References of "Cates, Michael E."
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See detailPower fluctuations in sheared amorphous materials: A minimal model
Ekeh, Timothy; Fodor, Etienne UL; Fielding, Suzanne M. et al

in Physical Review (2022)

The importance of mesoscale fluctuations in flowing amorphous materials is widely accepted, without a clear understanding of their role. We propose a mean-field elastoplastic model that admits both stress ... [more ▼]

The importance of mesoscale fluctuations in flowing amorphous materials is widely accepted, without a clear understanding of their role. We propose a mean-field elastoplastic model that admits both stress and strain-rate fluctuations, and investigate the character of its power distribution under steady shear flow. The model predicts the suppression of negative power fluctuations near the liquid-solid transition; the existence of a fluctuation relation in limiting regimes but its replacement in general by stretched-exponential power-distribution tails; and a crossover between two distinct mechanisms for negative power fluctuations in the liquid and the yielding solid phases. We connect these predictions with recent results from particle-based, numerical microrheological experiments. [less ▲]

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See detailStochastic Hydrodynamics of Complex Fluids: Discretisation and Entropy Production
Cates, Michael E.; Fodor, Etienne UL; Markovich, Tomer et al

in Entropy (2022)

Many complex fluids can be described by continuum hydrodynamic field equations, to which noise must be added in order to capture thermal fluctuations. In almost all cases, the resulting coarse-grained ... [more ▼]

Many complex fluids can be described by continuum hydrodynamic field equations, to which noise must be added in order to capture thermal fluctuations. In almost all cases, the resulting coarse-grained stochastic partial differential equations carry a short-scale cutoff, which is also reflected in numerical discretisation schemes. We draw together our recent findings concerning the construction of such schemes and the interpretation of their continuum limits, focusing, for simplicity, on models with a purely diffusive scalar field, such as ‘Model B’ which describes phase separation in binary fluid mixtures. We address the requirement that the steady-state entropy production rate (EPR) must vanish for any stochastic hydrodynamic model in a thermal equilibrium. Only if this is achieved can the given discretisation scheme be relied upon to correctly calculate the nonvanishing EPR for ‘active field theories’ in which new terms are deliberately added to the fluctuating hydrodynamic equations that break detailed balance. To compute the correct probabilities of forward and time-reversed paths (whose ratio determines the EPR), we must make a careful treatment of so-called ‘spurious drift’ and other closely related terms that depend on the discretisation scheme. We show that such subtleties can arise not only in the temporal discretisation (as is well documented for stochastic ODEs with multiplicative noise) but also from spatial discretisation, even when noise is additive, as most active field theories assume. We then review how such noise can become multiplicative via off-diagonal couplings to additional fields that thermodynamically encode the underlying chemical processes responsible for activity. In this case, the spurious drift terms need careful accounting, not just to evaluate correctly the EPR but also to numerically implement the Langevin dynamics itself. [less ▲]

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See detailIrreversibility and Biased Ensembles in Active Matter: Insights from Stochastic Thermodynamics
Fodor, Etienne UL; Jack, Robert L.; Cates, Michael E.

in Annual Reviews (2022)

Active systems evade the rules of equilibrium thermodynamics by constantly dissipating energy at the level of theirmicroscopic components.This energy flux stems from the conversion of a fuel, present in ... [more ▼]

Active systems evade the rules of equilibrium thermodynamics by constantly dissipating energy at the level of theirmicroscopic components.This energy flux stems from the conversion of a fuel, present in the environment, into sustained individual motion. It can lead to collective effects without any equilibrium equivalent, some of which can be rationalized by using equilibrium tools to recapitulate nonequilibrium transitions. An important challenge is then to delineate systematically to what extent the character of these active transitions is genuinely distinct from equilibrium analogs.We review recent works that use stochastic thermodynamics tools to identify, for active systems, a measure of irreversibility comprising a coarse-grained or informatic entropy production.We describe how this relates to the underlying energy dissipation or thermodynamic entropy production, and how it is influenced by collective behavior. Then, we review the possibility of constructing thermodynamic ensembles out of equilibrium, where trajectories are biased toward atypical values of nonequilibrium observables.We show that this is a generic route to discovering unexpected phase transitions in active matter systems, which can also inform their design. [less ▲]

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See detailActive engines: Thermodynamics moves forward
Fodor, Etienne UL; Cates, Michael E.

in Europhysics Letters (2021), 134

The study of thermal heat engines was pivotal to establishing the principles of equilibrium thermodynamics, with implications far wider than only engine optimization. For nonequilibrium systems, which by ... [more ▼]

The study of thermal heat engines was pivotal to establishing the principles of equilibrium thermodynamics, with implications far wider than only engine optimization. For nonequilibrium systems, which by definition dissipate energy even at rest, how to best convert such dissipation into useful work is still largely an outstanding question, with similar potential to illuminate general physical principles. We review recent theoretical progress in studying the performances of engines operating with active matter, where particles are driven by individual self-propulsion. We distinguish two main classes, either autonomous engines exploiting a particle current, or cyclic engines applying periodic transformation to the system, and present the strategies put forward so far for optimization. We delineate the limitations of previous studies, and propose some future perspectives, with a view to building a consistent thermodynamic framework far from equilibrium. [less ▲]

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See detailStatistical mechanics of active Ornstein-Uhlenbeck particles
Martin, David; O’Byrne, Jérémy; Cates, Michael E. et al

in Physical Review. E. (2021)

We study the statistical properties of active Ornstein-Uhlenbeck particles (AOUPs). In this simplest of models, the Gaussian white noise of overdamped Brownian colloids is replaced by a Gaussian colored ... [more ▼]

We study the statistical properties of active Ornstein-Uhlenbeck particles (AOUPs). In this simplest of models, the Gaussian white noise of overdamped Brownian colloids is replaced by a Gaussian colored noise. This suffices to grant this system the hallmark properties of active matter, while still allowing for analytical progress. We study in detail the steady-state distribution of AOUPs in the small persistence time limit and for spatially varying activity. At the collective level, we show AOUPs to experience motility-induced phase separation both in the presence of pairwise forces or due to quorum-sensing interactions. We characterize both the instability mechanism leading to phase separation and the resulting phase coexistence. We probe how, in the stationary state, AOUPs depart from their thermal equilibrium limit by investigating the emergence of ratchet currents and entropy production. In the small persistence time limit, we show how fluctuation-dissipation relations are recovered. Finally, we discuss how the emerging properties of AOUPs can be characterized from the dynamics of their collective modes. [less ▲]

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See detailCollective motion in large deviations of active particles
Keta, Yann-Edwin; Fodor, Etienne UL; van Wijland, Frédéric et al

in Physical Review. E. (2021)

We analyze collective motion that occurs during rare (large deviation) events in systems of active particles, both numerically and analytically. We discuss the associated dynamical phase transition to ... [more ▼]

We analyze collective motion that occurs during rare (large deviation) events in systems of active particles, both numerically and analytically. We discuss the associated dynamical phase transition to collective motion, which occurs when the active work is biased towards larger values, and is associated with alignment of particles’ orientations. A finite biasing field is needed to induce spontaneous symmetry breaking, even in large systems. Particle alignment is computed exactly for a system of two particles. For many-particle systems, we analyze the symmetry breaking by an optimal-control representation of the biased dynamics, and we propose a fluctuating hydrodynamic theory that captures the emergence of polar order in the biased state. [less ▲]

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See detailThermodynamics of Active Field Theories: Energetic Cost of Coupling to Reservoirs
Markovich, Tomer; Fodor, Etienne UL; Tjhung, Elsen et al

in PHYSICAL REVIEW X (2021), 11(2),

The hallmark of active matter is the autonomous directed motion of its microscopic constituents driven by consumption of energy resources. This motion leads to the emergence of large-scale dynamics and ... [more ▼]

The hallmark of active matter is the autonomous directed motion of its microscopic constituents driven by consumption of energy resources. This motion leads to the emergence of large-scale dynamics and structures without any equilibrium equivalent. Though active field theories offer a useful hydrodynamic description, it is unclear how to properly quantify the energetic cost of the dynamics from such a coarse-grained description. We provide a thermodynamically consistent framework to identify the energy exchanges between active systems and their surrounding thermostat at the hydrodynamic level. Based on linear irreversible thermodynamics, we determine how active fields couple with the underlying reservoirs at the basis of nonequilibrium driving. This approach leads to evaluating the rate of heat dissipated in the thermostat, as a measure of the cost to sustain the system away from equilibrium, which is related to the irreversibility of the active field dynamics. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach in two popular active field theories: (i) the dynamics of a conserved density field reproducing active phase separation and (ii) the coupled dynamics of density and polarization describing motile deformable droplets. Combining numerical and analytical approaches, we provide spatial maps of dissipated heat, compare them with the irreversibility measure of the active field dynamics, and explore how the overall dissipated heat varies with the emerging order. [less ▲]

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See detailTime-reversal symmetry violations and entropy production in field theories of polar active matter
Borthne, Øyvind L; Fodor, Etienne UL; Cates, Michael E

in New Journal of Physics (2020), 22

We investigate the steady-state entropy production rate (EPR) in the hydrodynamic Vicsek model (HVM) and diffusive flocking model (DFM). Both models display a transition from an isotropic gas to a polar ... [more ▼]

We investigate the steady-state entropy production rate (EPR) in the hydrodynamic Vicsek model (HVM) and diffusive flocking model (DFM). Both models display a transition from an isotropic gas to a polar liquid (flocking) phase, in addition to travelling polar clusters and microphase-separation in the miscibility gap. The phase diagram of the DFM, which may be considered an extension of the HVM, contains additional structure at low densities where we find a novel crystal phase in which a stationary hexagonal lattice of high-density ridges surround low density valleys. From an assessment of the scaling of the EPR at low noise, we uncover that the dynamics in this limit may be organised into three main classes based on the dominant contribution. Truly nonequilibrium dynamics is characterised by a divergent EPR in this limit, and sustains global time-reversal symmetry (TRS) violating currents at zero noise. On the other hand, marginally nonequilibrium and effectively equilibrium dynamics have a finite EPR in this limit, and TRS is broken only at the level of fluctuations. For the latter of these two cases, detailed balance is restored in the small noise limit and we recover effective Boltzmann statistics to lowest nontrivial order.We further demonstrate that the scaling of the EPR may change depending on the dynamical variables that are tracked when it is computed, and the protocol chosen for time-reversal. Results acquired from numerical simulations of the dynamics confirm both the asymptotic scaling relations we derive and our quantitative predictions. [less ▲]

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See detailThermodynamic cycles with active matter
Ekeh, Timothy; Cates, Michael E.; Fodor, Etienne UL

in Physical Review. E. (2020), 102(1),

Active matter constantly dissipates energy to power the self-propulsion of its microscopic constituents. This opens the door to designing innovative cyclic engines without any equilibrium equivalent. We ... [more ▼]

Active matter constantly dissipates energy to power the self-propulsion of its microscopic constituents. This opens the door to designing innovative cyclic engines without any equilibrium equivalent. We offer a consistent thermodynamic framework to characterize and optimize the performances of such cycles. Based on a minimal model, we put forward a protocol which extracts work by controlling only the properties of the confining walls at boundaries, and we rationalize the transitions between optimal cycles. We show that the corresponding power and efficiency are generally proportional, so that they reach their maximum values at the same cycle time in contrast with thermal cycles, and we provide a generic relation constraining the fluctuations of the power. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimizing active work: Dynamical phase transitions, collective motion and jamming
Nemoto, Takahiro; Fodor, Etienne UL; Cates, Michael E. et al

in Physical Review. E. (2019), 99(2),

Active work measures how far the local self-forcing of active particles translates into real motion. Using population Monte Carlo methods, we investigate large deviations in the active work for repulsive ... [more ▼]

Active work measures how far the local self-forcing of active particles translates into real motion. Using population Monte Carlo methods, we investigate large deviations in the active work for repulsive active Brownian disks Minimizing the active work generically results in dynamical arrest; in contrast, despite the lack of aligning interactions, trajectories of high active work correspond to a collectively moving, aligned state. We use heuristic and analytic arguments to explain the origin of dynamical phase transitions separating the arrested, typical, and aligned regimes. [less ▲]

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See detailEntropy Production in Field Theories without Time-Reversal Symmetry: Quantifying the Non-Equilibrium Character of Active Matter
Nardini, Cesare; Fodor, Etienne UL; Tjhung, Elsen et al

in PHYSICAL REVIEW X (2017), 7(2),

Active-matter systems operate far from equilibrium because of the continuous energy injection at the scale of constituent particles. At larger scales, described by coarse-grained models, the global ... [more ▼]

Active-matter systems operate far from equilibrium because of the continuous energy injection at the scale of constituent particles. At larger scales, described by coarse-grained models, the global entropy production rate S quantifies the probability ratio of forward and reversed dynamics and hence the importance of irreversibility at such scales: It vanishes whenever the coarse-grained dynamics of the active system reduces to that of an effective equilibrium model. We evaluate S for a class of scalar stochastic field theories describing the coarse-grained density of self-propelled particles without alignment interactions, capturing such key phenomena as motility-induced phase separation. We show how the entropy production can be decomposed locally (in real space) or spectrally (in Fourier space), allowing detailed examination of the spatial structure and correlations that underly departures from equilibrium. For phase-separated systems, the local entropy production is concentrated mainly on interfaces, with a bulk contribution that tends to zero in the weak-noise limit. In homogeneous states, we find a generalized Harada-Sasa relation that directly expresses the entropy production in terms of the wave-vector-dependent deviation from the fluctuation-dissipation relation between response functions and correlators. We discuss extensions to the case where the particle density is coupled to a momentum-conserving solvent and to situations where the particle current, rather than the density, should be chosen as the dynamical field. We expect the new conceptual tools developed here to be broadly useful in the context of active matter allowing one to distinguish when and where activity plays an essential role in the dynamics. [less ▲]

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See detailHow Far from Equilibrium Is Active Matter?
Fodor, Etienne UL; Nardini, Cesare; Cates, Michael E. et al

in PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS (2016), 117(3),

Active matter systems are driven out of thermal equilibrium by a lack of generalized Stokes-Einstein relation between injection and dissipation of energy at the microscopic scale. We consider such a ... [more ▼]

Active matter systems are driven out of thermal equilibrium by a lack of generalized Stokes-Einstein relation between injection and dissipation of energy at the microscopic scale. We consider such a system of interacting particles, propelled by persistent noises, and show that, at small but finite persistence time, their dynamics still satisfy a time-reversal symmetry. To do so, we compute perturbatively their steady-state measure and show that, for short persistent times, the entropy production rate vanishes. This endows such systems with an effective fluctuation-dissipation theorem akin to that of thermal equilibrium systems. Last, we show how interacting particle systems with viscous drags and correlated noises can be seen as in equilibrium with a viscoelastic bath but driven out of equilibrium by nonconservative forces, hence providing energetic insight into the departure of active systems from equilibrium. [less ▲]

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