References of "Cummings, Charles Y"
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See detailCrystal growth of Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cell absorber by chemical vapor transport with I2
Colombara, Diego UL; Delsante, Simona; Borzone, Gabriella et al

in Journal of Crystal Growth (2013), 364

Single crystals of Cu2ZnSnS4 have been produced within sealed quartz ampoules via the chemical vapour transport technique using I2 as the transporting agent. The effects of temperature gradient and I2 ... [more ▼]

Single crystals of Cu2ZnSnS4 have been produced within sealed quartz ampoules via the chemical vapour transport technique using I2 as the transporting agent. The effects of temperature gradient and I2 load on the crystal habit and composition are considered. Crystals have been analyzed with XRD, SEM, and TEM for compositional and structural uniformities at both microscopic and nanoscopic levels. The synthesized crystals have suitable (I2-load dependent) properties and are useful for further solar absorber structural and physical characterizations. A new chemical vapour transport method based on longitudinally isothermal treatments is attempted. Based on a proposed simplistic mechanism of crystal growth, conditions for crystal enlargement with the new method are envisaged. [less ▲]

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See detailRocking disc electro-deposition of CuIn alloys, selenisation, and pinhole effect minimisation in CISe solar absorber layers
Cummings, Charles Y.; Zoppi, Guillaume; Forbes, Ian et al

in Electrochimica Acta (2012), 79

The co-electrodeposition of copper and indium from a pH 3 tartrate bath onto 4.8 cm × 2.5 cm Mo and MoSe2 substrates is studied and conditions are optimised for CuIn alloy films. Selenisation at ca. 500 ... [more ▼]

The co-electrodeposition of copper and indium from a pH 3 tartrate bath onto 4.8 cm × 2.5 cm Mo and MoSe2 substrates is studied and conditions are optimised for CuIn alloy films. Selenisation at ca. 500 °C for 30 min in selenium vapour gives CuInSe2 (or CISe). Mapping using the photo-electrochemical reduction of Eu(NO3)3 is used to asses the relative photoactivity as a function of position and surface treatment.Etching of detrimental CuxSe phases is investigated with 5% and 0.5% (w/w) aqueous KCN. The slower 0.5% (w/w) KCN etch allows better process control, and re-annealing at 500 °C for 30 min followed by further etching significantly improved the photo-activity. However, over the large area local pinhole recombination effects are substantial. An alternative low temperature film optimisation method is proposed based on (i) KCN over-etch, (ii) hypochlorite (5%, w/w) pinhole removal (Mo etch), and (iii) a final KCN etch to give good and more uniform activity. [less ▲]

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See detailCuInSe2 Precursor Films Electro-Deposited Directly onto MoSe2
Cummings, Charles Y.; Zoppi, Guillaume; Forbes, Ian et al

in Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry (2010), 645(1), 16-21

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