References of "Campoy, Pascual"
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See detailFast and Robust Flight Altitude Estimation of Multirotor UAVs in Dynamic Unstructured Environments Using 3D Point Cloud Sensors
Bavle, Hriday; Sanchez Lopez, Jose Luis UL; de la Puente, Paloma et al

in Aerospace (2018), 5(3),

This paper presents a fast and robust approach for estimating the flight altitude of multirotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) using 3D point cloud sensors in cluttered, unstructured, and dynamic indoor ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a fast and robust approach for estimating the flight altitude of multirotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) using 3D point cloud sensors in cluttered, unstructured, and dynamic indoor environments. The objective is to present a flight altitude estimation algorithm, replacing the conventional sensors such as laser altimeters, barometers, or accelerometers, which have several limitations when used individually. Our proposed algorithm includes two stages: in the first stage, a fast clustering of the measured 3D point cloud data is performed, along with the segmentation of the clustered data into horizontal planes. In the second stage, these segmented horizontal planes are mapped based on the vertical distance with respect to the point cloud sensor frame of reference, in order to provide a robust flight altitude estimation even in presence of several static as well as dynamic ground obstacles. We validate our approach using the IROS 2011 Kinect dataset available in the literature, estimating the altitude of the RGB-D camera using the provided 3D point clouds. We further validate our approach using a point cloud sensor on board a UAV, by means of several autonomous real flights, closing its altitude control loop using the flight altitude estimated by our proposed method, in presence of several different static as well as dynamic ground obstacles. In addition, the implementation of our approach has been integrated in our open-source software framework for aerial robotics called Aerostack. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman-Robot Cooperation in Surface Inspection Aerial Missions
Molina, Martin; Frau, Pedro; Maraval, Dario et al

in 2017 International Micro Air Vehicle Conference and Flight Competition (IMAV), Toulouse, France, 18-21 Septembre 2017 (2017, September 21)

The goal of the work presented in this paper is to facilitate the cooperation between human opera- tors and aerial robots to perform surface inspec- tion missions. Our approach is based on a model of ... [more ▼]

The goal of the work presented in this paper is to facilitate the cooperation between human opera- tors and aerial robots to perform surface inspec- tion missions. Our approach is based on a model of human collaborative control with a mixed ini- tiative interaction. In the paper, we present our human-robot cooperation model based on the combination of a supervisory mode and an as- sistance mode with a set of interaction patterns. We developed a software system implementing this interaction model and carried out several real flight experiments that proved that this ap- proach can be used in aerial robotics for sur- face inspection missions (e.g., in vision based indoor missions). Compared to a conventional tele-operated inspection system, the solution pre- sented in this paper gives more autonomy to the aerial systems, reducing the cognitive load of the operator during the mission development. [less ▲]

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See detailVision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-CityVehicles
Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe et al

in Sensors (2016), 16(3), 362

Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors ... [more ▼]

Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards an Autonomous Vision-Based Unmanned Aerial System against Wildlife Poachers
Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL; Fu, Changhong; Ludivig, Philippe et al

in Sensors (2015), 15(12), 29861

Poaching is an illegal activity that remains out of control in many countries. Based on the 2014 report of the United Nations and Interpol, the illegal trade of global wildlife and natural resources ... [more ▼]

Poaching is an illegal activity that remains out of control in many countries. Based on the 2014 report of the United Nations and Interpol, the illegal trade of global wildlife and natural resources amounts to nearly $213 billion every year, which is even helping to fund armed conflicts. Poaching activities around the world are further pushing many animal species on the brink of extinction. Unfortunately, the traditional methods to fight against poachers are not enough, hence the new demands for more efficient approaches. In this context, the use of new technologies on sensors and algorithms, as well as aerial platforms is crucial to face the high increase of poaching activities in the last few years. Our work is focused on the use of vision sensors on UAVs for the detection and tracking of animals and poachers, as well as the use of such sensors to control quadrotors during autonomous vehicle following and autonomous landing. [less ▲]

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See detailVision Based Fuzzy Control Approaches for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL; Campoy, Pascual

in 16th World Congress of the International Fuzzy Systems Association (IFSA) 9th Conference of the European Society for Fuzzy Logic and Technology (EUSFLAT) (2015, July)

This paper proposed the use of vision based Fuzzy control approaches for autonomous navigation tasks with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). It is shown the advantages of using RGB cameras as the sensor ... [more ▼]

This paper proposed the use of vision based Fuzzy control approaches for autonomous navigation tasks with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). It is shown the advantages of using RGB cameras as the sensor onboard UAVs and the advantages of using Fuzzy logic controllers. It is explained how to set a vision based system and how to define a Fuzzy controller for a general control approach. A specific software was design and used to develop and tune general Fuzzy control approaches. The “how-to” of this software is also explained in this paper. A methodology to how to design, developed and tune Vision based Fuzzy Control (VBFC) approaches in robotics is also presented. Furthermore, it is shown three different VBFC approaches for autonomous navigation developed using this methodology and software. Real experiments were done to validate the different approaches with different vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) UAVs. [less ▲]

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See detailHMPMR strategy for real-time tracking in aerial images, using direct methods
Martinez, Carol; Campoy, Pascual; Fernando Mondragon, Ivan et al

in Machine Vision and Applications (2014), 25(5), 1283-1308

The vast majority of approaches make use of features to track objects. In this paper, we address the tracking problem with a tracking-by-registration strategy based on direct methods. We propose a ... [more ▼]

The vast majority of approaches make use of features to track objects. In this paper, we address the tracking problem with a tracking-by-registration strategy based on direct methods. We propose a hierarchical strategy in terms of image resolution and number of parameters estimated in each resolution, that allows direct methods to be applied in demanding real-time visual-tracking applications. We have called this strategy the Hierarchical Multi-Parametric and Multi-Resolution strategy (HMPMR). The Inverse Composition Image Alignment Algorithm (ICIA) is used as an image registration technique and is extended to an HMPMR-ICIA. The proposed strategy is tested with different datasets and also with image data from real flight tests using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, where the requirements of direct methods are easily unsatisfied (e.g. vehicle vibrations). Results show that using an HMPMR approach, it is possible to cope with the efficiency problem and with the small motion constraint of direct methods, conducting the tracking task at real-time frame rates and obtaining a performance that is comparable to, or even better than, the one obtained with the other algorithms that were analyzed. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing the Cross-Entropy method for control optimization: A case study of see-and-avoid on unmanned aerial vehicles
Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL; Fu, Changhong; Kannan, Somasundar UL et al

in Control and Automation (MED), 2014 22nd Mediterranean Conference of (2014, June)

This paper presents an adaptation of the Cross-Entropy (CE) method to optimize fuzzy logic controllers. The CE is a recently developed optimization method based on a general Monte-Carlo approach to ... [more ▼]

This paper presents an adaptation of the Cross-Entropy (CE) method to optimize fuzzy logic controllers. The CE is a recently developed optimization method based on a general Monte-Carlo approach to combinatorial and continuous multi-extremal optimization and importance sampling. This work shows the application of this optimization method to optimize the inputs gains, the location and size of the different membership functions' sets of each variable, as well as the weight of each rule from the rule's base of a fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The control system approach presented in this work was designed to command the orientation of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to modify its trajectory for avoiding collisions. An onboard looking forward camera was used to sense the environment of the UAV. The information extracted by the image processing algorithm is the only input of the fuzzy control approach to avoid the collision with a predefined object. Real tests with a quadrotor have been done to corroborate the improved behavior of the optimized controllers at different stages of the optimization process. [less ▲]

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See detailMonocular Visual-Inertial SLAM-Based Collision Avoidance Strategy for Fail-Safe UAV Using Fuzzy Logic Controllers
Fu, Changhong; Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL; Suarez-Fernandez, Ramon et al

in Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems (2014), 73(1-4), 513-533

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See detailCross-Entropy Optimization for Scaling Factors of a Fuzzy Controller: A See-and-Avoid Approach for Unmanned Aerial Systems
Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL; Mejias, Luis; Campoy, Pascual et al

in Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems (2013), 69(1-4), 189-205

The Cross-Entropy (CE) is an efficient method for the estimation of rare-event probabilities and combinatorial optimization. This work presents a novel approach of the CE for optimization of a Soft ... [more ▼]

The Cross-Entropy (CE) is an efficient method for the estimation of rare-event probabilities and combinatorial optimization. This work presents a novel approach of the CE for optimization of a Soft-Computing controller. A Fuzzy controller was designed to command an unmanned aerial system (UAS) for avoiding collision task. The only sensor used to accomplish this task was a forward camera. The CE is used to reach a near-optimal controller by modifying the scaling factors of the controller inputs. The optimization was realized using the ROS-Gazebo simulation system. In order to evaluate the optimization a big amount of tests were carried out with a real quadcopter. [less ▲]

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See detailReal-time Adaptive Multi-Classifier Multi-Resolution Visual Tracking Framework for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Fu, Changhong; Suarez-Fernandez, Ramon; Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL et al

in Second Workshop on Research, Development and Education on Unmanned Aerial Systems (RED-UAS 2013) (2013)

This paper presents a novel robust visual tracking framework, based on discrimi- native method, for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to track an arbitrary 2D/3D target at real-time frame rates, that is ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a novel robust visual tracking framework, based on discrimi- native method, for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to track an arbitrary 2D/3D target at real-time frame rates, that is called the Adaptive Multi-Classifier Multi-Resolution (AMCMR) framework. In this framework, adaptive Multiple Classifiers (MC) are updated in the (k- 1)th frame-based Multiple Resolutions (MR) structure with compressed positive and negative samples, and then applied them in the kth frame-based Multiple Resolutions (MR) structure to detect the current target. The sample importance has been integrated into this framework to improve the tracking stability and accuracy. The performance of this framework was evaluated with the Ground Truth (GT) in different types of public image databases and real flight- based aerial image datasets firstly, then the framework has been applied in the UAV to inspect the Offshore Floating Platform (OFP). The evaluation and application results show that this framework is more robust, efficient and accurate against the existing state-of-art trackers, overcoming the problems generated by the challenging situations such as obvious appearance change, variant illumination, partial/full target occlusion, blur motion, rapid pose variation and onboard mechanical vibration, among others. To our best knowledge, this is the first work to present this framework for solving the online learning and tracking freewill 2D/3D target problems, and applied it in the UAVs. [less ▲]

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See detailAutonomous Landing of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle using Image-Based Fuzzy Control
Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL; Mondragon, Ivan; Campoy, Pascual

in Second Workshop on Research, Development and Education on Unmanned Aerial Systems (RED-UAS 2013) (2013)

This paper presents a vision based autonomous landing control approach for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). The 3D position of an unmanned helicopter is estimated based on the homographies estimated of a ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a vision based autonomous landing control approach for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). The 3D position of an unmanned helicopter is estimated based on the homographies estimated of a known landmark. The translation and altitude estimation of the helicopter against the helipad position are the only information that is used to control the longitudinal, lateral and descend speeds of the vehicle. The control system approach consists in three Fuzzy controllers to manage the speeds of each 3D axis of the aircraft’s coordinate system. The 3D position estimation was proven first, comparing it with the GPS + IMU data with very good results. The robust of the vision algorithm against occlusions was also tested. The excellent behavior of the Fuzzy control approach using the 3D position estimation based in homographies was proved in an outdoors test using a real unmanned helicopter. [less ▲]

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See detailAutonomous Guided Car Using a Fuzzy Controller
Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL; Campoy, Pascual; Mellado-Bataller, Ignacio et al

in Sen Gupta, Gourab; Bailey, Donald; Demidenko, Serge (Eds.) et al Recent Advances in Robotics and Automation (2013)

The goal of the work described in this paper is to develop a visual line guided system for being used on-board an Autonomous Guided Vehicle (AGV) commercial car, controlling the steering and using just ... [more ▼]

The goal of the work described in this paper is to develop a visual line guided system for being used on-board an Autonomous Guided Vehicle (AGV) commercial car, controlling the steering and using just the visual information of a line painted below the car. In order to implement the control of the vehicle, a Fuzzy Logic controller has been implemented, that has to be robust against curvature changes and velocity changes. The only input information for the controller is the visual distance from the image center captured by a camera pointing downwards to the guiding line on the road, at a commercial frequency of 30Hz. The good performance of the controller has successfully been demonstrated in a real environment at urban velocities. The presented results demonstrate the capability of the Fuzzy controller to follow a circuit in urban environments without previous information about the path or any other information from additional sensors. [less ▲]

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See detailMAVwork: A Framework for Unified Interfacing between Micro Aerial Vehicles and Visual Controllers
Mellado-Bataller, Ignacio; Pestana, Jesús; Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL et al

in Lee, Sukhan; Yoon, Kwang-Joon; Lee, Jangmyung (Eds.) Frontiers of Intelligent Autonomous Systems (2013)

Debugging control software for Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAV) can be risky out of the simulator, especially with professional drones that might harm people around or result in a high bill after a crash. We ... [more ▼]

Debugging control software for Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAV) can be risky out of the simulator, especially with professional drones that might harm people around or result in a high bill after a crash. We have designed a framework that enables a software application to communicate with multiple MAVs from a single unified interface. In this way, visual controllers can be first tested on a low-cost harmless MAV and, after safety is guaranteed, they can be moved to the production MAV at no additional cost. The framework is based on a distributed architecture over a network. This allows multiple configurations, like drone swarms or parallel processing of drones' video streams. Live tests have been performed and the results show comparatively low additional communication delays, while adding new functionalities and flexibility. This implementation is open-source and can be downloaded from github.com/uavster/mavwork [less ▲]

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See detailA Hierarchical Tracking Strategy for Vision-Based Applications On-Board UAVs
Martínez, Carol; Mondragón, Iván; Campoy, Pascual et al

in Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems (2013), 72(3-4), 517-539

In this paper, we apply a hierarchical tracking strategy of planar objects (or that can be assumed to be planar) that is based on direct methods for vision-based applications on-board UAVs. The use of ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we apply a hierarchical tracking strategy of planar objects (or that can be assumed to be planar) that is based on direct methods for vision-based applications on-board UAVs. The use of this tracking strategy allows to achieve the tasks at real-time frame rates and to overcome problems posed by the challenging conditions of the tasks: e.g. constant vibrations, fast 3D changes, or limited capacity on-board. The vast majority of approaches make use of featurebased methods to track objects. Nonetheless, in this paper we show that although some of these feature-based solutions are faster, direct methods can be more robust under fast 3D motions (fast changes in position), some changes in appearance, constant vibrations (without requiring any specific hardware or software for video stabilization), and situations in which part of the object to track is outside of the field of view of the camera. The performance of the proposed tracking strategy onboard UAVs is evaluated with images from realflight tests using manually-generated ground truthinformation, accurate position estimation using a Vicon system, and also with simulated data from a simulation environment. Results show that the hierarchical tracking strategy performs better than well-known feature-based algorithms and wellknown configurations of direct methods, and that its performance is robust enough for vision-in-theloop tasks, e.g. for vision-based landing tasks. [less ▲]

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See detailQuadcopter see and avoid using a fuzzy controller
Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL; Mejias, Luis; Campoy, Pascual et al

in Uncertainty modeling in knowlege engineering and decision making : proceedings of the 10th International FLINS Conference (2012)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) industry is a fast growing sector. Nowadays, the market offers numerous possibilities for off-the-shelf UAVs such as quadrotors or fixed-wings. Until UAVs demonstrate ... [more ▼]

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) industry is a fast growing sector. Nowadays, the market offers numerous possibilities for off-the-shelf UAVs such as quadrotors or fixed-wings. Until UAVs demonstrate advance capabilities such as autonomous collision avoidance they will be segregated and restricted to flight in controlled environments. This work presents a visual fuzzy servoing system for obstacle avoidance using UAVs. To accomplish this task we used the visual information from the front camera. Images are processed off-board and the result send to the Fuzzy Logic controller which then send commands to modify the orientation of the aircraft. Results from flight test are presented with a commercial off-the-shelf platform. [less ▲]

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See detailA Hierarchical Strategy for Real-Time Tracking On-Board UAVs
Martinez, Carol; Campoy, Pascual; Mondragon, Ivan F. et al

in ICUAS 2012 : 2012 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (2012, June)

In this paper, we present a real-time tracking strategy based on direct methods for tracking tasks on-board UAVs, that is able to overcome problems posed by the challenging conditions of the task: e.g ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we present a real-time tracking strategy based on direct methods for tracking tasks on-board UAVs, that is able to overcome problems posed by the challenging conditions of the task: e.g. constant vibrations, fast 3D changes, and limited capacity on-board. The vast majority of approaches make use of feature-based methods to track objects. Nonetheless, in this paper we show that although some of these feature-based solutions are faster, direct methods can be more robust under fast 3D motions (fast changes in position), some changes in appearance, constant vibrations (without requiring any specific hardware or software for video stabilization), and situations where part of the object to track is out the field of view of the camera. The performance of the proposed strategy is evaluated with images from real-flight tests using different evaluation mechanisms (e.g. accurate position estimation using a Vicon sytem). Results show that our tracking strategy performs better than well known feature-based algorithms and well known configurations of direct methods, and that the recovered data is robust enough for vision-in-the-loop tasks. [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptive Control System based on Lineal Control Theory for the Path-Following Problem of a Car-Like Mobile Robot
Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Campoy, Pascual; Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL et al

in IFAC Conference on Advances in PID Control PID'12 (2012)

The objective of this paper is to design a path following control system for a car-like mobile robot using classical linear control techniques, so that it adapts on-line to varying conditions during the ... [more ▼]

The objective of this paper is to design a path following control system for a car-like mobile robot using classical linear control techniques, so that it adapts on-line to varying conditions during the trajectory following task. The main advantages of the proposed control structure is that well known linear control theory can be applied in calculating the PID controllers to ful l control requirements, while at the same time it is exible to be applied in non-linear changing conditions of the path following task. For this purpose the Frenet frame kinematic model of the robot is linearised at a varying working point that is calculated as a function of the actual velocity, the path curvature and kinematic parameters of the robot, yielding a transfer function that varies during the trajectory. The proposed controller is formed by a combination of an adaptive PID and a feed-forward controller, which varies accordingly with the working conditions and compensates the non-linearity of the system. The good features and exibility of the proposed control structure have been demonstrated through realistic simulations that include both kinematics and dynamics of the car-like robot. [less ▲]

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See detailSee-and-Avoid Quadcopter using Fuzzy Control Optimized by Cross-Entropy
Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL; Campoy, Pascual; Mellado-Bataller, Ignacio et al

in See-and-Avoid Quadcopter using Fuzzy Control Optimized by Cross-Entropy (2012)

In this work we present an optimized fuzzy visual servoing system for obstacle avoidance using an unmanned aerial vehicle. The cross-entropy theory is used to optimise the gains of our controllers. The ... [more ▼]

In this work we present an optimized fuzzy visual servoing system for obstacle avoidance using an unmanned aerial vehicle. The cross-entropy theory is used to optimise the gains of our controllers. The optimization process was made using the ROS-Gazebo 3D simulation with purposeful extensions developed for our experiments. Visual servoing is achieved through an image processing front-end that uses the Camshift algorithm to detect and track objects in the scene. Experimental flight trials using a small quadrotor were performed to validate the parameters estimated from simulation. The integration of cross-entropy methods is a straightforward way to estimate optimal gains achieving excellent results when tested in real flights. [less ▲]

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See detailRapid Prototyping Framework for Visual Control of Autonomous Micro Aerial Vehicles
Mellado-Bataller, Ignacio; Campoy, Pascual; Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL et al

in Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing (2012), 193

Rapid prototyping environments can speed up the research of visual control algorithms. We have designed and implemented a software framework for fast prototyping of visual control algorithms for Micro ... [more ▼]

Rapid prototyping environments can speed up the research of visual control algorithms. We have designed and implemented a software framework for fast prototyping of visual control algorithms for Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAV). We have applied a combination of a proxy-based network communication architecture and a custom Application Programming Interface. This allows multiple experimental configurations, like drone swarms or distributed processing of a drones video stream. Currently, the framework supports a low-cost MAV: the Parrot AR.Drone. Real tests have been performed on this platform and the results show comparatively low figures of the extra communication delay introduced by the framework, while adding new functionalities and flexibility to the selected drone. This implementation is open-source and can be downloaded from www.vision4uav.com/?q=VC4MAV-FW [less ▲]

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See detailUAS See-and-Avoid using two different approaches of Fuzzy Control
Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL; Mejias, Luis; Campoy, Pascual et al

in 2012 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS'12) (2012)

This work presents two UAS See and Avoid approaches using Fuzzy Control. We compare the performance of each controller when a Cross-Entropy method is applied to optimase the parameters for one of the ... [more ▼]

This work presents two UAS See and Avoid approaches using Fuzzy Control. We compare the performance of each controller when a Cross-Entropy method is applied to optimase the parameters for one of the controllers. Each controller receive information from an image processing frontend that detect and track targets in the environment. Visual information is then used under a visual servoing approach to perform autonomous avoidance. Experimental flight trials using a small quadrotor were performed to validate and compare the behaviour of both controllers. [less ▲]

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