References of "Campoy, Pascual"
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See detailBuilding the executive system of autonomous aerial robots using the Aerostack open-source framework
Molina, Martin; Carrera, Abraham; Camporredondo, Alberto et al

in International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems (2020), 17(3), 1--20

A variety of open-source software tools are currently available to help building autonomous mobile robots. These tools have proven their effectiveness in developing different types of robotic systems, but ... [more ▼]

A variety of open-source software tools are currently available to help building autonomous mobile robots. These tools have proven their effectiveness in developing different types of robotic systems, but there are still needs related to safety and efficiency that are not sufficiently covered. This article describes recent advances in the Aerostack software framework to address part of these needs, which may become critical in the case of aerial robots. The article describes a software tool that helps to develop the executive system, an important component of the control architecture whose characteristics significantly affect the quality of the final autonomous robotic system. The presented tool uses an original solution for execution control that aims at simplifying mission specification and protecting against errors, considering also the efficiency needs of aerial robots. The effectiveness of the tool was evaluated by building an experimental autonomous robot. The results of the evaluation show that it provides significant benefits about usability and reliability with acceptable development effort and computational cost. The tool is based on Robot Operating System and it is publicly available as part of the last release of the Aerostack software framework (version 3.0). [less ▲]

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See detailVision-based multirotor following using synthetic learning techniques
Rodriguez-Ramos, Alejandro; Alvarez-Fernandez, Adrian; Bavle, Hriday UL et al

in Sensors (2019), 19(21), 1--20

Deep-and reinforcement-learning techniques have increasingly required large sets of real data to achieve stable convergence and generalization, in the context of image-recognition, object-detection or ... [more ▼]

Deep-and reinforcement-learning techniques have increasingly required large sets of real data to achieve stable convergence and generalization, in the context of image-recognition, object-detection or motion-control strategies. On this subject, the research community lacks robust approaches to overcome unavailable real-world extensive data by means of realistic synthetic-information and domain-adaptation techniques. In this work, synthetic-learning strategies have been used for the vision-based autonomous following of a noncooperative multirotor. The complete maneuver was learned with synthetic images and high-dimensional low-level continuous robot states, with deep-and reinforcement-learning techniques for object detection and motion control, respectively. A novel motion-control strategy for object following is introduced where the camera gimbal movement is coupled with the multirotor motion during the multirotor following. Results confirm that our present framework can be used to deploy a vision-based task in real flight using synthetic data. It was extensively validated in both simulated and real-flight scenarios, providing proper results (following a multirotor up to 1.3 m/s in simulation and 0.3 m/s in real flights). [less ▲]

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See detailAn execution control method for the Aerostack aerial robotics framework
Molina, Martin; Camporredondo, Alberto; Bavle, Hriday UL et al

in Frontiers of Information Technology and Electronic Engineering (2019), 20(1), 60--75

Execution control is a critical task of robot architectures which has a deep impact on the quality of the final system. In this study, we describe a general method for execution control, which is a part ... [more ▼]

Execution control is a critical task of robot architectures which has a deep impact on the quality of the final system. In this study, we describe a general method for execution control, which is a part of the Aerostack software framework for aerial robotics, and present technical challenges for execution control and design decisions to develop the method. The proposed method has an original design combining a distributed approach for execution control of behaviors (such as situation checking and performance monitoring) and centralizes coordination to ensure consistency of the concurrent execution. We conduct experiments to evaluate the method. The experimental results show that the method is general and usable with acceptable development efforts to efficiently work on different types of aerial missions. The method is supported by standards based on a robot operating system (ROS) contributing to its general use, and an open-source project is integrated in the Aerostack framework. Therefore, its technical details are fully accessible to developers and freely available to be used in the development of new aerial robotic systems. [less ▲]

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See detailA Fully-Autonomous Aerial Robot for Search and Rescue Applications in Indoor Environments using Learning-Based Techniques
Sampedro, Carlos; Rodriguez-Ramos, Alejandro; Bavle, Hriday UL et al

in Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems (2019), 95(2), 601--627

Search and Rescue (SAR) missions represent an important challenge in the robotics research field as they usually involve exceedingly variable-nature scenarios which require a high-level of autonomy and ... [more ▼]

Search and Rescue (SAR) missions represent an important challenge in the robotics research field as they usually involve exceedingly variable-nature scenarios which require a high-level of autonomy and versatile decision-making capabilities. This challenge becomes even more relevant in the case of aerial robotic platforms owing to their limited payload and computational capabilities. In this paper, we present a fully-autonomous aerial robotic solution, for executing complex SAR missions in unstructured indoor environments. The proposed system is based on the combination of a complete hardware configuration and a flexible system architecture which allows the execution of high-level missions in a fully unsupervised manner (i.e. without human intervention). In order to obtain flexible and versatile behaviors from the proposed aerial robot, several learning-based capabilities have been integrated for target recognition and interaction. The target recognition capability includes a supervised learning classifier based on a computationally-efficient Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model trained for target/background classification, while the capability to interact with the target for rescue operations introduces a novel Image-Based Visual Servoing (IBVS) algorithm which integrates a recent deep reinforcement learning method named Deep Deterministic Policy Gradients (DDPG). In order to train the aerial robot for performing IBVS tasks, a reinforcement learning framework has been developed, which integrates a deep reinforcement learning agent (e.g. DDPG) with a Gazebo-based simulator for aerial robotics. The proposed system has been validated in a wide range of simulation flights, using Gazebo and PX4 Software-In-The-Loop, and real flights in cluttered indoor environments, demonstrating the versatility of the proposed system in complex SAR missions. [less ▲]

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See detailFast and Robust Flight Altitude Estimation of Multirotor UAVs in Dynamic Unstructured Environments Using 3D Point Cloud Sensors
Bavle, Hriday UL; Sanchez Lopez, Jose Luis UL; de la Puente, Paloma et al

in Aerospace (2018), 5(3),

This paper presents a fast and robust approach for estimating the flight altitude of multirotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) using 3D point cloud sensors in cluttered, unstructured, and dynamic indoor ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a fast and robust approach for estimating the flight altitude of multirotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) using 3D point cloud sensors in cluttered, unstructured, and dynamic indoor environments. The objective is to present a flight altitude estimation algorithm, replacing the conventional sensors such as laser altimeters, barometers, or accelerometers, which have several limitations when used individually. Our proposed algorithm includes two stages: in the first stage, a fast clustering of the measured 3D point cloud data is performed, along with the segmentation of the clustered data into horizontal planes. In the second stage, these segmented horizontal planes are mapped based on the vertical distance with respect to the point cloud sensor frame of reference, in order to provide a robust flight altitude estimation even in presence of several static as well as dynamic ground obstacles. We validate our approach using the IROS 2011 Kinect dataset available in the literature, estimating the altitude of the RGB-D camera using the provided 3D point clouds. We further validate our approach using a point cloud sensor on board a UAV, by means of several autonomous real flights, closing its altitude control loop using the flight altitude estimated by our proposed method, in presence of several different static as well as dynamic ground obstacles. In addition, the implementation of our approach has been integrated in our open-source software framework for aerial robotics called Aerostack. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Power Line Inspection Software (PoLIS): A versatile system for automating power line inspection
Martinez Luna, Carol UL; Sampedro, Carlos; Chauhan, Aneesh et al

in Engineering applications of artificial intelligence (2018), 71

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See detailAttitude estimation using horizon detection in thermal images
Carrio, Adrian; Bavle, Hriday UL; Campoy, Pascual

in International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles (2018), 10(4), 352--361

The lack of redundant attitude sensors represents a considerable yet common vulnerability in many low-cost unmanned aerial vehicles. In addition to the use of attitude sensors, exploiting the horizon as a ... [more ▼]

The lack of redundant attitude sensors represents a considerable yet common vulnerability in many low-cost unmanned aerial vehicles. In addition to the use of attitude sensors, exploiting the horizon as a visual reference for attitude control is part of human pilots' training. For this reason, and given the desirable properties of image sensors, quite a lot of research has been conducted proposing the use of vision sensors for horizon detection in order to obtain redundant attitude estimation onboard unmanned aerial vehicles. However, atmospheric and illumination conditions may hinder the operability of visible light image sensors, or even make their use impractical, such as during the night. Thermal infrared image sensors have a much wider range of operation conditions and their price has greatly decreased during the last years, becoming an alternative to visible spectrum sensors in certain operation scenarios. In this paper, two attitude estimation methods are proposed. The first method consists of a novel approach to estimate the line that best fits the horizon in a thermal image. The resulting line is then used to estimate the pitch and roll angles using an infinite horizon line model. The second method uses deep learning to predict attitude angles using raw pixel intensities from a thermal image. For this, a novel Convolutional Neural Network architecture has been trained using measurements from an inertial navigation system. Both methods presented are proven to be valid for redundant attitude estimation, providing RMS errors below 1.7° and running at up to 48 Hz, depending on the chosen method, the input image resolution and the available computational capabilities. [less ▲]

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See detailLaser-Based Reactive Navigation for Multirotor Aerial Robots using Deep Reinforcement Learning
Sampedro, Carlos; Bavle, Hriday UL; Rodriguez-Ramos, Alejandro et al

Scientific Conference (2018)

Navigation in unknown indoor environments with fast collision avoidance capabilities is an ongoing research topic. Traditional motion planning algorithms rely on precise maps of the environment, where re ... [more ▼]

Navigation in unknown indoor environments with fast collision avoidance capabilities is an ongoing research topic. Traditional motion planning algorithms rely on precise maps of the environment, where re-adapting a generated path can be highly demanding in terms of computational cost. In this paper, we present a fast reactive navigation algorithm using Deep Reinforcement Learning applied to multi rotor aerial robots. Taking as input the 2D-laser range measurements and the relative position of the aerial robot with respect to the desired goal, the proposed algorithm is successfully trained in a Gazebo-based simulation scenario by adopting an artificial potential field formulation. A thorough evaluation of the trained agent has been carried out both in simulated and real indoor scenarios, showing the appropriate reactive navigation behavior of the agent in the presence of static and dynamic obstacles. [less ▲]

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See detailA Deep Reinforcement Learning Technique for Vision-Based Autonomous Multirotor Landing on a Moving Platform
Rodriguez-Ramos, Alejandro; Sampedro, Carlos; Bavle, Hriday UL et al

in IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (2018)

Deep learning techniques for motion control have recently been qualitatively improved, since the successful application of Deep Q- Learning to the continuous action domain in Atari-like games. Based on ... [more ▼]

Deep learning techniques for motion control have recently been qualitatively improved, since the successful application of Deep Q- Learning to the continuous action domain in Atari-like games. Based on these ideas, Deep Deterministic Policy Gradients (DDPG) algorithm was able to provide impressive results in continuous state and action domains, which are closely linked to most of the robotics-related tasks. In this paper, a vision-based autonomous multirotor landing maneuver on top of a moving platform is presented. The behaviour has been completely learned in simulation without prior human knowledge and by means of deep reinforcement learning techniques. Since the multirotor is controlled in attitude, no high level state estimation is required. The complete behaviour has been trained with continuous action and state spaces, and has provided proper results (landing at a maximum velocity of 2 m/s), Furthermore, it has been validated in a wide variety of conditions, for both simulated and real-flight scenarios, using a low-cost, lightweight and out-of-the-box consumer multirotor. [less ▲]

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See detailStereo Visual Odometry and Semantics based Localization of Aerial Robots in Indoor Environments
Bavle, Hriday UL; Manthe, Stephan; De La Puente, Paloma et al

Scientific Conference (2018)

In this paper we propose a particle filter localization approach, based on stereo visual odometry (VO) and semantic information from indoor environments, for mini-aerial robots. The prediction stage of ... [more ▼]

In this paper we propose a particle filter localization approach, based on stereo visual odometry (VO) and semantic information from indoor environments, for mini-aerial robots. The prediction stage of the particle filter is performed using the 3D pose of the aerial robot estimated by the stereo VO algorithm. This predicted 3D pose is updated using inertial as well as semantic measurements. The algorithm processes semantic measurements in two phases; firstly, a pre-trained deep learning (DL) based object detector is used for real time object detections in the RGB spectrum. Secondly, from the corresponding 3D point clouds of the detected objects, we segment their dominant horizontal plane and estimate their relative position, also augmenting a prior map with new detections. The augmented map is then used in order to obtain a drift free pose estimate of the aerial robot. We validate our approach in several real flight experiments where we compare it against ground truth and a state of the art visual SLAM approach. [less ▲]

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See detailA Multi-Layered Component-Based Approach for the Development of Aerial Robotic Systems: The Aerostack Framework
Sanchez Lopez, Jose Luis UL; Molina, Martin; Bavle, Hriday UL et al

in Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems (2017), 88(2), 638-709

To achieve fully autonomous operation for Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) it is necessary to integrate multiple and heterogeneous technical solutions (e.g., control-based methods, computer vision methods ... [more ▼]

To achieve fully autonomous operation for Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) it is necessary to integrate multiple and heterogeneous technical solutions (e.g., control-based methods, computer vision methods, automated planning, coordination algorithms, etc.). The combination of such methods in an operational system is a technical challenge that requires efficient architectural solutions. In a robotic engineering context, where productivity is important, it is also important to minimize the effort for the development of new systems. As a response to these needs, this paper presents Aerostack, an open-source software framework for the development of aerial robotic systems. This framework facilitates the creation of UAS by providing a set of reusable components specialized in functional tasks of aerial robotics (trajectory planning, self localization, etc.) together with an integration method in a multi-layered cognitive architecture based on five layers: reactive, executive, deliberative, reflective and social. Compared to other software frameworks for UAS, Aerostack can provide higher degrees of autonomy and it is more versatile to be applied to different types of hardware (aerial platforms and sensors) and different types of missions (e.g. multi robot swarm systems). Aerostack has been validated during four years (since February 2013) by its successful use on many research projects, international competitions and public exhibitions. As a representative example of system development, this paper also presents how Aerostack was used to develop a system for a (fictional) fully autonomous indoors search and rescue mission. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman-Robot Cooperation in Surface Inspection Aerial Missions
Molina, Martin; Frau, Pedro; Maraval, Dario et al

Scientific Conference (2017, September 21)

The goal of the work presented in this paper is to facilitate the cooperation between human opera- tors and aerial robots to perform surface inspec- tion missions. Our approach is based on a model of ... [more ▼]

The goal of the work presented in this paper is to facilitate the cooperation between human opera- tors and aerial robots to perform surface inspec- tion missions. Our approach is based on a model of human collaborative control with a mixed ini- tiative interaction. In the paper, we present our human-robot cooperation model based on the combination of a supervisory mode and an as- sistance mode with a set of interaction patterns. We developed a software system implementing this interaction model and carried out several real flight experiments that proved that this ap- proach can be used in aerial robotics for sur- face inspection missions (e.g., in vision based indoor missions). Compared to a conventional tele-operated inspection system, the solution pre- sented in this paper gives more autonomy to the aerial systems, reducing the cognitive load of the operator during the mission development. [less ▲]

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See detailVisual Marker based Multi-Sensor Fusion State Estimation
Sanchez Lopez, Jose Luis UL; Arellano-Quintana, Victor; Tognon, Marco et al

in IFAC-PapersOnLine (2017, July), 50(1), 16003-16008

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See detailA flight altitude estimator for multirotor UAVs in dynamic and unstructured indoor environments
Bavle, Hriday UL; Sanchez Lopez, Jose Luis UL; Rodriguez-Ramos, Alejandro et al

in 2017 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS) (2017, June)

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See detailA fully-autonomous aerial robotic solution for the 2016 International Micro Air Vehicle competition
Sampedro, Carlos; Bavle, Hriday UL; Rodríguez-Ramos, Alejandro et al

in 2017 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS) (2017, June)

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See detailA robust real-time path planner for the collision-free navigation of multirotor aerial robots in dynamic environments
Sanchez Lopez, Jose Luis UL; Pestana, Puerta; Campoy, Pascual

in 2017 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS) (2017, June)

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See detailTowards fully autonomous landing on moving platforms for rotary Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Rodriguez-Ramos, Alejandro; Sampedro, Carlos; Bavle, Hriday UL et al

Scientific Conference (2017)

Fully autonomous landing on moving platforms poses a problem of importance for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Current approaches are usually based on tracking and following the moving platform by means ... [more ▼]

Fully autonomous landing on moving platforms poses a problem of importance for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Current approaches are usually based on tracking and following the moving platform by means of several techniques, which frequently lack performance in real applications. The aim of this paper is to prove a simple landing strategy is able to provide practical results. The presented approach is based on three stages: estimation, prediction and fast landing. As a preliminary phase, the problem is solved for a particular case of the IMAV 2016 competition. Subsequently, it is extended to a more generic and versatile approach. A thorough evaluation has been conducted with simulated and real flight experiments. Simulations have been performed utilizing Gazebo 6 and PX4 Software-In-The-Loop (SITL) and real flight experiments have been conducted with a custom quadrotor and a moving platform in an indoor environment. [less ▲]

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See detailA reliable open-source system architecture for the fast designing and prototyping of autonomous multi-uav systems: Simulation and experimentation
Sanchez Lopez, Jose Luis UL; Pestana, Jesus; De La Puente, Paloma et al

in Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems (2016), 84(1-4), 779-797

During the process of design and development of an autonomous Multi-UAV System, two main problems appear. The first one is the difficulty of designing all the modules and behaviors of the aerial multi ... [more ▼]

During the process of design and development of an autonomous Multi-UAV System, two main problems appear. The first one is the difficulty of designing all the modules and behaviors of the aerial multi-robot system. The second one is the difficulty of having an autonomous prototype of the system for the developers that allows to test the performance of each module even in an early stage of the project. These two problems motivate this paper. A multipurpose system architecture for autonomous multi-UAV platforms is presented. This versatile system architecture can be used by the system designers as a template when developing their own systems. The proposed system architecture is general enough to be used in a wide range of applications, as demonstrated in the paper. This system architecture aims to be a reference for all designers. Additionally, to allow for the fast prototyping of autonomous multi-aerial systems, an Open Source framework based on the previously defined system architecture is introduced. It allows developers to have a flight proven multi-aerial system ready to use, so that they can test their algorithms even in an early stage of the project. The implementation of this framework, introduced in the paper with the name of ``CVG Quadrotor Swarm'', which has also the advantages of being modular and compatible with different aerial platforms, can be found at \url{https://github.com/Vision4UAV/cvg_quadrotor_swarm} with a consistent catalog of available modules. The good performance of this framework is demonstrated in the paper by choosing a basic instance of it and carrying out simulation and experimental tests whose results are summarized and discussed in this paper. [less ▲]

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See detailA vision-based quadrotor multi-robot solution for the indoor autonomy challenge of the 2013 international micro air vehicle competition
Pestana, Jesus; Sanchez Lopez, Jose Luis UL; De La Puente, Paloma et al

in Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems (2016), 84(1-4), 601--620

This paper presents a completely autonomous solution to participate in the 2013 International Micro Air Vehicle Indoor Flight Competition ({IMAV2013}). Our proposal is a modular multi-robot swarm ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a completely autonomous solution to participate in the 2013 International Micro Air Vehicle Indoor Flight Competition ({IMAV2013}). Our proposal is a modular multi-robot swarm architecture, based on the Robot Operating System (ROS) software framework, where the only information shared among swarm agents is each robot's position. Each swarm agent consists of an {AR Drone 2.0} quadrotor connected to a laptop which runs the software architecture. In order to present a completely visual-based solution the localization problem is simplified by the usage of ArUco visual markers. These visual markers are used to sense and map obstacles and to improve the pose estimation based on the IMU and optical data flow by means of an Extended Kalman Filter localization and mapping method. The presented solution and the performance of the CVG\_UPM team were awarded with the First Prize in the Indoors Autonomy Challenge of the {IMAV2013} competition. [less ▲]

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See detailUBRISTES: UAV-based building rehabilitation with visible and thermal infrared remote sensing
Carrio, Adrian; Pestana, Jesus; Sanchez Lopez, Jose Luis UL et al

in Robot 2015: Second Iberian Robotics Conference (2016, November)

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