References of "Caruso, Geoffrey 50001199"
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See detailScaling of urban heat island & NO2 with urban population: a meta-analysis
Wei, Yufei UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Lemoy, Rémi

Scientific Conference (2020, September 16)

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See detailA Spatially explicit ABM of Central Place Foraging Theory and its explanatory power for hunter-gatherers settlement patterns formation processes
Sikk, Kaarel UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

in Adaptive Behavior (2020)

The behavioural ecological approach to anthropology states that the density and distribution of resources determine optimal patterns of resource use and also sets its constraints to grouping, mobility and ... [more ▼]

The behavioural ecological approach to anthropology states that the density and distribution of resources determine optimal patterns of resource use and also sets its constraints to grouping, mobility and settlement choice. Central Place Foraging (CPF) models have been used for analysing foraging behaviours of hunter-gatherers and to draw a causal link from the volume of available resources in the environment to the mobility decisions of hunter-gatherers. In this study we propose a spatially explicit agent-based CPF mode. We explore its potential for explaining formation of settlement patterns and test its robustness to the configuration of space. Building on a model assuming homogeneous energy distributions we had to add several new parameters and an adaptation mechanism for foragers to predict the length of their stay, together with a heterogeneous environment configuration. The validation of the model shows that the spatially explicit CPF is generally robust to spatial configuration of energy resources. The total volume of energy has a significant effect on constraining sedentism as predicted by aspatial model and thus can be used on different environmental conditions. Still the spatial autocorrelation of resource distribution has a linear effect on optimal mobility decisions and needs to be considered in predictive models. The effect on settlement choice is not substantial and is more determined by other characteristics of settlement location. This limits the CPF models in analysing settlement pattern formation processes. [less ▲]

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See detailScaling of urban heat island & NO2 with urban population: a meta-analysis
Wei, Yufei UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Lemoy, Rémi

Scientific Conference (2019, December 05)

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See detailUnravelling the border-facade of France : a multi-level modelling of cross-border commuting
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Le Texier, Marion

in Caruso, Geoffrey; Gerber, Philippe; Jones, Catherine (Eds.) et al 21st European Colloquium on Theoretical and Quantitative Geography (ECTQG), Book of Abstracts, Mondorf-las-Bains, 5-9 septembre 2019 (2019, September 09)

Given its central position in Western Europe, France is the European country where cross-border commuting is most intense. Over 350000 residents cross the national border everyday to go to work. Cross ... [more ▼]

Given its central position in Western Europe, France is the European country where cross-border commuting is most intense. Over 350000 residents cross the national border everyday to go to work. Cross-border commuting raises a lot of concerns for planners on both side of each border, especially for provisioning transport infrastructure and local public services but also because it impacts land and housing markets, especially when salary differentials are high. While there is a lot of research about the daily functioning of specific borders (e.g. France-Switzerland or France-Luxembourg), generalization is lacking and spatial heterogeneities impede our understanding of the very determinants of cross-border commuting, such as the role of benefits differentials, transport costs and distance, or the relative availability of jobs at residential places and across the border. Further, these effects are most likely mediated differently by the socio-demographic characteristics of workers, their employment sector, and the quality of their residential environment at large. This suggests that an individual approach and a spatially detailed approach is needed, which contrasts sharply with the fact that most European-wide studies of cross-border commuting are conducted at very aggregated spatial scales (NUTS 2 or 3). [less ▲]

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See detailCentral place foraging and hunter-gatherer settlement patterns: how resource depletion influences population concentration
Sikk, Kaarel UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2019, September 09)

Settlement patterns are one of the main products of the Stone Age archaeological research. Their emergence processes can be explained by different models of settlement and mobility choices done by past ... [more ▼]

Settlement patterns are one of the main products of the Stone Age archaeological research. Their emergence processes can be explained by different models of settlement and mobility choices done by past inhabitants. In current study we explore central place foraging (CPF) model of huntergatherers as a tool for exploring formation of settlement patterns. CFP model is used for describing mobility choices of hunter-gatherer groups. It implies the groups settle at a central location and make logistic forays to surrounding areas foraging for required resources. The central location is chosen by it’s optimal position in relation to those resources and the group is willing to leave the current base location if a better alternative arises. We introduce a spatially explicit Agent-Based Model (ABM) of the CPF and explore how heterogeneous environment influences the settlement pattern formation. The motivation to move in CFP comes from changes in the environment. An important part of the change is the depletion of existing resources by the hunter-gatherers themselves. We are using the ABM model to explore how depletion process influences the dispersal of huntergatherer groups in the environment and which conditions and strategies will result in higher concentration and clustering of the population. [less ▲]

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See detailThe potential scaling of urban heat island and nitrogen dioxide with urban population: a systematic review
Wei, Yufei UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Lemoy, Rémi

Scientific Conference (2019, September 08)

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See detailHow does the relative spatial pattern of green within cities impact carbon uptake? A European scale analysis
Boura, Marlène Delphine Fabienne UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2019, September 06)

Cities constitute the main source of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. Urban areas exhibit a variety of land use profiles and carbon metabolisms. Yet it is important to assess to what extent they can ... [more ▼]

Cities constitute the main source of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. Urban areas exhibit a variety of land use profiles and carbon metabolisms. Yet it is important to assess to what extent they can cope with their own emissions. We address this issue by examining how the internal spatial organization of cities can impact the flow of anthropogenic CO2 between their major sources - human activities - ; and their main storage infrastructures, with a focus here on urban green spaces and forests. Is it better to have a dense core with a peripheric green belt? Large green patches within the core centre? Or small and fragmented green spaces? The objective of the present work is to tests whether the internal spatial organization of urban areas - in terms of green infrastructure characteristics and land use types - matters for evaluating carbon sequestration potentials within urban areas. Or whether they can simply be considered as single objects with a quantity of carbon emissions and a carbon sink capacity derived directly from aggregated land use data. We present a spatially explicit urban carbon flow model. Using land use data, an emission inventory and sequestration potentials from the vegetation we allocate a carbon budget to each spatial unit within the urban systems. Anthropogenic CO2 emissions are accounted from different land use categories using the TNO CAMS dataset. The potential of carbon sequestration by the urban forest is set using estimates from the literature. Urban carbon flows are then simulated for all Functional Urban Areas (FUAs) of European cities using the Urban Atlas 2012 database. Most studies on carbon dioxide uptake into vegetation at city or metropolitan scales estimate carbon stocks or aggregated carbon flows, while spatially explicit urban carbon flow analyses are made on spatially limited areas - i.e. neighbourhood level. Also, the homogenous land use data and emissions inventory at the continental level allows for a comparison of the different urban areas. We then compare the aggregated budget of the areas of study – commonly done in budget approaches from micro to global scale – to the spatially explicit budget. It allows us to estimate the real contribution of the urban forest to the uptake of anthropogenic emissions within the same urban ecosystem. The analysis then investigates the level of efficiency of CO2 uptake for different typology of urban areas for different carbon profiles. The efficiency is defined as the share of local emissions captured within the urban boundaries. In the future, the model will be validated using eddy covariance empirical data. [less ▲]

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See detailLandscape typology of urban forest ecosystem services across European urban areas
Boura, Marlène Delphine Fabienne UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2019, June 28)

Urban areas exhibit a large variety of patterns which may affect the negative externalities of human settlements on ecosystems. Ecosystem Services (ES) can help assessing the urban pressure on the ... [more ▼]

Urban areas exhibit a large variety of patterns which may affect the negative externalities of human settlements on ecosystems. Ecosystem Services (ES) can help assessing the urban pressure on the environment and its impact on the well-being of inhabitants. Compactness or densities have often been associated to potential ES. Yet, the effects of the relative spatial arrangement of vegetation, forests and water bodies, with respect to the urban lands - which are source of anthropogenic CO2 emissions - on potential ES are still not systematically analysed. In this work we propose a typology, for about 800 European urban areas (>50,000 inhabitants) based on the intra-urban structure of cities and the associated ES potentials. The GMES/Copernicus Urban Atlas 2012 database provides a comparable definition of urban area and land use categories, necessary to a systematic cross-European analysis. More particularly, we investigate the share of different land uses and the distance between human settlements, forests and the other vegetated lands as well as their relative spatial distribution within urban settlements. We then use spatial metrics as proxies for urban ES associated with urban forests – e.g., micro climate regulation (air cooling, shade), air pollution removal (canopy), rainwater runoff (impervious lands). The typology is created using an unsupervised machine learning approach (clustering) with standardized spatial metrics as input data. Different urban “forest cultures” across the continent are observable. Urban areas around the Mediterranean sea - facing warmer temperatures - attribute significantly more space to herbaceous lands (10 to 70%), but generally less than 10% for forests. Transport networks and infrastructures are more present along the axe going from central UK, to Italy and on the east coast of Spain (5 to 9%). Similarly, Industrial built up lands are more present along this axe, including west Germany, Romania and the east coast of Spain (5 to 22%). [less ▲]

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See detailUrban densities and patterns: stylized facts and generic abstract tools
Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2019)

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See detailAlonso and the Scaling of Urban Profiles
Delloye, Justin; Lemoy, Rémi UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

in Geographical Analysis (2019)

How urban characteristics change with total population, their scaling behavior, has become an important research field since one needs to better understand the challenges of urban densification. Yet urban ... [more ▼]

How urban characteristics change with total population, their scaling behavior, has become an important research field since one needs to better understand the challenges of urban densification. Yet urban scaling research is largely disconnected from intra-urban structure, and this seriously limits its operationalization. In contrast, the monocentric model of Alonso provides a residential choice-based theory to urban density profiles. However, dedicated comparative static analyses do not completely solve how the model scales with population. This article bridges this gap by simultaneously introducing power laws for land, income and transport cost in the Alonso model. We show that the equilibrium urban structure of this augmented model matches recent empirical findings about the scaling of European population density profiles and satisfactorily represents European cities. This result is however not compatible with the observed scaling power of housing land profiles, and challenges current empirical understanding of wage and transport cost elasticities with population. Our results call for revisiting theories about land development and housing processes as well as the empirics of agglomeration benefits and transport costs. [less ▲]

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See detailWalking, trip purpose, and exposure to multiple environments: A case study of older adults in Luxembourg
Perchoux, C.; Brondeel, R.; Wasfi, R. et al

in Journal of Transport and Health (2019), 13

Purpose: Understanding the geographical and environmental triggers for active transport among older adults is crucial to promote healthy and independent lifestyles. While transportation research has long ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Understanding the geographical and environmental triggers for active transport among older adults is crucial to promote healthy and independent lifestyles. While transportation research has long considered trip purpose as a major determinant of transport mode choices, “place and health” research has paid little attention to it, and even less in connection with environmental determinants. To avoid an oversimplification of how neighborhood built environments influence utilitarian walking, it is critical to account simultaneously for trip purposes, the locations of visited places, and the related exposure to surrounding environments. Methods: Based on a cohort of 471 older adults in Luxembourg, this study examines the influence of trip purposes on utilitarian walking, and the potential interaction effects with characteristics of multiple geographic environments and distance to the place of residence. Information related to demographics, health status, and regularly visited destinations was collected in 2015 and 2016. Associations between trip purpose, environment, distance, and walking were analyzed using multilevel logistic regressions, accounting for demographics, neighborhood self-selection, and health status. Results: After accounting for environmental attributes, distance, and confounding factors, trip purpose remained a strong correlate of walking among older adults. Associations between distance and walking strongly differed by trip purpose (Wald Chi 2 test p < 0.001). Access to amenities, public transport stops, and street connectivity were associated with walking, although no interaction with trip purpose was observed. Conclusion: Trip purposes based on free-time activities–including visits to family and friends, and restaurants and cafés–seem to be less influenced by the barrier effect of distance on walking. While place and health studies increasingly address both the “where” and “when” of travel behaviors, the current study additionally stresses the importance of the trip purpose to emphasize “why” and “for what” people walk. © 2019 [less ▲]

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See detail21st European Colloquium on Theoretical and Quantitative Geography: Book of abstracts
Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Gerber, Philippe; Jones, Catherine UL et al

Book published by LISER (2019)

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See detailMobility among older adults: Deconstructing the effects of motility and movement on wellbeing
Cuignet, T.; Perchoux, C.; Caruso, Geoffrey UL et al

in Urban Studies (2019)

Daily mobility has been shown to contribute to the wellbeing of older adults, as it promotes healthy and independent living. However, very little is known about how the complex relationships between ... [more ▼]

Daily mobility has been shown to contribute to the wellbeing of older adults, as it promotes healthy and independent living. However, very little is known about how the complex relationships between locations, geographic environments and daily mobility relate to wellbeing. In the current paper, we rely on the concept of ‘motility’– defined as potential mobility– and the concept of ‘movement’– defined as actual mobility– to take a step forwards in disentangling the relationship between mobility and wellbeing. We further examine how both motility and movement relate to two complementary definitions of wellbeing: hedonic wellbeing as a measurement of happiness, and eudaimonic wellbeing as the actualisation of an individual’s human potential. To investigate this relationship, we draw up a conceptual framework stressing pathways linking mobility to wellbeing, which we empirically test using structural equation modelling on a stratified sample of 470 older adults. We first quantitatively confirm that motility is defined by access, competences, appropriation and attitudes to modes of transportation. We then observe that motility has direct effects on eudaimonic wellbeing and, to a lesser extent, on hedonic wellbeing. Part of the motility effects on wellbeing are mediated by movement. Separating mobility into motility and movement stresses the independent and complementary role that potential and realised mobility play in shaping older adults’ wellbeing. © Urban Studies Journal Limited 2019. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence for the homothetic scaling of urban forms
Lemoy, Rémi UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

in Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science (2018)

The size and form of cities influence their social and environmental impacts. Whether cities have the same form irrespective of their size is still an open question. We analyse the profile of artificial ... [more ▼]

The size and form of cities influence their social and environmental impacts. Whether cities have the same form irrespective of their size is still an open question. We analyse the profile of artificial land and population density, with respect to the distance to their main centre, for the 300 largest European cities. Our analysis combines the GMES/Copernicus Urban Atlas 2006 land use database at 5 m resolution for 300 larger urban zones with more than 100,000 inhabitants and the Geostat population grid at 1 km resolution. We find a remarkable constancy of radial profiles across city sizes. Artificial land profiles scale in the two horizontal dimensions with the square root of city population, while population density profiles scale in three dimensions with its cube root. In short, cities of different size are homothetic in terms of land use and population density, which challenges the idea that larger cities are more parsimonious in the use of land per capita. While earlier literature documented the scaling of average densities (total surface and population) with city size, we document the scaling of the whole radial distance profile with city size, thus liaising intra-urban radial analysis and systems of cities. Our findings also yield homogenous spatial definitions of cities, from which we can re-question urban scaling laws and Zipf’s law for cities. [less ▲]

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See detailThe provision of urban green space and its accessibility: Spatial data effects in Brussels
Le Texier, Marion UL; Schiel, Kerry UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

in PLoS ONE (2018), 13(10), 0204684

Urban green space (UGS) has many environmental and social benefits. UGS provision and access are increasingly considered in urban policies and must rely on data and indicators that can capture variations ... [more ▼]

Urban green space (UGS) has many environmental and social benefits. UGS provision and access are increasingly considered in urban policies and must rely on data and indicators that can capture variations in the distribution of UGS within cities. There is no consensus about how UGS, and their provision and access, must be defined from different land use data types. Here we identify four spatial dimensions of UGS and critically examine how different data sources affect these dimensions and our understanding of their variation within a city region (Brussels). We compare UGS indicators measured from an imagery source (NDVI from Landsat), an official cadastre-based map, and the voluntary geographical information provided by OpenStreetMap (OSM). We compare aggregate values of provision and access to UGS as well as their spatial distribution along a centrality gradient and at neighbourhood scale. We find that there are strong differences in the value of indicators when using the different datasets, especially due to their ability to capture private and public green space. However we find that the interpretation of intra-urban spatial variations is not affected by changes in data source. Centrality in particular is a strong determinant of the relative values of UGS availability, fragmentation and accessibility, irrespective of datasets. [less ▲]

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See detailRadial urban forms in Europe
Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2018, September 27)

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See detailConceptual framework of assessing the influence of cultural complexity to settlement pattern formation
Sikk, Kaarel UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Kriiska, Aivar

Scientific Conference (2018, September)

Settlement patterns are one of the main products of prehistorical archaeological research and are used as spatial projections of past societies. In current paper we study how geographical locational data ... [more ▼]

Settlement patterns are one of the main products of prehistorical archaeological research and are used as spatial projections of past societies. In current paper we study how geographical locational data can reveal information about cultural complexity. The formation of the patterns is influenced by multiple factors from human-environment interactions to complex processes within society. We analyse the forces behind formation of settlement patterns from an agent based modelling perspective. For the purpose we construct a spatial discrete choice model and formulate it using random utility theory. We argue that agent decisions in the models can be decomposed into different rulesets. Those rules are mostly determined by attraction to natural affordances and sociocultural behaviours. Paleoecological and geological data can be used to extract information about human attraction to natural affordances. Analysing the resulting empirical data can reveal the significance of environment as determining settlement choice which we argue is declining with growing cultural complexity. [less ▲]

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See detailTransferring knowledge from locational predictive models into spatial Agent Based Models: generilizing human perception of environment
Sikk, Kaarel UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2018, March 22)

Predictive models have been used for finding potential archaeological site locations already for more than 40 years. In addition to their extensively used application in cultural heritage management they ... [more ▼]

Predictive models have been used for finding potential archaeological site locations already for more than 40 years. In addition to their extensively used application in cultural heritage management they can also offer insights into past human behaviour in relation to environment. The proposed paper discusses how the information gathered from predictive modelling of archeological settlements, especially the revealed from location determinants, can be transferred to spatial Agent Based Models. We argue that spatial simulation models, especially those based on agents behaviour, above all aim to build theory and create generalisable knowledge. They therefore need to free themselves form local contexts and particular spatial heterogeneities, and automatically test the effect of agents behaviour on a wider range of spatial configurations. In cultural heritage management, models are usually created using geographical variables of existing settlement patterns (eg. water access and land formations). For finding archaeological sites the model needs to be calibrated for specific accuracy and precision. In this paper we focus on defining the potential residential space – an area that could be considered by people of the past as suitable for habitation or specific economic activities. We develop a framework that links geographical variables and behaviour as extracted from empirical studies to the development of a theoretical spatial agent-based model. [less ▲]

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