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See detailHistorian cultures – the epistemology and methodology of history in the digital age - CulturHist
Clavert, Frédéric UL; Muller, Caroline

E-print/Working paper (2023)

CulturHist has its sights particularly on the community of researchers, who have done little to make the results and suggestions offered by the digital humanities their own. We want to focus the ... [more ▼]

CulturHist has its sights particularly on the community of researchers, who have done little to make the results and suggestions offered by the digital humanities their own. We want to focus the discussion on a cross cutting issue: the link to archives, as the raw material for writing an account of the past. The habit of working digitally of those historians who do not nowadays verbalise their computer practices is now widespread and is bolstered by policies aimed at making many digitised document collections available online. For example, a search using the Internet Archive wayback machine developed by a not-for-profit company which archives the Web, shows that, in January 2002, Gallica, the digital library of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France (National Library of France), reported having 80 000 documents online, as compared to a little over 5.8 million on 4 September 2019. These days, it is possible to carry out international historical investigations without being in physical contact with a document, as was demonstrated as far back as 2011 by the Data mining with criminal intent project (Cohen et al.). This means that researchers often become data managers (Cartier et al.). Most researchers now practise these habits, and there is an urgent need to analyse them and adapt initial and further training in history in order to help students and historians grasp how ways of writing history are being changed. [less ▲]

See detailDigitised Newspapers – A New Eldorado for Historians?
Bunout, Estelle UL; Ehrmann, Maud; Clavert, Frédéric UL

Book published by De Gruyter (2022)

The application of digital technologies to historical newspapers have changed the research landscape historians were used to. An Eldorado? Despite undeniable advantages, the new digital affordance of ... [more ▼]

The application of digital technologies to historical newspapers have changed the research landscape historians were used to. An Eldorado? Despite undeniable advantages, the new digital affordance of historical newspapers also transforms research practices and confronts historians with new challenges. Drawing on a growing community of practices, the impresso project invited scholars experienced with digitised newspaper collections with the aim of encouraging a discussion on heuristics, source criticism and interpretation of digitized newspapers. This volume provides a snapshot of current research on the subject and offers three perspectives: how digitisation is transforming access to and exploration of historical newspaper collections; how automatic content processing allows for the creation of new layers of information; and, finally, what analyses this enhanced material opens up. ‘impresso - Media Monitoring of the Past’ is an interdisciplinary research project that applies text mining tools to digitised historical newspapers and integrates the resulting data into historical research workflows by means of a newly developed user interface. The question of how best to adapt text mining tools and their use by humanities researchers is at the heart of the impresso enterprise. [less ▲]

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See detail« Préservons notre patrimoine numérique grâce au contre-archivage décentralisé et collaboratif »
Clavert, Frédéric UL

Article for general public (2022)

TRIBUNE. Alors que le rachat de Twitter a mis au jour la fragilité des contenus uniquement numériques, l’historien Frédéric Clavert appelle, dans une tribune au « Monde », à créer des mécanismes citoyens ... [more ▼]

TRIBUNE. Alors que le rachat de Twitter a mis au jour la fragilité des contenus uniquement numériques, l’historien Frédéric Clavert appelle, dans une tribune au « Monde », à créer des mécanismes citoyens d’archivage pour « préserver l’information de notre époque ». [less ▲]

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See detailBetween marginal and mainstream. Communities and ecosystems at stake
Clavert, Frédéric UL; Schafer, Valerie UL

in Internet Histories: Digital Technology, Culture and Society (2022)

The three research articles in this special issue and the interview with Ronda Hauben are partly the result of the 4th RESAW conference, that brought together through the RESAW network a community of ... [more ▼]

The three research articles in this special issue and the interview with Ronda Hauben are partly the result of the 4th RESAW conference, that brought together through the RESAW network a community of researchers, web archivists and professionals, united around a common interest, namely web history and web archives. The 4th RESAW conference, organised on 17 and 18 June 2021 by the C2DH (Centre for contemporary and digital history) at the University of Luxembourg, sought to examine the tension between marginal and mainstream in web history, and to go beyond this binary view. The aim was to study all the nuances, shifts in meaning, difficulties in defining and measuring audiences, as well as the evolution over the course of history of digital practices, content, producers, and communities, from the fringes and peripheries to the centre and the core of the Web. The RESAW conference was also an opportunity to launch the HIVI research project , hosted at the C2DH, and the topics that were addressed at the conference were also related to virality. [less ▲]

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See detailLe goût de l’archive à l’ère numérique : gestes et récits historiens, du document au corpus
Clavert, Frédéric UL; Muller, Caroline

in Ruiz, Emilien; Bardiot, Clarisse; Dehoux, Esther (Eds.) La fabrique numérique des corpus en sciences humaines et sociales (2022)

Le Goût de l’archive à l’ère numérique est un projet co-dirigé par Caroline Muller et Frédéric Clavert. Livre en ligne écrit de manière collaborative, il entend interroger les routines numériques « ... [more ▼]

Le Goût de l’archive à l’ère numérique est un projet co-dirigé par Caroline Muller et Frédéric Clavert. Livre en ligne écrit de manière collaborative, il entend interroger les routines numériques « discrètes » des historiens face à l’archive, y compris au moment de la constitution du corpus, et examiner les conséquences possibles pour l’écriture de l’histoire de cette introduction, tant logicielle que matérielle, de l’informatique dans les pratiques historiennes. Les différentes contributions en ligne qui alimentent ce livre « vivant » traitent tout à la fois de la collecte des archives et de la constitution des corpus, du gigantisme de ces corpus numérisés ou nativement numériques et des relations à l’archive ainsi qu’à la salle de lecture. Ces témoignages à teneur ethnographique permettent ainsi de dégager quelques conclusions intermédiaires sur les pratiques informatiques et numériques exposées. Quelle place occupe l’outillage de l’historien dans l’écriture de l’histoire ? Quelle diversité de pratiques numériques se cachent ainsi derrière ce Goût de l’archive à l’ère numérique ? Quels contrastes entre les disciplines ces pratiques reflètent- elles ? Ce retour d’expérience de publication collective permet à la fois d’esquisser des réponses ainsi que d’offrir des pers- pectives d’étude sur cette nouvelle relation à l’archive. [less ▲]

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See detailPréservation et distorsion : l’espace-temps des réseaux socio-numériques et du web archivé
Clavert, Frédéric UL; Schafer, Valerie UL; Mahroug, Sophia UL

in Revue d'Histoire Culturelle (2022), (5),

Massive data, also known as Big Data - originating from websites and digital social networks, in the form of text, images, videos or metadata -, constitute significant sources for recent and future ... [more ▼]

Massive data, also known as Big Data - originating from websites and digital social networks, in the form of text, images, videos or metadata -, constitute significant sources for recent and future research in cultural history. These “digital traces”, collected by researchers or institutions, require further methodological thoughts - from their archiving to their development, in order to analyse them at different scales (scalable reading). Indeed, they allow researchers to identify new spatiotemporal boundaries, but also asymmetries and distortions between the theoretical scope of Big Data (from the millisecond to the long term, from the meter to the globe) and its practical scope (regional inequalities in collection, noise and silences within the archives). Based on several research projects and institutional initiatives, this article aims at thinking about the space-time of born-digital heritage, from the standpoint of data, collections and research, in order to grasp both the consequences of this massive archiving on the shaping of history and the profession of historian, and to identify the ongoing issues of these historical sources for academic research. [less ▲]

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See detailUn historien des relations internationales dans la Cité
Libera, Martial; Aballéa, Marion; Aquatias, Christine et al

Book published by PIE Peter Lang (2022)

Professeur des Universités en histoire des relations internationals contemporaines à l’Université Paul Verlaine de Metz puis à Sciences Po Strasbourg, Sylvain Schirmann a marqué, par son enseignement, des ... [more ▼]

Professeur des Universités en histoire des relations internationals contemporaines à l’Université Paul Verlaine de Metz puis à Sciences Po Strasbourg, Sylvain Schirmann a marqué, par son enseignement, des générations d’étudiants : ceux, bien sûr, de la faculté d’histoire de Metz, de l’Institut des hautes études européennes et de l’Institut d’études politiques de Strasbourg, mais aussi ceux de l’École nationale d’administration ou de l’Université du Luxembourg, ainsi que les élèves des deux campus – de Bruges et de Natolin – du Collège d’Europe. Tous ont été frappés par le charisme, la clarté et la force de conviction de Sylvain Schirmann. Tous ont été impressionnés par sa capacité à traiter de thèmes très variés, révélateurs de sa curiosité intellectuelle comme de son refus de se limiter à ses sujets de prédilection. Tous ont été sensibles à sa façon de problématiser ses cours et, dans le même mouvement, d’en décrypter les lignes de force. Tous ont été convaincus par sa lecture fine et saillante des relations internationales, par ses démonstrations, fondées sur de vastes lectures et une magistrale connaissance des sources d’archives. Tous ont eu la certitude de suivre les cours d’un grand prof ! Au moment même où Sylvain Schirmann fait valoir ses droits à la retraite, ses anciens thésards ont voulu lui rendre hommage à travers ce volume collectif investissant des thèmes qui lui sont chers. La quinzaine de contributions réunies ici s’ouvre sur l’itinéraire de cet historien passionné, rappelée par Marie-Thérèse Bitsch. Suivent des articles qui s’articulent autour de quatre grands axes : le rôle et l’action des syndicats en France et en Allemagne ; les voies multiples de la coopération et de la construction européennes ; les relations de l’Europe communautaire avec ses voisins proches ; enfin, le role des confrontations, des émotions et des mentalités collectives dans les relations internationales. [less ▲]

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See detailLa coopération entre banques centrales au XXe siècle : intensification, diversification et approfondissement
Clavert, Frédéric UL; Mourlon-Druol, Emmanuel

in Clavert, Frédéric; Libera, Marial; Aballéa, Marion (Eds.) et al Un historien des relations internationales dans la Cité (2022)

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See detailapi or archives? tormented ways to transform tweets into historical sources
Clavert, Frédéric UL

Scientific Conference (2022, September 15)

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See detailUnlocking web archives through metadata, seed lists and derived data
Clavert, Frédéric UL; Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June 01)

This presentation addresses the use, re-use, access and dissemination of data related to web archives. Web archives (Brügger, 2018) have been for several years in a hybrid position regarding access ... [more ▼]

This presentation addresses the use, re-use, access and dissemination of data related to web archives. Web archives (Brügger, 2018) have been for several years in a hybrid position regarding access, depending on the institutions that were preserving them. While Internet Archive has made its collections available online since 2001 through the Wayback Machine (but with limited features for scholars willing to conduct a distant reading based on data, WARC files, etc.), most national libraries only allowed an onsite access due to authors rights restrictions (and in some cases the frame of legal deposits), while starting to provide interesting metadata for research projects willing to explore them. However, the situation is currently evolving in the frame of several research projects that allow to access a vast amount of (international) metadata and datasets. Taking two research projects in progress as case studies, WARCnet and AWAC2, this paper aims to present the move towards the use of metadata and derived data related to huge collections of web archives of the COVID crisis. WARCnet (Web ARChive studies network researching web domains and events) is a network whose activities (funded by the Independent Research Fund Denmark | Humanities (grant no 9055-00005B)) run in 2020-2023. The networking activities are guided by overarching research questions, one of them being “How transnational events developed on the European web?” (and notably the COVID crisis which is explored in WG2 (https://cc.au.dk/en/warcnet/working-groups)). AWAC2 (Analysing Web Archives of the COVID Crisis through the IIPC Novel Coronavirus dataset) is a project part of the Archives Unleashed Cohort Program, that supports and facilitates research engagement with web archives. It aims to explore a unique collection of web material (https://archive-it.org/collections/13529) related to the pandemic, with contributions from over 30 members of IIPC (International Internet Preservation Consortium) as well as public nominations from over 100 individuals/institutions. May it be in terms of access or tools, both projects are currently exploring new methodologies based on broad datasets (i.e. 5,3 TB for the IIPC collection related to the COVID crisis; 9.4 GB and 8,738,751 lines for the CSV related to plain text webpages). Starting with the WARCnet project, the presentation will explain how its WG2 gathered and accessed several national European datasets of COVID web archives, their specificities as well as their heterogeneity, the first analysis conducted through a datathon on January- February 2021 (Aasman et al. 2021) and the limits and assets of such access. Within the AWAC2 project (2021-2022) the access to the international IIPC COVID collection, through Archive-It and through the cohort program developed by the Archives Unleashed Team (Netpreserve, 2021; Ruest et al., 2021), is then a new opportunity to access data through mediated interfaces (ARCH) and to go further into them. Here again the presentation will demonstrate new opportunities and show a few examples of the analysis conducted by the team. Both examples aim to present the way web archiving institutions, libraries and researchers are developing new ways of accessing and exploring web archives, while also increasing their value(s) (Schafer and Winters, 2021). References Aasman, S., Bingham, N., Brügger, N., de Wild, K., Gebeil S. & Schafer V. (2021). Chicken and Egg: Reporting from a Datathon Exploring Datasets of the COVID- 19 Special Collections, WARCnet paper, Aarhus, https://cc.au.dk/fileadmin/dac/Projekter/WARCnet/Aasman_et_al_Chicken_and_Egg.pdf Brügger, N. (2018). The Archived Web. Doing History in the Digital Age. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. IIPC (2021), A Retrospective with the Archives Unleashed Project, netpreserve blog, https://netpreserveblog.wordpress.com/2021/04/01/a-retrospective-with-the-archives-unleashed-project/ Ruest, N., Fritz, S., Deschamps, R. Lin, J. & Milligan, I. (2021) From archive to analysis: accessing web archives at scale through a cloud-based interface. International Journal of Digital Humanities, https://paperity.org/p/260049927/from-archive-to-analysis-accessing-web-archives-at-scale-through-a-cloud-based-interface Schafer V. & Winters J. (2021). The values of web archives, International Journal of Digital Humanities, 1-10, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8190571/ [less ▲]

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See detail“Use”: When personas become real users…
Clavert, Frédéric UL; Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, May 24)

Building upon our experience with ARCH, our study related to the IIPC Novel Coronavirus collection, as well as upon the first months of research we conducted as a cohort team in the Archives Unleashed ... [more ▼]

Building upon our experience with ARCH, our study related to the IIPC Novel Coronavirus collection, as well as upon the first months of research we conducted as a cohort team in the Archives Unleashed Project, we will provide feedback related to users’ needs and achievements. Ian Milligan distinguished in his paper “You shouldn’t Need to be a Web Historian to Use Web Archives: Lowering Barriers to Access Through Community and Infrastructure” (WARCnet paper, Aarhus, 2020), three personas: a computational humanist, a digital humanist, and a conventional historian. As an heterogeneous team, mirroring in some ways the personas distinguished by Ian Milligan, we will underline the successes and failures we experienced, the technical layers and levels we unfolded, our experience of collective work which also needs to take interdisciplinarity and heterogeneity (of technical skills, interests, availability, digital literacy) into account, the value of mentorship and our iterative process with data and research questions. We will finally shortly discuss the many pros and few cons in lowering barriers to access web archives (e.g. How to make access easiest without hiding the complexity of web archives?). [less ▲]

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See detailPublishing digital history scholarship in the era of updatism
Clavert, Frédéric UL; Fickers, Andreas UL

in Journal of Digital History (2022), 2(1),

We explain in this editorial our updating policies that are designed to adapt to author’s, reader’s and editor’s needs. Using the concept of “updatism”, we also reflect on what it means to sustain a ... [more ▼]

We explain in this editorial our updating policies that are designed to adapt to author’s, reader’s and editor’s needs. Using the concept of “updatism”, we also reflect on what it means to sustain a digital project such as the Journal of Digital History within our current digital environment, which is unstable by nature. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to Design Web Archives Research
Ogden, Jessica; Kurzmeier, Michael; Clavert, Frédéric UL

Book published by SAGE Publications, Ltd. (2022)

The aim of this guide is to provide a starting point for using web archives as a source for social science research. With the migration of many aspects of the so- cial world online, fundamental questions ... [more ▼]

The aim of this guide is to provide a starting point for using web archives as a source for social science research. With the migration of many aspects of the so- cial world online, fundamental questions have been raised about how and even when social science research happens in the online sphere (Karpf, 2012). Web archives, or archives of content and communications from the Web through time, crucially provide the means for retrospectively studying dynamic media and online interactions that are often subject to change and deletion. In addition to the opportunities afforded by web archives as a primary source, however, given their scale and complexity, these collections also present challenges for researchers who want to use them. This guide provides a primer for how to approach web archives research design by first outlining what web archives are and how they differ from other types of web data, as well as identifying key sources for web archives collections. Following this, we provide several high-level descriptions and examples of existing research to demonstrate how web archives offer particular methodological opportunities for studying different types of web phenomena. Next, we draw on the literature to highlight three key considerations for designing a project using web archives, including the ethical implications of using archived web data without the consent of content producers. The guide concludes by summarising the opportunities and challenges of using web archives and provides additional sources to consult. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction
Mourlon-Druol, Emmanuel; Clavert, Frédéric UL

in Politique Européenne (2022), 2022(2), 6-11

Le vingtième siècle européen a été caractérisé par des visions concurrentes et/ou conflictuelles de l'organisation du continent. Cette introduction générale explique pourquoi les éditeurs ont décidé de se ... [more ▼]

Le vingtième siècle européen a été caractérisé par des visions concurrentes et/ou conflictuelles de l'organisation du continent. Cette introduction générale explique pourquoi les éditeurs ont décidé de se concentrer sur la période de la guerre froide, présente brièvement le contexte historique plus large et clarifie enfin l'utilisation du mot "asymétrie". [less ▲]

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See detailDigitised Historical Newspapers: A Changing Research Landscape
Ehrmann, Maud; Bunout, Estelle UL; Clavert, Frédéric UL

in Clavert, Frédéric; Bunout, Estelle; Ehrmann, Maud (Eds.) Digitised Historical Newspapers: A Changing Research Landscape (2022)

Digitised Historical Newspapers: A Changing Research Landscape was published in Digitised Newspapers A New Eldorado for Historians? on page 1.

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See detailLe Centenaire et les nouveaux médias
Clavert, Frédéric UL

in Weinrich, Arndt; Patin, Nicolas (Eds.) Quel Bilan Scientifique pour le Centenaire de 1914-1918? (2022)

This chapter assesses the general and academic uses of social media (most particularly twitter) during the Centenary of the First World War.

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See detailUne informalité bien ordonnée ? La conversation académique sur Twitter
Clavert, Frédéric UL; Muller, Caroline

in Tracés. Revue de sciences humaines. (2021), (#21), 65-84

Twitter and social media do not have a good reputation. However, this reputation does not correspond, or only partly corresponds, to the experience of many researchers. Based on a corpus of tweets, we ... [more ▼]

Twitter and social media do not have a good reputation. However, this reputation does not correspond, or only partly corresponds, to the experience of many researchers. Based on a corpus of tweets, we argue in this article that academic Twitter reflects the material conditions of research in France, allows for greater visibility of researchers and consequently for the formation of atypical networks that does not occur in the more traditional places of academic socialization, all in a form of a “well-ordered” informality, partly constrained by the hierarchies of higher education and research. [less ▲]

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See detailHistoire de la construction européenne et mise en données du monde
Clavert, Frédéric UL

in Stratégies et acteurs. Construire l’Europe au XXe siècle (2021)

This article investigates the opportunities and risks that the datafication of primary sources – i.e. not only their digitization but also their transformation into statistical material that can be ... [more ▼]

This article investigates the opportunities and risks that the datafication of primary sources – i.e. not only their digitization but also their transformation into statistical material that can be tabulated – creates for the history of European integration. It uses cases of online digital libraries to show the consequences of digitization policy choices on the way historians can analyse these sources and, as a consequence, write history. We then explain the principle of ‘distant reading’, which stems from the work of the historian Franco Moretti, and try, with a few examples of research already carried out or to be carried out, to illustrate its possibilities for this historiographical school. All in all, we attempt to describe what it is to ‘write the history of European integration’ in the digital era. [less ▲]

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See detailOn pyramids, prisms, and scalable reading
Fickers, Andreas UL; Clavert, Frédéric UL

in Journal of Digital History (2021), 1(1),

Since Robert Darnton’s 1999 essay sketched a broad vision of what could become historical scholarship, many scholars have tried to put into practice new ways to publish in the digital era. Inspired by the ... [more ▼]

Since Robert Darnton’s 1999 essay sketched a broad vision of what could become historical scholarship, many scholars have tried to put into practice new ways to publish in the digital era. Inspired by the concept of digital hermeneutics, the Journal of Digital History – a joint venture between the C2DH and De Gruyter Publishing group – proposes to put Darnton’s vision into reality by offering a multi-layered publication platform for data-driven scholarship in the field of digital history. [less ▲]

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