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See detailLandscape typology of urban forest ecosystem services
Boura, Marlène Delphine Fabienne UL

Presentation (2019, November 26)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailHow does the relative spatial pattern of green within cities impact carbon uptake? A European scale analysis
Boura, Marlène Delphine Fabienne UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2019, September 06)

Cities constitute the main source of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. Urban areas exhibit a variety of land use profiles and carbon metabolisms. Yet it is important to assess to what extent they can ... [more ▼]

Cities constitute the main source of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. Urban areas exhibit a variety of land use profiles and carbon metabolisms. Yet it is important to assess to what extent they can cope with their own emissions. We address this issue by examining how the internal spatial organization of cities can impact the flow of anthropogenic CO2 between their major sources - human activities - ; and their main storage infrastructures, with a focus here on urban green spaces and forests. Is it better to have a dense core with a peripheric green belt? Large green patches within the core centre? Or small and fragmented green spaces? The objective of the present work is to tests whether the internal spatial organization of urban areas - in terms of green infrastructure characteristics and land use types - matters for evaluating carbon sequestration potentials within urban areas. Or whether they can simply be considered as single objects with a quantity of carbon emissions and a carbon sink capacity derived directly from aggregated land use data. We present a spatially explicit urban carbon flow model. Using land use data, an emission inventory and sequestration potentials from the vegetation we allocate a carbon budget to each spatial unit within the urban systems. Anthropogenic CO2 emissions are accounted from different land use categories using the TNO CAMS dataset. The potential of carbon sequestration by the urban forest is set using estimates from the literature. Urban carbon flows are then simulated for all Functional Urban Areas (FUAs) of European cities using the Urban Atlas 2012 database. Most studies on carbon dioxide uptake into vegetation at city or metropolitan scales estimate carbon stocks or aggregated carbon flows, while spatially explicit urban carbon flow analyses are made on spatially limited areas - i.e. neighbourhood level. Also, the homogenous land use data and emissions inventory at the continental level allows for a comparison of the different urban areas. We then compare the aggregated budget of the areas of study – commonly done in budget approaches from micro to global scale – to the spatially explicit budget. It allows us to estimate the real contribution of the urban forest to the uptake of anthropogenic emissions within the same urban ecosystem. The analysis then investigates the level of efficiency of CO2 uptake for different typology of urban areas for different carbon profiles. The efficiency is defined as the share of local emissions captured within the urban boundaries. In the future, the model will be validated using eddy covariance empirical data. [less ▲]

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See detailLandscape typology of urban forest ecosystem services across European urban areas
Boura, Marlène Delphine Fabienne UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2019, June 28)

Urban areas exhibit a large variety of patterns which may affect the negative externalities of human settlements on ecosystems. Ecosystem Services (ES) can help assessing the urban pressure on the ... [more ▼]

Urban areas exhibit a large variety of patterns which may affect the negative externalities of human settlements on ecosystems. Ecosystem Services (ES) can help assessing the urban pressure on the environment and its impact on the well-being of inhabitants. Compactness or densities have often been associated to potential ES. Yet, the effects of the relative spatial arrangement of vegetation, forests and water bodies, with respect to the urban lands - which are source of anthropogenic CO2 emissions - on potential ES are still not systematically analysed. In this work we propose a typology, for about 800 European urban areas (>50,000 inhabitants) based on the intra-urban structure of cities and the associated ES potentials. The GMES/Copernicus Urban Atlas 2012 database provides a comparable definition of urban area and land use categories, necessary to a systematic cross-European analysis. More particularly, we investigate the share of different land uses and the distance between human settlements, forests and the other vegetated lands as well as their relative spatial distribution within urban settlements. We then use spatial metrics as proxies for urban ES associated with urban forests – e.g., micro climate regulation (air cooling, shade), air pollution removal (canopy), rainwater runoff (impervious lands). The typology is created using an unsupervised machine learning approach (clustering) with standardized spatial metrics as input data. Different urban “forest cultures” across the continent are observable. Urban areas around the Mediterranean sea - facing warmer temperatures - attribute significantly more space to herbaceous lands (10 to 70%), but generally less than 10% for forests. Transport networks and infrastructures are more present along the axe going from central UK, to Italy and on the east coast of Spain (5 to 9%). Similarly, Industrial built up lands are more present along this axe, including west Germany, Romania and the east coast of Spain (5 to 22%). [less ▲]

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See detailModelling how the relative spatial pattern of green within cities impact carbon flows
Boura, Marlène Delphine Fabienne UL

Scientific Conference (2019, March 14)

Cities - particularly the denser ones - are often depicted as sustainable systems that reduce the consumption of land and optimize energy use for buildings and transport. Cities, however - exactly because ... [more ▼]

Cities - particularly the denser ones - are often depicted as sustainable systems that reduce the consumption of land and optimize energy use for buildings and transport. Cities, however - exactly because they concentrate human activities - constitute the main source of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. Yet it is important to assess to what extent they can cope with their own emissions. We address this issue by examining how the internal spatial organization of cities can impact the flow of anthropogenic CO2 between their major sources - human activities, mainly on built-up lands - ; and their main storage infrastructures, with a focus here on urban green spaces and forests. Is it better to have a dense core with a peripheric green belt? Large green patches within the core centre? Or small and fragmented green spaces? The objective of the present work is to tests whether the internal spatial organization of cities - in terms of green infrastructure characteristics and land use types - matters for evaluating carbon sequestration potentials of cities. Or whether these cities can simply be considered as single objects with a quantity of carbon emissions and a carbon sink capacity derived directly from aggregated land use data. We model urban carbon flows for about 800 Functional Urban Areas (FUAs) of European cities using the Urban Atlas 2012 database. The model intends to characterize the emissions, their diffusion and sequestration within the urban regions as well as their exit from the analysed urban systems. The FUAs are classified along landscape metrics in order to derive a typology of urban forms focusing on the relative position of green and human activities and their characteristics. The analysis then investigates how the type of urban form can affect the level of efficiency of CO2 uptake. The efficiency is defined as the share of local emissions captured within the urban boundaries. The model will be validated using eddy covariance empirical data. [less ▲]

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See detailEspaces Verts Urbains et Carbone
Boura, Marlène Delphine Fabienne UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 81 (30 UL)