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See detailmGlu3 Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors as a Target for the Treatment of Absence Epilepsy: Preclinical and Human Genetics Data
Celli, Roberta; Striano, Pasquale; Citraro, Rita et al

in Current Neuropharmacology (2022)

Abstract: Background: Previous studies suggest that different metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor subtypes are potential drug targets for treating absence epilepsy. However, no information is available ... [more ▼]

Abstract: Background: Previous studies suggest that different metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor subtypes are potential drug targets for treating absence epilepsy. However, no information is available on mGlu3 receptors. Objective: To examine whether (i) changes of mGlu3 receptor expression/signaling are found in the somatosensory cortex and thalamus of WAG/Rij rats developing spontaneous absence seizures; (ii) selective activation of mGlu3 receptors with LY2794193 affects the number and duration of spike- wave discharges (SWDs) in WAG/Rij rats; and (iii) a genetic variant of GRM3 (encoding the mGlu3 receptor) is associated with absence epilepsy. Methods: Animals: immunoblot analysis of mGlu3 receptors, GAT-1, GLAST, and GLT-1; real- time PCR analysis of mGlu3 mRNA levels; assessment of mGlu3 receptor signaling; EEG analysis of SWDs; assessment of depressive-like behavior. Humans: search for GRM3 and GRM5 missense variants in 196 patients with absence epilepsy or other Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy (IGE)/ Genetic Generalized Epilepsy (GGE) and 125,748 controls. Results: mGlu3 protein levels and mGlu3-mediated inhibition of cAMP formation were reduced in the thalamus and somatosensory cortex of pre-symptomatic (25-27 days old) and symptomatic (6-7 months old) WAG/Rij rats compared to age-matched controls. Treatment with LY2794193 (1 or 10 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced absence seizures and depressive-like behavior in WAG/Rij rats. LY2794193 also enhanced GAT1, GLAST, and GLT-1 protein levels in the thalamus and somatosensory cortex. GRM3 and GRM5 gene variants did not differ between epileptic patients and controls. Conclusion: We suggest that mGlu3 receptors modulate the activity of the cortico-thalamo-cortical circuit underlying SWDs and that selective mGlu3 receptor agonists are promising candidate drugs for absence epilepsy treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailAlterations in the α2δ ligand, thrombospondin-1, in a rat model of spontaneous absence epilepsy and in patients with idiopathic/genetic generalized epilepsies
Santolini, Ines; Celli, Roberta; Cannella, Milena et al

in Epilepsia (2017)

OBJECTIVES: Thrombospondins, which are known to interact with the α2 δ subunit of voltage-sensitive calcium channels to stimulate the formation of excitatory synapses, have recently been implicated in the ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: Thrombospondins, which are known to interact with the α2 δ subunit of voltage-sensitive calcium channels to stimulate the formation of excitatory synapses, have recently been implicated in the process of epileptogenesis. No studies have been so far performed on thrombospondins in models of absence epilepsy. We examined whether expression of the gene encoding for thrombospondin-1 was altered in the brain of WAG/Rij rats, which model absence epilepsy in humans. In addition, we examined the frequency of genetic variants of THBS1 in a large cohort of children affected by idiopathic/genetic generalized epilepsies (IGE/GGEs). METHODS: We measured the transcripts of thrombospondin-1 and α2 δ subunit, and protein levels of α2 δ, Rab3A, and the vesicular glutamate transporter, VGLUT1, in the somatosensory cortex and ventrobasal thalamus of presymptomatic and symptomatic WAG/Rij rats and in two control strains by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunoblotting. We examined the genetic variants of THBS1 and CACNA2D1 in two independent cohorts of patients affected by IGE/GGE recruited through the Genetic Commission of the Italian League Against Epilepsy (LICE) and the EuroEPINOMICS-CoGIE Consortium. RESULTS: Thrombospondin-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were largely reduced in the ventrobasal thalamus of both presymptomatic and symptomatic WAG/Rij rats, whereas levels in the somatosensory cortex were unchanged. VGLUT1 protein levels were also reduced in the ventrobasal thalamus of WAG/Rij rats. Genetic variants of THBS1 were significantly more frequent in patients affected by IGE/GGE than in nonepileptic controls, whereas the frequency of CACNA2D1 was unchanged. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that thrombospondin-1 may have a role in the pathogenesis of IGE/GGEs. [less ▲]

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