References of "D'Ambrosio, Conchita 50001453"
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See detailChildhood Circumstances and Young Adulthood Outcomes: The Role of Mothers’ Financial Problems
Clark, Andrew; d'ambrosio, Conchita UL; Barazzetta, Marta

in Health Economics (in press)

We here consider the cognitive and non-cognitive consequences on young adults of growing up with a mother who reported experiencing major financial problems. We use UK data from the Avon Longitudinal ... [more ▼]

We here consider the cognitive and non-cognitive consequences on young adults of growing up with a mother who reported experiencing major financial problems. We use UK data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children to show that early childhood financial problems are associated with worse adolescent cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes, controlling for both income and a set of standard variables, and in value-added models controlling for children’s earlier age-5 outcomes. The estimated effect of financial problems is almost always larger in size than that of income. Around one-quarter to one-half of the effect of financial problems on the non-cognitive outcomes seems to transit through mother’s mental health. [less ▲]

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See detailPrenatal Economic Shocks and Birth Outcomes in UK Cohort Data
Clark, Andrew; d'ambrosio, Conchita UL; Rohde, Nicholas

in Economics and Human Biology (in press)

We consider the effects of major prenatal economic shocks experienced by mothers on two indicators of newborn-infant health, birth weight and head circumference, using detailed microdata from the UK ... [more ▼]

We consider the effects of major prenatal economic shocks experienced by mothers on two indicators of newborn-infant health, birth weight and head circumference, using detailed microdata from the UK ALSPAC survey. Controlling for physiological and socioeconomic factors, an economic shock in the first 18 weeks of gestation lowers birth weight by 40-70 grams and head circumference by 2-3mm. We find evidence of transmission via poorer maternal health due to absolute material deprivation and tobacco and alcohol consumption, but not for the endocrinological effects of increased psychosocial anxiety. The fragile-male hypothesis holds for birth weight but not for head circumference, as predicted by recent theories on gender differences in prenatal development. [less ▲]

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See detailIncome and Wealth Volatility: Evidence from Italy and the U.S. in the Past Two Decades
Menta, Giorgia UL; Wolff, Edward; d'ambrosio, Conchita UL

in Journal of Economic Inequality (in press)

Income volatility and wealth volatility are central objects of investigation for the literature on income and wealth inequality and dynamics. Here we analyse the two concepts in a comparative perspective ... [more ▼]

Income volatility and wealth volatility are central objects of investigation for the literature on income and wealth inequality and dynamics. Here we analyse the two concepts in a comparative perspective for the same individuals in Italy and the U.S. over the last two decades. We find that in both countries wealth volatility reaches significantly higher values than income volatility, the effect being mostly driven by changes in the market value of real estate assets. We also show that there is more volatility in both dimensions in the U.S. and that the overall trend in both countries is increasing over time. We conclude by exploring volatility in consumption. [less ▲]

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See detailLiving in the Shadow of the Past: Financial Profiles and Well-Being
d'ambrosio, Conchita UL; Clark, Andrew; Zhu, Rong

in Scandinavian Journal of Economics (in press)

We here consider the link between individual financial profiles over time and well-being, as measured by life satisfaction. We in particular look at annual self-reported financial worsening and ... [more ▼]

We here consider the link between individual financial profiles over time and well-being, as measured by life satisfaction. We in particular look at annual self-reported financial worsening and improvement information for over 25,000 individuals in Australian panel data from 2002 to 2017. We first find that satisfaction falls (rises) with a contemporaneous major financial worsening (improvement), with the the largest correlation being with financial worsening. Second, the experience of these financial events in the past continues to be linked to current well-being. Last, only the order of financial-improvement spells relates to well-being: a given number of past years where finances deteriorated has the same association with current well-being whether the deterioration occurred in one continuous spell or was interrupted. We last show that these associations are heterogeneous over the distribution of well-being. [less ▲]

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See detailExtreme values, means, and inequality measurement
d'ambrosio, Conchita UL; Bossert, Walter; Kamaga, Kohei

in Review of Income and Wealth (in press)

We examine some ordinal measures of inequality that are familiar from the literature. These measures have a quite simple structure in that their values are determined by combinations of specific summary ... [more ▼]

We examine some ordinal measures of inequality that are familiar from the literature. These measures have a quite simple structure in that their values are determined by combinations of specific summary statistics such as the extreme values and the arithmetic mean of a distribution. In spite of their common appearance, there seem to be no axiomatizations available so far, and this paper is intended to fill that gap. In particular, we consider the absolute and relative variants of the range; the max-mean and the mean-min orderings; and quantile-based measures. In addition, we provide some empirical observations that are intended to illustrate that, although these orderings are straightforward to define, some of them display a surprisingly high correlation with alternative (more complex) measures. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Measurement of Resilience
Asheim, Geir; Bossert, Walter; d'ambrosio, Conchita UL et al

in Journal of Economic Theory (in press)

Resilience has become an important topic in many social sciences. Numerous individual choices and economic and demographic outcomes are likely to be influenced by people’s resilience. School performance ... [more ▼]

Resilience has become an important topic in many social sciences. Numerous individual choices and economic and demographic outcomes are likely to be influenced by people’s resilience. School performance, work absenteeism and burnout, longevity, the quality of sleep and health-risk behaviors such as substance abuse are some examples. Similarly, it is of high policy relevance to understand the determinants of both individual resilience (such as educational, marital and occupational status) and ecological resilience (such as climate change). Empirical work designed to uncover such relationships suffers from the absence of a resilience measure applicable in the context of large data sets. We fill this gap by proposing a specific measure that is characterized by a set of natural properties. After an introduction to the notion of resilience and its attributes, we argue why these conditions have intuitive appeal. Finally, we provide illustrating examples and derive our main characterization result. [less ▲]

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See detailJob Quality and Workplace Gender Diversity in Europe
Clark, Andrew; d'ambrosio, Conchita UL; Zhu, Rong

in Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization (in press)

We here consider the relationship between workplace gender measures and employees’ perceived job quality, where the former cover both the gender mix of workers with the same job title and the gender of ... [more ▼]

We here consider the relationship between workplace gender measures and employees’ perceived job quality, where the former cover both the gender mix of workers with the same job title and the gender of the immediate boss. Data from the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey show that men’s job evaluation is higher in gender-balanced job positions at the workplace, while that of women is higher in either gender-balanced or male-dominated positions. The gender of the immediate boss plays no significant role in employee job evaluation. There is some evidence that these correlations differ by job-quality domains. We introduce co-worker support and help, gender discrimination, and unwanted sexual attention as possible mediators of the gender-mix correlations: these change the estimated coefficients only little. Our estimated correlations could therefore reflect a pure preference for job-position gender composition. Last, we use a bounding approach to show that our main results are robust to the potential influence of unobservables. Overall, job-position gender diversity is associated with higher worker well-being. [less ▲]

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See detailTwin Research in the Post-Genomic Era: Dissecting the Pathophysiological Effects of Adversity and the Social Environment
Turner, Jonathan UL; D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in International Journal of Molecular Sciences (2020), 21

The role of twins in research is evolving as we move further into the post-genomic era. With the re-definition of what a gene is, it is becoming clear that biological family members who share a specific ... [more ▼]

The role of twins in research is evolving as we move further into the post-genomic era. With the re-definition of what a gene is, it is becoming clear that biological family members who share a specific genetic variant may well not have a similar risk for future disease. This has somewhat invalidated the prior rationale for twin studies. Case co-twin study designs, however, are slowly emerging as the ideal tool to identify both environmentally induced epigenetic marks and epigenetic disease-associated processes. Here, we propose that twin lives are not as identical as commonly assumed and that the case co-twin study design can be used to investigate the effects of the adult social environment. We present the elements in the (social) environment that are likely to affect the epigenome and measures in which twins may diverge. Using data from the German TwinLife registry, we confirm divergence in both the events that occur and the salience for the individual start as early as age 11. Case co-twin studies allow for the exploitation of these divergences, permitting the investigation of the role of not only the adult social environment, but also the salience of an event or environment for the individual, in determining lifelong health trajectories. In cases like social adversity where it is clearly not possible to perform a randomised-controlled trial, we propose that the case cotwin study design is the most rigorous manner with which to investigate epigenetic mechanisms encoding environmental exposure. The role of the case co-twin design will continue to evolve, as we argue that it will permit causal inference from observational data. [less ▲]

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See detailWelfare-Based Income Insecurity in the US and Germany: Evidence from Harmonized Panel Data
d'ambrosio, Conchita UL; Rohde, Nicholas; Tang, Kam Ki et al

in Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization (2020), 176

This paper develops normative approaches for measuring individual-level income insecurity. Using concepts derived from Expected Utility Theory and Prospect Theory, we build a suite of measures designed to ... [more ▼]

This paper develops normative approaches for measuring individual-level income insecurity. Using concepts derived from Expected Utility Theory and Prospect Theory, we build a suite of measures designed to capture various facets of psychologically distressing income risk. We present an application for the US and Germany from 1993-2013, employing conditionally heteroskedastic fixed-effects models to generate predictive densities for future incomes. Our results reveal much higher levels of income risk in the US relative to Germany, which can be mostly attributed to a higher level of autonomous, time-invariant volatility. State-by-state variations in liberal/conservative political administrations partially explain our results, and we find some evidence that trade exposure is a contributing factor in the US. [less ▲]

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See detailMoney and Happiness: Income, Wealth and Subjective Well-being
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Lepinteur, Anthony UL; Jäntti, Markus

in Social Indicators Research (2020), 148

We examine the complex relationship between money and happiness. We find that both permanent income and wealth are better predictors of life satisfaction than current income and wealth. They matter not ... [more ▼]

We examine the complex relationship between money and happiness. We find that both permanent income and wealth are better predictors of life satisfaction than current income and wealth. They matter not only in absolute terms but also in comparative terms. However, their relative impacts differ. The first exerts a comparison effect – the higher the permanent income of the reference group, the lower life satisfaction – the second exerts an information effect – the higher the permanent wealth of the reference group, the higher life satisfaction. We also show that negative transitory shocks to income reduce life satisfaction while transitory shocks to wealth have no effect. Lastly, we analyse the effects of their components and find that not all of them predict life satisfaction: permanent taxes do not matter, while only the value of permanent real estate, financial and business assets do. Finally, we use quantile regression and analyse to what extent our results vary along the well-being distribution, finding the impacts to be larger at lower levels of life satisfaction. [less ▲]

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See detailLosing ground in the income hierarchy: relative deprivation revisited
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Bossert, Walter

in Journal of Economic Inequality (2020), 18

The paper discusses a one-parameter generalization of individual relative deprivation measures to a two-period setting that differs from earlier approaches. The parameter is, by definition, independent of ... [more ▼]

The paper discusses a one-parameter generalization of individual relative deprivation measures to a two-period setting that differs from earlier approaches. The parameter is, by definition, independent of the income distributions under consideration—it is to be chosen by a social planner. Its value has an intuitive interpretation: it represents the additional weight assigned to the income shortfalls associated with agents who passed the individual in question when moving from yesterday’s income distribution to today’s. Therefore, the choice of this parameter represents an important value judgment on the part of a social planner regarding the relative impact of being left behind. As a special case, it is illustrated how the well-known Yitzhaki index can be extended to this environment. [less ▲]

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See detailIntertemporal material deprivation: a proposal and an application to EU countries
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Bossert, Walter

in Dasgupta, Indraneel; Mitra, Manipushpak (Eds.) Deprivation, Inequality and Polarization: Essays in Honour of Satya Ranjan Chakravarty (2019)

This paper analyzes the effects of the inclusion of past experiences in measuring current material deprivation. The method followed generalizes the proposal of Bossert, Ceriani, Chakravarty and D'Ambrosio ... [more ▼]

This paper analyzes the effects of the inclusion of past experiences in measuring current material deprivation. The method followed generalizes the proposal of Bossert, Ceriani, Chakravarty and D'Ambrosio (2014) by adapting the class of indices on the measurement of poverty over time of Dutta, Roope and Zank (2013). An application to the analysis of material deprivation within EU countries is then provided. Following the path of material deprivation experienced by each individual over time yields a picture which differs from that in the annual results. Since the measurement of material deprivation is used by the EU member states and the European Commission to monitor national and EU progress in the fight against poverty and social exclusion, the results suggest that time cannot be neglected. Countries should not only be compared based on their year-by-year results, but additional information is gained by following individuals over time and producing an aggregate measure once dynamic considerations are taken into consideration. [less ▲]

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See detailPro-Poorness Orderings
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Chakravarty, Satya; Chattopadhyay, Nachiketa

in Review of Income and Wealth (2019), 65(4), 785-803

An indicator of pro-poorness of a growth profile associated with a distribution of income is a measure of the extent to which growth is biased towards the poor. This paper proposes a general approach to ... [more ▼]

An indicator of pro-poorness of a growth profile associated with a distribution of income is a measure of the extent to which growth is biased towards the poor. This paper proposes a general approach to pro-poorness, called the progressive sequential averaging principle (PSA), relaxing the requirement of rank preservation due to growth. An endogenous benchmark for evaluating the growth of poor comes out naturally from this principle. A dominance relation on the basis of the above approach for a class of growth profiles is introduced through a simple device, called the PSA curve and its properties are examined in relation to the standard dominances in terms of the generalized Lorenz curve and the inverse generalized Lorenz curve. The paper concludes with an application to evaluate growth profiles experienced by the United States between 2001-2007 and 2007-2013. [less ▲]

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See detailCrime Victimisation Over Time and Sleep Quality
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Clark, Andrew; Zhu, Rong

in Social Science and Medicine - Population Health (2019), 7

We here consider the relationship between the individual time profile of crime victimisation and sleep quality. Sleep quality worsens with contemporaneous crime victimisation, with physical violence ... [more ▼]

We here consider the relationship between the individual time profile of crime victimisation and sleep quality. Sleep quality worsens with contemporaneous crime victimisation, with physical violence having a larger effect than property crime. But crime history also matters, and past victimisation experience continues to reduce current sleep quality. Last, there is some evidence that the order of victimisation spells plays a role: consecutive years of crime victimisation affect sleep quality more adversely than the same number of years when not contiguous. [less ▲]

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See detailRedistribution monétaire au Luxembourg : analyse à partir d’un modèle de microsimulation
Vergnat, Vincent UL; D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Liégeois, Philippe

Article for general public (2019)

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See detailLiving Conditions and Basic Needs: Evidence from African Countries
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Clark, Andrew

in South African Journal of Economics (2019), 87

We here use five rounds of Afrobarometer data covering more than 100,000 individuals over the 2004-2016 period to explore the link between individual self-reported measures of living conditions and access ... [more ▼]

We here use five rounds of Afrobarometer data covering more than 100,000 individuals over the 2004-2016 period to explore the link between individual self-reported measures of living conditions and access to four basic needs. We not only consider own access to these needs, but also various indices of their deprivation, satisfaction and inequality. We find some evidence of comparisons to those who are better off and to those who are worse off, in terms of access to basic needs, in the evaluation of current living conditions. Overall, however, subjective living conditions are mostly absolute in African countries. There is notable heterogeneity by level of development, with the effect of lack of access to basic needs being more pronounced in poorer countries. Equally, comparisons to the better-off are associated with better living conditions in poorer countries, suggesting the existence of a tunnel effect: this latter disappears with economic development. [less ▲]

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See detailUnfairness at Work: Well-Being and Quits
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Clark, Andrew; Barazzetta, Marta UL

in Labour Economics (2018), 51

We here consider the effect of the level of income that individuals consider to be fair for the job they do, which we take as measure of comparison income, on both subjective well-being and objective ... [more ▼]

We here consider the effect of the level of income that individuals consider to be fair for the job they do, which we take as measure of comparison income, on both subjective well-being and objective future job quitting. In six waves of German Socio-Economic Panel data, the extent to which own labour income is perceived to be unfair is significantly negatively correlated with subjective well-being, both in terms of cognitive evaluations (life and job satisfaction) and affect (the frequency of feeling happy, sad and angry). Perceived unfairness also translates into objective labour-market behaviour, with current unfair income predicting future job quits. [less ▲]

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See detailA Head-count Measure of Rank Mobility and Its Directional Decomposition
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Bossert, Walter; Can, Burak

in Economica (2018), 85

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See detailCommunity- and mHealth-based integrated management of diabetes in primary healthcare in Rwanda (D²Rwanda): The study protocol
Uwizihiwe, Jean Paul; Lygidakis, Charilaos UL; Vögele, Claus UL et al

Scientific Conference (2017, June 29)

Introduction: The diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence in Rwanda is estimated at 3.5%. In 2013, there were only one medical doctor and one nurse per 15,000 and 1,200 people respectively in Rwanda. A new ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence in Rwanda is estimated at 3.5%. In 2013, there were only one medical doctor and one nurse per 15,000 and 1,200 people respectively in Rwanda. A new programme employing frontline workers (Home-Based Community Practitioners (HBCPs)) is currently piloted, aiming at following-up patients with non-communicable diseases in their communities. We hypothesise that the management of DM at community level will improve following the introduction of a HBCP programme with regular monthly assessments and disease management, coupled with integration of a mobile health (mHealth) application with patient diaries, notifications and educational material. Objective: The aim of the study is to determine the efficacy of such an integrated programme in Rwanda. Methods: The study is designed as a one-year, open-label cluster trial of two interventions (arm1: HBCP programme, arm2: HBCP programme + mHealth application) and usual care (control). The primary outcomes will be changes in glycated haemoglobin levels and health-related quality of life. Mortality, complications, health literacy, mental well-being and treatment adherence will be assessed as secondary outcomes. Measurements will be conducted at baseline, 6 and 12 months. An intention-to-treat approach will be used to evaluate outcomes. Before trial onset, ethical approval will be sought in Rwanda, Luxembourg and Denmark, and a cross-cultural adaptation of questionnaires and a pilot will be carried out. Relevance: The project will provide evidence on the efficacy of innovative approaches for integrated management of DM and may spur the development of similar solutions for other chronic diseases in low-resource settings. [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptation to Poverty in Long-Run Panel Data
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Clark, Andrew; Ghislandi, Simone

in Review of Economics and Statistics (2016), 98

We consider the link between poverty and subjective well-being, and focus in particular on potential adaptation to poverty. We use panel data on almost 54,000 individuals living in Germany from 1985 to ... [more ▼]

We consider the link between poverty and subjective well-being, and focus in particular on potential adaptation to poverty. We use panel data on almost 54,000 individuals living in Germany from 1985 to 2012 to show first that life satisfaction falls with both the incidence and intensity of contemporaneous poverty. We then reveal that there is little evidence of adaptation within a poverty spell: poverty starts bad and stays bad in terms of subjective well-being. We cannot identify any cause of poverty entry which explains the overall lack of poverty adaptation. [less ▲]

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