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See detailMechanisms of Micropollutant Elimination in Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands
Brunhoferova, Hana UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

One of the biggest global challenges is the enormous growth of the population. With the growing population rises consequentially production and release of anthropogenic compounds, which then, due to ... [more ▼]

One of the biggest global challenges is the enormous growth of the population. With the growing population rises consequentially production and release of anthropogenic compounds, which then, due to insufficient wastewater treatment system, become pollutants, more precisely micropollutants (MPs). Advanced wastewater technologies presented in this dissertation are solutions applied for targeted elimination of MPs. Ozonation and adsorption on Activated Carbon or their combination belong to the most used advanced wastewater treatment technologies in Europe, however, they are suited for effluents of larger wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, an attempt has been made to test Constructed Wetlands (CWs) as an advanced wastewater treatment technology for small-to-medium sized WWTPs, which are typical for rural areas at the catchment of the river Sûre, the geographical border between Luxembourg and Germany. The efficiency of the CWs for the removal of 27 selected compounds has been tested at different scales (laboratory to pilot) in the Interreg Greater Region project EmiSûre 2017-2021 (Développement de stratégies visant à réduire l'introduction de micropolluants dans les cours d'eau de la zone transfrontalière germanoluxembourgeoise). The results of the project confirmed high ability of CWs to remove MPs from municipal effluents. The quantification of the main mechanisms contributing to the elimination of MPs within the CWs was thus established as the main target of the present PhD research, given the evidence of their high ability in the EmiSûre project. The main mechanisms have been identified as adsorption on the soil of the wetland, phytoremediation by the wetland macrophytes and bioremediation by the wetland microorganisms. The nature of the doctoral thesis is cumulative, the core of the thesis are the following four publications: • Publication [I] describes the usage of CWs as a post-treatment step for municipal effluents. • Publication [II] assesses the role of adsorption of the targeted MPs on the used substrates within the studied CWs and presents characterization of the wetland substrates. • Publication [III] describes the role of the wetland macrophytes in the phytoremediation of the targeted MPs within the studied CWs. Furthermore, it reveals a comparison of the different macrophyte types in varying vegetation stadia. • Publication [IV] outlines the role of the wetland microbes in the bioremediation of the targeted MPs within the studied CWs. Moreover, the wetland microbes known to be able to digest MPs or contribute to the elimination of MPs are identified and quantified. Results suggest adsorption as leading removal mechanism (achieved average removal 18 out of 27 compounds >80%), followed by bioremediation (achieved average removal 18 out of 27 compounds >40%) and phytoremediation (achieved average removal 17 out of 27 compounds <20%). The research described contributes to the extension of knowledge about CWs applied for the elimination of MPs from water. Some of the outcomes (deepened knowledge about soil influencing adsorption, recommendations for adjustment of operational parameters, etc.) could be used as a tool for enhancement of the wetland’s treatment efficiency. The research is concluded by recommendations for further investigations of the individual mechanisms (e.g. application of artificial aeration or circulation of the reaction matrix could result in enhancement of bioremediation). [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of unconventional sand-based substrates for adsorption of micropollutants in nature-based systems
Brunhoferova, Hana UL; Venditti, Silvia UL; Hansen, Joachim UL

in Journal of Environmental Management (2022)

The focus of this study is the characterization of unconventional sand-based substrates used in our previous project EmiSûre, (Interreg Greater Region (German federal states Rhineland-Palatinate and ... [more ▼]

The focus of this study is the characterization of unconventional sand-based substrates used in our previous project EmiSûre, (Interreg Greater Region (German federal states Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, regions Wallonia and Lorraine from Belgium and France, respectively), 2017–2021). The project aimed to develop and test alternative, nature-based technologies for the elimination of micropollutants (MPs) from municipal wastewater. For the characterization, two approaches were chosen. In the first approach, adsorption kinetics with a single compound allowed a perception of the adsorption capacity of the studied substrates compared to conventional substrates (granular activated carbons). This knowledge was completed by the second approach: an implementation of the studied substrates in packed-bed columns, which treated a mixture of 27 MPs in tap water for 10 months. Additionally, all three substrates (bentonite sand, sand with 15% activated biochar and sand with 15% zeolite) were characterized for physical and chemical properties, and the microbial potential of the activated and non-activated biochar was examined. From the studies, it is clear that the sand with an admixture of activated biochar is the most efficient sorbent in terms of single compound adsorption in batch (dye) and adsorption of 27 MPs on packed-bed columns. In contrast to the two other substrates, it shows long-term stable removal efficiencies. In the packed-bed columns, 18 out of 27 compounds were removed on average with high efficiency (80–99%), which is impressive, if we consider the variety of the compounds examined (pharmaceuticals, herbicides, pesticides, etc.) and their removal in conventional treatments. Addi- tionally, adsorption models were created for the experimental data of all compounds adsorbed on the substrate with an admixture of activated biochar resulting in the best fit with the combined Langmuir-Freundlich model. These satisfying results suggest the application of the sand-based substrate with an admixture of activated biochar for further research and possibly upscale installations with the aim to offer and prove a reasonable and efficient alternative for MPs elimination from municipal wastewater. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the impact of micropollutants mitigation measures using vertical flow constructed wetlands for municipal wastewater catchments in the greater region: a reference case for rural areas
Venditti, Silvia UL; Kiesch, Anne; Brunhoferova, Hana UL et al

in Water Science and Technology (2022)

The present research aims at giving an approach to the issue of surface water contamination due to micropollutants in rural areas. The catchment of the Sûre river was selected as a reference case for the ... [more ▼]

The present research aims at giving an approach to the issue of surface water contamination due to micropollutants in rural areas. The catchment of the Sûre river was selected as a reference case for the Greater Region, characterized mainly by settlements with low population density, small water bodies and small- to medium-sized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). For these WWTPs, conventional technical solutions for micropollutants elimination are not suitable; therefore, an adapted mitigation strategy is needed to prevent the impact of micropollutants, especially during the dry season. As a suitable alternative to more intensive technologies, Constructed Wetlands (CW) in Vertical Flow (VF) configuration have been successfully tested over one-year period and the elimination rate of 27 micropollutants was quantified. Emission reduction by VF was then considered in a static mass balance model that calculates the longitudinal concentrations profile for the entire river catchment. The EmiSûre approach which focuses on river quality (concentrations of pollutants) instead of emitted loads, effectively allowed to simulate adopted measures a priori and resulted efficient to support decision-makers with WWTPs upgrade scenarios. [less ▲]

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See detailBioremediation of 27 Micropollutants by Symbiotic Microorganisms of Wetland Macrophytes
Brunhoferova, Hana UL; Venditti, Silvia UL; Laczny, Cedric Christian UL et al

in Sustainability (2022), 14(7), 3944

Background: Micropollutants in bodies of water represent many challenges. We addressedthese challenges by the application of constructed wetlands, which represent advanced treatmenttechnology for the ... [more ▼]

Background: Micropollutants in bodies of water represent many challenges. We addressedthese challenges by the application of constructed wetlands, which represent advanced treatmenttechnology for the removal of micropollutants from water. However, which mechanisms specificallycontribute to the removal efficiency often remains unclear. Methods: Here, we focus on the removalof 27 micropollutants by bioremediation. For this, macrophytesPhragmites australis,Iris pseudacorusandLythrum salicariawere taken from established wetlands, and a special experimental set-up wasdesigned. In order to better understand the impact of the rhizosphere microbiome, we determinedthe microbial composition using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and investigated the role of identifiedgenera in the micropollutant removal of micropollutants. Moreover, we studied the colonizationof macrophyte roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, which are known for their symbiotic rela-tionship with plants. This symbiosis could result in increased removal of present micropollutants.Results: We foundIris pseudacorusto be the most successful bioremediative system, as it removed22 compounds, including persistent ones, with more than 80% efficiency. The most abundant generathat contributed to the removal of micropollutants werePseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Variovorax,Methylotenera, Reyranella, AmaricoccusandHydrogenophaga.Iris pseudacorusexhibited the highest colo-nization rate (56%). Conclusions: Our experiments demonstrate the positive impact of rhizospheremicroorganisms on the removal of micropollutants. [less ▲]

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See detailQUANTIFICATION OF MICROPOLLUTANT REMOVAL MECHANISMS IN VERTICAL-FLOW CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS: OUTCOME OF THE ‘EMISÛRE’ PROJECT
Brunhoferova, Hana UL; Venditti, Silvia UL; Hansen, Joachim UL

in Book of Abstracts - "9th International Symposium on Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control - WETPOL 2021" (2021, September 15)

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See detailRemoval of micropollutants in medium-sized WWTP by vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs): performance under laboratory and real conditions
Brunhoferova, Hana UL; Venditti, Silvia UL; Hansen, Joachim UL

in Removal of micropollutants in medium-sized WWTP by vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs): performance under laboratory and real conditions (2020, February 14)

Micropollutants generated in urban agglomerates are commonly found in aquatic environments where they may present a potential danger. Constructed wetlands (CWs) are an attractive alternative for the ... [more ▼]

Micropollutants generated in urban agglomerates are commonly found in aquatic environments where they may present a potential danger. Constructed wetlands (CWs) are an attractive alternative for the removal of those compounds from the effluent of medium-sized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). To this end, the INTERREG Greater Region-funded project EmiSûre aims to find solutions to mitigate the emission of micropollutants from wastewater facilities. As a part of the project, this study starts with the trial of vertical flow (VF) CWs under lab-scale conditions aiming to select the best substrate. Following steps are designed to optimize the performance of VFCWs in terms of removal of micropollutans under real conditions (i.e. matrix, seasonal changes, temperature) and to derive first approaches for dimensioning. From all the examined substrates, activated biocoal showed the best results in removing macro- and micropollutants and is expected to be the most suitable substrate in long term perspectives. [less ▲]

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See detailROLE OF TARGETED BIOCHAR-ACTIVATION IN THE REMOVAL OF MACRO- AND MICROPOLLUTANTS FROM SECONDARY EFFLUENT WASTEWATER
Brunhoferova, Hana UL; Venditti, Silvia UL; Hansen, Joachim UL

in Book of Abstracts 8th International Symposium On Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control (2019, January 30)

Detailed reference viewed: 64 (9 UL)