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See detailPARK7/DJ-1 promotes pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and maintains T(reg) homeostasis during ageing.
Danileviciute, Egle; Zeng, Ni; Capelle, Christophe M. et al

in Nature metabolism (2022), 4(5), 589-607

Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is the gatekeeper enzyme of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Here we show that the deglycase DJ-1 (encoded by PARK7, a key familial Parkinson's disease gene) is a pacemaker ... [more ▼]

Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is the gatekeeper enzyme of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Here we show that the deglycase DJ-1 (encoded by PARK7, a key familial Parkinson's disease gene) is a pacemaker regulating PDH activity in CD4(+) regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells). DJ-1 binds to PDHE1-β (PDHB), inhibiting phosphorylation of PDHE1-α (PDHA), thus promoting PDH activity and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Park7 (Dj-1) deletion impairs T(reg) survival starting in young mice and reduces T(reg) homeostatic proliferation and cellularity only in aged mice. This leads to increased severity in aged mice during the remission of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Dj-1 deletion also compromises differentiation of inducible T(reg) cells especially in aged mice, and the impairment occurs via regulation of PDHB. These findings provide unforeseen insight into the complicated regulatory machinery of the PDH complex. As T(reg) homeostasis is dysregulated in many complex diseases, the DJ-1-PDHB axis represents a potential target to maintain or re-establish T(reg) homeostasis. [less ▲]

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See detailStress hormone signalling inhibits Th1 polarization in a CD4 T-cell-intrinsic manner via mTORC1 and the circadian gene PER1
Capelle, Christophe M.; Chen, Anna; Zeng, Ni et al

in Immunology (2022), 165(4), 428--444

Stress hormones are believed to skew the CD4 T-cell differentiation towards a Th2 response via a T-cell-extrinsic mechanism. Using isolated primary human naïve and memory CD4 T cells, here we show that ... [more ▼]

Stress hormones are believed to skew the CD4 T-cell differentiation towards a Th2 response via a T-cell-extrinsic mechanism. Using isolated primary human naïve and memory CD4 T cells, here we show that both adrenergic- and glucocorticoid-mediated stress signalling pathways play a CD4 naïve T-cell-intrinsic role in regulating the Th1/Th2 differentiation balance. Both stress hormones reduced the Th1 programme and cytokine production by inhibiting mTORC1 signalling via two parallel mechanisms. Stress hormone signalling inhibited mTORC1 in naïve CD4 T cells (1) by affecting the PI3K/AKT pathway and (2) by regulating the expression of the circadian rhythm gene, period circadian regulator 1 (PER1). Both stress hormones induced the expression of PER1, which inhibited mTORC1 signalling, thus reducing Th1 differentiation. This previously unrecognized cell-autonomous mechanism connects stress hormone signalling with CD4 T-cell differentiation via mTORC1 and a specific circadian clock gene, namely PER1. [less ▲]

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See detailCombinatorial analysis reveals highly coordinated early-stage immune reactions that predict later antiviral immunity in mild COVID-19 patients
Capelle, Christophe M.; Ciré, Séverine; Domingues, Olivia et al

in Cell Reports Medicine (2022), 3(4), 100600

While immunopathology has been widely studied in patients with severe COVID-19, immune responses in non-hospitalized patients have remained largely elusive. We systematically analyze 484 peripheral ... [more ▼]

While immunopathology has been widely studied in patients with severe COVID-19, immune responses in non-hospitalized patients have remained largely elusive. We systematically analyze 484 peripheral cellular or soluble immune features in a longitudinal cohort of 63 mild and 15 hospitalized patients versus 14 asymptomatic and 26 household controls. We observe a transient increase of IP10/CXCL10 and interferon-β levels, coordinated responses of dominant SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4 and fewer CD8 T cells, and various antigen-presenting and antibody-secreting cells in mild patients within 3 days of PCR diagnosis. The frequency of key innate immune cells and their functional marker expression are impaired in hospitalized patients at day 1 of inclusion. T cell and dendritic cell responses at day 1 are highly predictive for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses after 3 weeks in mild but not hospitalized patients. Our systematic analysis reveals a combinatorial picture and trajectory of various arms of the highly coordinated early-stage immune responses in mild COVID-19 patients. [less ▲]

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See detailMitochondria interaction networks show altered topological patterns in Parkinson's disease.
Zanin, Massimiliano; Santos, Bruno F. R.; Antony, Paul UL et al

in NPJ systems biology and applications (2020), 6(1), 38

Mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, individual mitochondria-based analyses do not show a uniform feature in PD patients. Since mitochondria interact ... [more ▼]

Mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, individual mitochondria-based analyses do not show a uniform feature in PD patients. Since mitochondria interact with each other, we hypothesize that PD-related features might exist in topological patterns of mitochondria interaction networks (MINs). Here we show that MINs formed nonclassical scale-free supernetworks in colonic ganglia both from healthy controls and PD patients; however, altered network topological patterns were observed in PD patients. These patterns were highly correlated with PD clinical scores and a machine-learning approach based on the MIN features alone accurately distinguished between patients and controls with an area-under-curve value of 0.989. The MINs of midbrain dopaminergic neurons (mDANs) derived from several genetic PD patients also displayed specific changes. CRISPR/CAS9-based genome correction of alpha-synuclein point mutations reversed the changes in MINs of mDANs. Our organelle-interaction network analysis opens another critical dimension for a deeper characterization of various complex diseases with mitochondrial dysregulation. [less ▲]

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