References of "D'Ambrosio, Conchita 50001453"
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See detailEconomic Insecurity and Health
d'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Clark, Andrew; Yin, Remi

in Hacienda Publica Espanola (in press)

We here show that individual-level economic insecurity, based on the time profile of economic resources, is detrimental to both physical and mental health in long-run Australian panel data. This ... [more ▼]

We here show that individual-level economic insecurity, based on the time profile of economic resources, is detrimental to both physical and mental health in long-run Australian panel data. This relationship is found in panel data, comparing an individual’s change in economic security over time to the changes in her health. A heterogeneity analysis reveals that economic insecurity is particularly detrimental to the health of the most-deprived, those over the age of 30, and men rather than women. [less ▲]

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See detailEconomic insecurity and political preferences
Bossert, Walter; Clark, Andrew UL; d'Ambrosio, Conchita UL et al

in Oxford Economic Papers (in press)

Economic insecurity has attracted growing attention, but there is no consensus as to its definition. We characterize a class of individual economic-insecurity measures based on the time profile of ... [more ▼]

Economic insecurity has attracted growing attention, but there is no consensus as to its definition. We characterize a class of individual economic-insecurity measures based on the time profile of economic resources. We apply this economic-insecurity measure to political-preference data in the USA, UK, and Germany. Conditional on current economic resources, economic insecurity is associated with both greater political participation (support for a party or the intention to vote) and more support for conservative parties. In particular, economic insecurity predicts greater support for both Donald Trump before the 2016 US Presidential election and the UK leaving the European Union in the 2016 Brexit referendum. [less ▲]

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See detailDecomposing the changes in poverty: Poverty line and distributional effects
Aristondo, Oihana; d'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Lasso de la Vega, Casilda

in Bulletin of Economic Research (in press)

When measuring poverty in developed countries, the poverty line used to identify the poor is usually relative and set as a percentage of the median (or of the mean) of the total income. In consequence ... [more ▼]

When measuring poverty in developed countries, the poverty line used to identify the poor is usually relative and set as a percentage of the median (or of the mean) of the total income. In consequence, when poverty is analyzed over a period of time, changes in the poverty level depend on the impact of evolving standards. To eliminate this effect, sometimes, an anchored poverty line is used. Furthermore, changes in the mean of the distribution and in the inequality among the poor may also affect the poverty levels. This note proposes a decomposition of the changes in poverty as the sum of four terms. The first two reflect the impact in poverty of changes in living standards and the other two measure the effect of the distributional growth and redistribution. This decomposition will help policymakers in the implementation of a more specific antipoverty agenda. An application with data from the European Union Survey on Income and Living Conditions shows the potential of the decomposition proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailMarriage as insurance: job protection and job insecurity in France
Clark, Andrew; d'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Lepinteur, Anthony UL

in Review of Economics of the Household (in press)

Job insecurity is one of the risks that workers face on the labour market. As with any risk, individuals can choose to insure against it, and we here consider marriage as one potential source of this ... [more ▼]

Job insecurity is one of the risks that workers face on the labour market. As with any risk, individuals can choose to insure against it, and we here consider marriage as one potential source of this insurance. The 1999 rise in the French Delalande tax, paid by larger private firms when they laid off workers aged 50 or over, led to an exogenous rise in job insecurity for the uncovered (younger workers) in these larger firms. A difference-in-differences analysis using French panel data reveals that this greater job insecurity for the under-50s led to a significant rise in their probability of marriage, and especially when the partner had greater job security, consistent with marriage providing insurance against labour-market risk. [less ▲]

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See detailRisk aversion and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy
Lepinteur, Anthony UL; Borga, Liyousew UL; Clark, Andrew et al

in Health Economics (2023), 32

We here investigate the role of risk aversion in COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. The theoretical effect is ambiguous, as both COVID-19 infection and vaccination side-effects involve probabilistic elements. In ... [more ▼]

We here investigate the role of risk aversion in COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. The theoretical effect is ambiguous, as both COVID-19 infection and vaccination side-effects involve probabilistic elements. In large-scale data covering five European countries, we find that vaccine hesitancy falls with risk aversion, so that COVID-19 infection is perceived as involving greater risk than is vaccination. [less ▲]

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See detailChildren’s internalizing behavior development is heterogeneously associated with the pace of epigenetic aging
Caro, Juan Carlos; Holuka, Cyrielle; Menta, Giorgia et al

in Biological Psychology (2023), 176

Background: Internalizing behaviors are an indicator of children’s psychological and emotional development, predicting future mental disorders. Recent studies have identified associations between DNA ... [more ▼]

Background: Internalizing behaviors are an indicator of children’s psychological and emotional development, predicting future mental disorders. Recent studies have identified associations between DNA methylation (DNAm) and internalizing behaviors. This prospective study aimed at exploring the associations between pace of biological aging and the developmental trajectories of internalizing behaviors. Methods: Participants were children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort (N=974). Measures of DNA methylation were collected at birth, age 7 and ages 15-17. The pace of aging was estimated using the DunedinPoAm algorithm (PoAm). Internalizing behaviors reported by caregivers between ages 4 and 16 using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. To explore heterogeneity in the association between PoAm and internalizing behaviors we use Poisson quantile regression in cross-section heterogeneity and longitudinal latent class analysis over the childhood and adolescence. Results: Internalizing behavior trajectories were identified: low-risk, childhood limited, late onset and early onset (persistent). Accelerated aging at birth was negatively associated with internalizing behaviors in early childhood but positively correlated during adolescence. Higher PoAm at birth increased chance of low-risk profile, while decreasing likelihood of childhood limited trajectory. PoAm at age 15 was negatively associated with childhood limited profile and positively linked to late onset trajectories. Associations were larger at higher values of internalizing symptoms. Conclusions: The heterogeneity in the association between biological age acceleration and internalizing behaviors suggests a complex dynamic relationship, particularly in children with high or increased risk of adverse mental health outcomes. [less ▲]

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See detailWell-being and working from home during COVID-19
Schifano, Sonia UL; Clark, Andrew; Greiff, Samuel UL et al

in Information Technology and People (2023), 36

Purpose – The authors track the well-being of individuals across five European countries during the course of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and relate their well-being to working from ... [more ▼]

Purpose – The authors track the well-being of individuals across five European countries during the course of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and relate their well-being to working from home. The authors also consider the role of pandemic-policy stringency in affecting well-being in Europe. Design/methodology/approach – The authors have four waves of novel harmonised longitudinal data in France, Italy, Germany, Spain and Sweden, covering the period May–November 2020. Well-being is measured in five dimensions: life satisfaction, a worthwhile life, loneliness, depression and anxiety. A retrospective diary indicates whether the individual was working in each month since February 2020 and if so whether at home or not at home. Policy stringency is matched in per country at the daily level. The authors consider both cross- section and panel regressions and the mediating and moderating effects of control variables, including household variables and income. Findings – Well-being among workers is lower for those who work from home, and those who are not working have the lowest well-being of all. The panel results are more mitigated, with switching into working at home yielding a small drop in anxiety. The panel and cross-section difference could reflect adaptation or the selection of certain types of individuals into working at home. Policy stringency is always negatively correlated with well-being. The authors find no mediation effects. The well-being penalty from working at home is larger for the older, the better-educated, those with young children and those with more crowded housing. Originality/value – The harmonised cross-country panel data on individuals’ experiences during COVID-19 are novel. The authors relate working from home and policy stringency to multiple well-being measures. The authors emphasise the effect of working from home on not only the level of well-being but also its distribution. [less ▲]

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See detailLife Satisfaction and the Human Development Index Across the World
Yin, Remi UL; Lepinteur, Anthony UL; Clark, Andrew et al

in Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology (2023), 54

We use annual data on over 150 countries between 2005 and 2018 to look at the relationship between subjective well-being (both cognitive and affective) and the Human Development Index (HDI). The HDI ... [more ▼]

We use annual data on over 150 countries between 2005 and 2018 to look at the relationship between subjective well-being (both cognitive and affective) and the Human Development Index (HDI). The HDI appears to be more closely related to cognitive than affective well-being. We also consider the relationships between the three HDI components (the Income, Health and Education Indices) and well-being, and find that, on average, the Income Index has the strongest predictive power. Importantly, we find that the three HDI components only matter equally in Western and rich countries. Our analysis contributes to the discussion about cultural sensitivity in paradigms of societal development in two ways. We first show that differences in preferences towards development aims exist. Second, we propose a weighting procedure for a culturally-sensitive version of the HDI. [less ▲]

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See detailMaternal genetic risk for depression and child human capital
Menta, Giorgia; Lepinteur, Anthony UL; Clark, Andrew et al

in Journal of Health Economics (2023), 87

We here address the causal relationship between the maternal genetic risk for depression and child human capital using UK birth-cohort data. We find that an increase of one standard deviation (SD) in the ... [more ▼]

We here address the causal relationship between the maternal genetic risk for depression and child human capital using UK birth-cohort data. We find that an increase of one standard deviation (SD) in the maternal polygenic risk score for depression reduces their children’s cognitive and non-cognitive skill scores by 5 to 7% of a SD throughout adolescence. Our results are robust to a battery of sensitivity tests addressing, among others, concerns about pleiotropy and dynastic effects. Our Gelbach decomposition analysis suggests that the strongest mediator is genetic nurture (through maternal depression itself), with genetic inheritance playing only a marginal role. [less ▲]

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See detailA machine learning approach to predict self‑protecting behaviors during the early wave of the COVID‑19 pandemic
Taye, Alemayehu; Borga, Liyousew UL; Greiff, Samuel UL et al

in Scientific Reports (2023), 13

Using a unique harmonized real‐time data set from the COME‑HERE longitudinal survey that covers five European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Sweden) and applying a non‑parametric machine ... [more ▼]

Using a unique harmonized real‐time data set from the COME‑HERE longitudinal survey that covers five European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Sweden) and applying a non‑parametric machine learning model, this paper identifies the main individual and macro‑level predictors of self‑protecting behaviors against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19) during the first wave of the pandemic. Exploiting the interpretability of a Random Forest algorithm via Shapely values, we find that a higher regional incidence of COVID‑19 triggers higher levels of self‑protective behavior, as does a stricter government policy response. The level of individual knowledge about the pandemic, confidence in institutions, and population density also ranks high among the factors that predict self‑protecting behaviors. We also identify a steep socioeconomic gradient with lower levels of self‑protecting behaviors being associated with lower income and poor housing conditions. Among socio‑demographic factors, gender, marital status, age, and region of residence are the main determinants of self‑protective measures. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy: Consistency of Social Media with Surveys
Chen, Ninghan UL; Chen, Xihui UL; Pang, Jun UL et al

in Proceedings of the 2022 International Conference on Social Informatics (2022, October 12)

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See detailThe distributive impact of the Luxembourg tax-benefit system: a more comprehensive measurement
Vergnat, Vincent; d'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Liégeois, Philippe

in Public Finance Review (2022), 50

This article studies the distribution of income in Luxembourg by integrating two aspects that have been previously neglected: indirect taxation and in-kind transfers. The integration of the latter is ... [more ▼]

This article studies the distribution of income in Luxembourg by integrating two aspects that have been previously neglected: indirect taxation and in-kind transfers. The integration of the latter is essential in Luxembourg, the country with the highest public expenditure per capita in the OECD. These issues have been understudied because of some methodological challenges, including the lack of data containing all the necessary information for this type of analysis. However, with the EUROMOD microsimulation model, different data sources, and imputation methods, we are able to obtain a more complete view of the income distribution in Luxembourg. We find that, as in many developed countries, indirect taxes are regressive. On the other hand, in-kind transfers play an important role in reducing income inequality, in particular through education and health services. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of COVID-19 lockdown stringency on loneliness in five European countries
Caro, Juan Carlos; Clark, Andrew; d'Ambrosio, Conchita UL et al

in Social Science and Medicine (2022)

Rationale: The coronavirus pandemic has forced governments to implement a variety of different dynamic lockdown-stringency strategies in the last two years. Extensive lockdown periods could have potential ... [more ▼]

Rationale: The coronavirus pandemic has forced governments to implement a variety of different dynamic lockdown-stringency strategies in the last two years. Extensive lockdown periods could have potential unintended consequences on mental health, at least for at-risk groups. Objective: We present novel evidence on the heterogeneous direct and indirect effects of lockdown-stringency measures on individuals’ perception of social isolation (i.e. loneliness) using panel data from five European countries (Germany, France, Spain, Italy and Sweden), which tracks changes in both in-person and remote social interactions between May 2020 and March 2021. Method: We combine data from the COME-HERE panel survey (University of Luxembourg) and the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker (OxCGRT). We implement a dynamic mixture model in order to estimate the loneliness sub-population classes based on the severity of loneliness, as well as the evolution of social interactions. Results: While loneliness is remarkably persistent over time, we find substantial heterogeneity across individuals, identifying four latent groups by loneliness severity. Group membership probability varies with age, gender, education and cohabitation status. Moreover, we note significant differences in the impact of social interactions on loneliness by degree of severity. Older people are less likely to feel lonely, but were more affected by lockdown measures, partly due to a reduction in face-to-face interactions. On the contrary, the younger, especially those living alone, report high levels of loneliness that are largely unaffected by changes in the pandemic after lockdown measures were initially implemented. Conclusions: Understanding the heterogeneity in loneliness is key for the identification of at-risk populations that can be severely affected by extended lockdown measures. As part of public-health crisis-response systems, it is critical to develop support measures for older individuals living alone, as well as promoting continuous remote communication for individuals more likely to experience high levels of loneliness. [less ▲]

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See detailIncome-related health inequality in urban China (1991-2015): The role of homeownership and housing conditions
Peng, Nie; Clark, Andrew; d'Ambrosio, Conchita UL et al

in Health and Place (2022), 73

Unprecedented economic growth has been experienced over the several decades worldwide, but such rapid economic growth wasn’t accompanied by equally-substantial improvement in health, especially health ... [more ▼]

Unprecedented economic growth has been experienced over the several decades worldwide, but such rapid economic growth wasn’t accompanied by equally-substantial improvement in health, especially health inequalities between the rich and poor. This study examines the role of housing in income-related health inequalities (income-health gradient) in urban China. We here analyze 1991-2015 China Health and Nutrition Survey data to ask how housing affects income-related health inequalities in urban China. We find pro-poor inequalities in self-reported bad health but pro-rich inequalities in objective bad health (general overweight/obesity, central obesity and high blood pressure). Housing conditions serve to reduce the health gradient, especially for objective health. On the contrary, homeownership exacerbates the health gradient. Improving housing conditions thus appears to be an effective way of reducing the income-health gradient in urban China. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Axiomatic Approach to the Measurement of Comparative Female Disadvantage
Chakravarty, Satya; Chattopadhyay, Nachiketa; d'Ambrosio, Conchita UL

in Social Indicators Research (2022), 164

Female comparative disadvantage refers to the mismatch of the female with respect to achievements in different dimensions of human well-being in comparison with the corresponding achievements of the male ... [more ▼]

Female comparative disadvantage refers to the mismatch of the female with respect to achievements in different dimensions of human well-being in comparison with the corresponding achievements of the male. This paper axiomatically derives a general family of female comparative disadvantage indicators which has very important policy implications. The axioms employed are shown to be ‘independent’. An empirical illustration of the general index is provided using the UNDP data on mean years of schooling, life expectancy at birth and gross national income per capita in 2018. Results show that female comparative disadvantage is not necessarily related to standard measures of human development, such as the HDI, and is present even in countries reaching very high human development. The factor where policy intervention is needed the most is income. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacteristics associated with COVID‑19 vaccine hesitancy
Borga, Liyousew UL; Clark, Andrew; d'Ambrosio, Conchita UL et al

in Scientific Reports (2022)

Understanding what lies behind actual COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is fundamental to help policy makers increase vaccination rates and reach herd immunity. We use June 2021 data from the COME-HERE survey to ... [more ▼]

Understanding what lies behind actual COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is fundamental to help policy makers increase vaccination rates and reach herd immunity. We use June 2021 data from the COME-HERE survey to explore the predictors of actual vaccine hesitancy in France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Spain and Sweden. We estimate a linear-probability model with a rich set of covariates and address issues of common-method variance. 13% of our sample say they do not plan to be vaccinated. Post-Secondary education, home-ownership, having an underlying health condition, and one standard-deviation higher age or income are all associated with lower vaccine hesitancy of 2–4.5% points. Conservative-leaning political attitudes and a one standard-deviation lower degree of confidence in the government increase this probability by 3 and 6% points respectively. Vaccine hesitancy in Spain and Sweden is significantly lower than in the other countries. [less ▲]

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See detailPace of aging, family environment and cognitive skills in children and adolescents
Niccodemi, Gianmaria; Menta, Giorgia; Turner, Jonathan et al

in SSM - Population Health (2022)

Pace of aging is an epigenetic clock which captures the speed at which someone is biologically aging compared to the chronological-age peers. We here use data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents ... [more ▼]

Pace of aging is an epigenetic clock which captures the speed at which someone is biologically aging compared to the chronological-age peers. We here use data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to investigate the interrelation between the study children’s parental social class at birth, and their pace of aging and cognitive skills measures in childhood and adolescence. We show that children from lower parental social classes display faster pace of aging and that the social class gradient in pace of aging is strongest in adolescence. About one third of this association can be explained by other socio-economic and demographic covariates, as well as life events. Similarly, study children’s pace of aging manifests a negative association with their measures of cognitive skills in late adolescence only. This association becomes stronger as the contemporary pace of aging of the mother becomes faster. Our results seem to identify adolescence as the period of life when pace of aging, family environment and cognitive skills measures begin to interact. [less ▲]

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See detailDistance-based social index numbers: a unifying approach
Bossert, Walter; d'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Weber, Shlomo

in Journal of Mathematical Economics (2022)

We present a unified approach to the design of social index numbers. Our starting point is a model that employs an exogenously given partition of the population into subgroups. Three classes of group ... [more ▼]

We present a unified approach to the design of social index numbers. Our starting point is a model that employs an exogenously given partition of the population into subgroups. Three classes of group-dependent measures of deprivation are characterized. The three groups are nested and, beginning with the largest of these, we narrow them down by successively adding two additional axioms. This leads to a parameterized class the members of which are based on the differences between the income (or wealth) levels of an individual and those who are better off. We then proceed to show that our measures are sufficiently general to accommodate a plethora of indices, including measures of inequality and polarization as well as distance-based measures of phenomena such as diversity and fractionalization. [less ▲]

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See detailGender, Loneliness and Happiness during COVID-19
Lepinteur, Anthony UL; Clark, Andrew; Ferrer-I-Carbonell, Ada et al

in Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (2022), 101

We analyse a measure of loneliness from a representative sample of German individuals interviewed in both 2017 and at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. Both men and women felt lonelier ... [more ▼]

We analyse a measure of loneliness from a representative sample of German individuals interviewed in both 2017 and at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. Both men and women felt lonelier during the COVID-19 pandemic than they did in 2017. The pandemic more than doubled the gender loneliness gap: women were lonelier than men in 2017, and the 2017-2020 rise in loneliness was far larger for women. This rise is mirrored in life-satisfaction scores. Men’s life satisfaction changed only little between 2017 and 2020; yet that of women fell dramatically, and sufficiently so to produce a female penalty in life satisfaction. We estimate that almost all of this female penalty is explained by the disproportionate rise in loneliness for women during the COVID-19 pandemic. [less ▲]

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See detailCOVID-19 Compliance Behaviors of Older People: The Role of Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Skills
Clark, Andrew; d'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Onur, Ilke et al

in Economics Letters (2022), 210

This paper examines the empirical relationship between individuals’ cognitive and non-cognitive abilities and COVID-19 compliance behaviors using cross-country data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and ... [more ▼]

This paper examines the empirical relationship between individuals’ cognitive and non-cognitive abilities and COVID-19 compliance behaviors using cross-country data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). We find that both cognitive and non-cognitive skills predict responsible health behaviors during the COVID-19 crisis. Episodic memory is the most important cognitive skill, while conscientiousness and neuroticism are the most significant personality traits. There is also some evidence of a role for an internal locus of control in compliance. [less ▲]

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