized indium-thiourea compound is dissolved in a mixture of water and ethanol, inkjet printed on a Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 absorber and annealed in air. The buffer layer shows a β-In2S3 structure with few organic impurities and band gap in the range of 2.3 eV. An ultraviolet ozone treatment applied to the surface of the absorber prior to inkjet printing of the precursor is used to improve the wettability of the ink and therefore the surface coverage of the buffer on the absorber layer. The device with a fully covering In2S3 layer shows better open circuit voltage and fill factor than the device with a partially covering In2S3 layer. The best In2S3 device showed a light to electric power conversion efficiency similar to the reference cadmium sulfide buffer layer device. Good wettability conditions are therefore essential for higher efficiency solar cells when the buffer layer is inkjet-printed. [less ▲]

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See detailWaste- and Cd-Free Inkjet-Printed Zn(O,S) Buffer for Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 Thin-Film Solar Cells
Chu, van Ben UL; Siopa, Daniel UL; Debot, Alice UL et al

in ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces (2021), 13

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See detailSolution-based synthesis of kesterite thin film semiconductors
Todorov, T.; Hillhouse, H. W.; Aazou, S. et al

in Journal of Physics : Energy (2020)

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See detailChemical instability at chalcogenide surfaces impacts chalcopyrite devices well beyond the surface
Colombara, Diego UL; Elanzeery, Hossam UL; Nicoara, Nicoleta et al

in Nature Communications (2020)

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See detailThin-film micro-concentrator solar cells
Alves, Marina; Pérez-Rodríguez, Ana; Dale, Phillip UL et al

in Journal of Physics : Energy (2020)

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See detailArea-selective electrodeposition of micro islands for CuInSe2-based photovoltaics
Correia, David; Siopa, Daniel UL; Colombara, Diego UL et al

in Results in Physics (2019), 12

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See detailCu2SnS3 based thin film solar cells from chemical spray pyrolysis
Sayed, Mohamed H.; Robert, Erika UL; Dale, Phillip UL et al

in Thin Solid Films (2019), 669

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See detailSynthesis, theoretical and experimental characterisation of thin film Cu2Sn1-xGexS3 ternary alloys (x = 0 to 1): Homogeneous intermixing of Sn and Ge
Robert, Erika UL; Gunder, René; De Wild, Jessica UL et al

in Acta Materialia (2018), 151

Cu2Sn1-xGexS3 is a p-type semiconductor alloy currently investigated for use as an absorber layer in thin film solar cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the properties of this alloy in thin ... [more ▼]

Cu2Sn1-xGexS3 is a p-type semiconductor alloy currently investigated for use as an absorber layer in thin film solar cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the properties of this alloy in thin film form in order to establish relationships between group IV composition and structural, vibrational and opto-electronic properties. Seven single phase Cu2Sn1-xGexS3 films are prepared from x ¼ 0 to 1, showing a uniform distribution of Ge and Sn laterally and in depth. The films all show a monoclinic crystal structure. The lattice parameters are extracted using Le Bail refinement and show a linear decrease with increasing Ge content. Using density-functional theory with hybrid functionals, we calculate the Raman active phonon frequencies of Cu2SnS3 and Cu2GeS3. For the alloyed compounds, we use a virtual atom approximation. The shift of the main Raman peak from x ¼ 0 to x ¼ 1 can be explained as being half due to the change in atomic masses and half being due to the different bond strength. The bandgaps of the alloys are extracted from photoluminescence measurements and increase linearly from about 0.90 to 1.56 eV with increasing Ge. The net acceptor density of all films is around 1018 cm 3. These analyses have established that the alloy forms a solid solution over the entire composition range meaning that intentional band gap grading should be possible for future absorber layers. The linear variation of the unit cell parameters and the band gap with group IV content allows composition determination by scattering or optical measurements. Further research is required to reduce the doping density by two orders of magnitude in order to improve the current collection within a solar cell device structure. [less ▲]

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See detailLocally-confined electrodeposition of Cu(In,Ga)Se2micro islands for micro-concentrator solar cells.
Correa, David; Siopa, Daniel UL; Salomé, Pedro M.P. et al

in IEEE (2018)

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See detailNanometre-scale optical property fluctuations in Cu2ZnSnS4 revealed by low temperature cathodoluminescence
Mendis, B. G.; Taylor, A. A.; Guennou, Maël et al

in Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells (2018), 174

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See detailSodium enhances indium-gallium interdiffusion in copper indium gallium diselenide photovoltaic absorbers
Colombara, Diego UL; Werner, Florian UL; Schwarz, Torsten et al

in Nature Communications (2018)

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See detailDeliberate and Accidental Gas-Phase Alkali Doping of Chalcogenide Semiconductors: Cu(In,Ga)Se2
Colombara, Diego UL; Berner, Ulrich; Ciccioli, Andrea et al

in Scientific Reports (2017), 7

Alkali metal doping is essential to achieve highly efficient energy conversion in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) solar cells. Doping is normally achieved through solid state reactions, but recent observations of ... [more ▼]

Alkali metal doping is essential to achieve highly efficient energy conversion in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) solar cells. Doping is normally achieved through solid state reactions, but recent observations of gas phase alkali transport in the kesterite sulfide (Cu2ZnSnS4) system (re)open the way to a novel gas-phase doping strategy. However, the current understanding of gas-phase alkali transport is very limited. This work (i) shows that CIGSe device efficiency can be improved from 2% to 8% by gas-phase sodium incorporation alone, (ii) identifies the most likely routes for gas-phase alkali transport based on mass spectrometric studies, (iii) provides thermochemical computations to rationalize the observations and (iv) critically discusses the subject literature with the aim to better understand the chemical basis of the phenomenon. These results suggest that accidental alkali metal doping occurs all the time, that a controlled vapor pressure of alkali metal could be applied during growth to dope the semiconductor, and that it may have to be accounted for during the currently used solid state doping routes. It is concluded that alkali gas-phase transport occurs through a plurality of routes and cannot be attributed to one single source. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrodeposition of germanium-containing precursors for Cu2(Sn,Ge)S3 thin film solar cells
Malaquias, Joao Corujo Branco UL; Wu, Minxian; Lin, Jiajia et al

in Electrochimica Acta (2017)

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See detailNanometre-scale optical property fluctuations in Cu2ZnSnS4 revealed by low temperature cathodoluminescence
Mendis, B. G.; Taylor, A. A.; Guennou, Mael et al

in Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells (2017), 174

Detailed reference viewed: 138 (2 UL)