References of "Block, Jörn"
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See detailReplication studies in top management journals: an empirical investigation of prevalence, types, outcomes, and impact
Block, Jörn; Fisch, Christian UL; Kanwal, Narmeen et al

in Management Review Quarterly (in press)

Replication studies are important for the empirical research process. Yet, while there is an increased awareness of the need for replication in management research, it appears that such studies are rarely ... [more ▼]

Replication studies are important for the empirical research process. Yet, while there is an increased awareness of the need for replication in management research, it appears that such studies are rarely published in leading management journals. Importantly, we lack a comprehensive overview of replication studies in the top management journals that spans all sub-disciplines. Our systematic review closes this gap and provides an overview of the prevalence, types, outcomes, and impact of replication studies in management journals. We find that differences in the prevalence of replications between sub-disciplines exist and that most replications are wide replications. With regard to the replication outcome, our review shows that the share of non-confirming replications is low. Moreover, such replications are cited less often than confirming replications pointing towards a confirmation bias in management research. We discuss the implications of our results for authors, reviewers, and editors of management journals. [less ▲]

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See detailSchumpeterian entrepreneurial digital identity and funding from venture capital firms
Block, Jörn; Fisch, Christian UL; Diegel, Walter

in Journal of Technology Transfer (in press)

Schumpeterian entrepreneurs are considered agents of innovation and technology transfer. However, to fulfill this role, they need entrepreneurial finance. From the perspective of digital identity, we ... [more ▼]

Schumpeterian entrepreneurs are considered agents of innovation and technology transfer. However, to fulfill this role, they need entrepreneurial finance. From the perspective of digital identity, we examine the relationship between a Schumpeterian digital identity and venture capital (VC) funding. Because the VC industry celebrates innovative and visionary entrepreneurship, we posit that a founder’s digital identity as a Schumpeterian-type entrepreneur influences the venture’s chances of receiving VC funding. A quantitative analysis of the language used by 3313 founders in a large sample of Twitter messages, however, provides a mixed picture. While some dimensions of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship have a positive relationship with the acquisition of resources from VC firms (entrepreneurial vision and optimism), other dimensions seem to have no (uncertainty tolerance and rationality) or even a decreasing (achievement motivation) effect. The negative relationships observed can be explained by the particularities of the VC business model, which does not align with Schumpeterian entrepreneurship in all respects. Our study contributes to research on Schumpeterian entrepreneurship, the financing of technology transfer, and the link between entrepreneurial digital identity and entrepreneurial finance. From a practical perspective, the results of our study demonstrate the limits of VC with regard to the financing of technology transfer and highlight the need for public funding through governmental VC or agencies for (disruptive) innovation. [less ▲]

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See detailThe determinants of bootstrap financing in crises: evidence from entrepreneurial ventures in the COVID-19 pandemic
Block, Jörn; Fisch, Christian UL; Hirschmann, Mirko UL

in Small Business Economics (2022), 58(2), 867-885

Bootstrap financing refers to measures that entrepreneurial ventures undertake to preserve liquidity (e.g., reducing expenses, collecting receivables, delaying payments, preselling). Prior research shows ... [more ▼]

Bootstrap financing refers to measures that entrepreneurial ventures undertake to preserve liquidity (e.g., reducing expenses, collecting receivables, delaying payments, preselling). Prior research shows that bootstrap financing is an important enabler for the growth of resource-constrained early-stage ventures. However, little is known about the use of bootstrap financing in crises, during which the preservation of liquidity is particularly salient. We investigate the determinants of bootstrap financing in the 2020 COVID-19 crisis using a sample of 17,046 German entrepreneurial ventures. We formulate hypotheses about the determinants of bootstrap financing from a necessity, human capital, and opportunity cost perspective. Among others, our results show that the severity of the crisis for the venture, the level of private consumption, and self-employment experience are positively associated with an increased use of bootstrap financing measures. Our study contributes to the literature on bootstrap financing and illuminates how entrepreneurial ventures maintain liquidity in crises. [less ▲]

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See detailTrademarks as an indicator of regional innovation: evidence from Japanese prefectures
Block, Jörn; Fisch, Christian UL; Ikeuchi, Kenta et al

in Regional Studies (2022), 22(2), 190-209

Regional science has long been concerned with measuring the spatial distribution of innovation activity. We introduce trademarks as a new indicator for regional innovation and argue that they are ... [more ▼]

Regional science has long been concerned with measuring the spatial distribution of innovation activity. We introduce trademarks as a new indicator for regional innovation and argue that they are particularly useful to measure the ‘soft’ side of innovation that is difficult to capture with conventional indicators. We explore the spatial distribution of trademarks using a detailed and comprehensive dataset of 47 Japanese prefectures from 1999 to 2012. In addition to mapping differences in trademarking across regions, we identify correlates at the regional level that provide insights into determinants of regional innovation measured via trademarks. For example, regional trademark activity positively correlates with population density, income per capita, entrepreneurship rate, the number of universities, and strong private service and finance sectors. Overall, the results reveal associations unique to trademarks that other measures of innovation cannot uncover. Our findings contribute to research in regional science and the evolving literature on trademarks. [less ▲]

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See detailTrademarks and how they relate to the sustainability and economic outcomes of social startups
Hirschmann, Mirko UL; Block, Jörn

in Journal of Cleaner Production (2022)

Prior research shows that trademarks positively relate to startups' growth and survival. However, empirical evidence on the impact of intellectual property rights (IPRs), especially trademarks, on the ... [more ▼]

Prior research shows that trademarks positively relate to startups' growth and survival. However, empirical evidence on the impact of intellectual property rights (IPRs), especially trademarks, on the development of social startups' hybrid outcomes is limited. Our study aims to fill this gap by investigating how early trademarking relates to the sustainability and economic outcomes of social startups. Based on a sample of 485 social startups from Germany, we find that social startups that register a trademark within the first three years of their existence have both significantly higher sustainability and economic outcomes. Additionally, we identify that the geographical scope of a trademark relates differently to social startups' outcomes. Our results contribute to the emerging literature on startups’ role to achieve sustainability outcomes and to IPR research that lacks an understanding of the importance of trademarks for sustainable entrepreneurship. We provide several practical implications for social startups, impact investors, and policy-makers. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of trademark breadth on IPO valuation and post-IPO performance: an empirical investigation of 1,510 European IPOs
Fisch, Christian UL; Meoli, Michele; Vismara, Silvio et al

in Journal of Business Venturing (2022), 37(5), 106237

Trademarks differ in breadth and can cover a wide range of categories of goods and services. We draw on real options theory and argue that greater trademark breadth constitutes a valuable real option that ... [more ▼]

Trademarks differ in breadth and can cover a wide range of categories of goods and services. We draw on real options theory and argue that greater trademark breadth constitutes a valuable real option that is associated with higher firm valuation and performance. We analyze a sample of 1510 firms that went public in Europe between 2002 and 2015 and find a positive effect of trademark breadth on initial public offering (IPO) valuation and post-IPO performance. We implement a contingency analysis to contrast real options and signaling theory and find stronger support for the real options perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailVC investors’ venture screening: the role of the decision maker’s education and experience
Moritz, Alexandra; Diegel, Walter; Block, Jörn et al

in Journal of Business Economics (2022), 92(1), 27-63

We assess whether and how VC investors’ education and experience influence their screening decisions of potential investee candidates. Empirically, we perform an experimental choice-based-conjoint (CBC ... [more ▼]

We assess whether and how VC investors’ education and experience influence their screening decisions of potential investee candidates. Empirically, we perform an experimental choice-based-conjoint (CBC) analysis with 564 individual VC investors. Our results highlight that the level and field of education, as well as the decision maker’s investment and entrepreneurial experience, moderate the relative importance of different screening criteria. More specifically, we find that international scalability seems to become more important for decision makers with higher education and those with entrepreneurial experience. Whereas decision makers with a background in natural science focus on the value-added of the product or service, engineers seem to value a break even profitability and focus less on the management team. Investment experience, on the other hand, leads to a stronger focus on the management team. Our study contributes to the literature investigating the influence of human capital characteristics of the decision maker in venture financing. Practical implications exist for entrepreneurial ventures seeking financing and for risk capital investors making investments in such ventures. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to conduct a meta‑analysis in eight steps: a practical guide
Hansen, Christopher UL; Steinmetz, Holger; Block, Jörn

in Management Review Quarterly (2022), 72(1), 1-19

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See detailEditorial comments for the special issue on digital innovation management
Pinkwart, Andreas; Block, Jörn; Proksch, Dorian et al

in International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management (2021), 18(2), 2002001

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See detailWhich criteria matter when impact investors screen social enterprises?
Block, Jörn; Hirschmann, Mirko UL; Fisch, Christian UL

in Journal of Corporate Finance (2021), 66

Impact investors pursue both financial and social goals and have become an important source of funding for social enterprises. Our study assesses impact investor criteria when screening social enterprises ... [more ▼]

Impact investors pursue both financial and social goals and have become an important source of funding for social enterprises. Our study assesses impact investor criteria when screening social enterprises. Applying an experimental conjoint analysis to a sample of 179 impact investors, we find that the three most important criteria are the authenticity of the founding team, the importance of the societal problem targeted by the venture, and the venture’s financial sustainability. We then compare the importance of these screening criteria across different types of impact investors (i.e., donors, equity investors, and debt investors). We find that donors pay more attention to the importance of the societal problem and less attention to financial sustainability than do equity and debt investors. Additionally, equity investors place a higher value on the largescale implementation of the social project than do debt investors. We contribute to the nascent literature on impact investing by documenting how impact investors make investment decisions and by providing a nuanced view of different investor types active in this novel market. Practical implications exist for both impact investors and social enterprises. [less ▲]

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See detailMotives, Supporting Activities, and Selection Criteria of Social Impact Incubators: An Experimental Conjoint Study
Hirschmann, Mirko UL; Moritz, Alexandra; Block, Jörn

in Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly (2021), 51(5), 1095-1133

Social impact incubators (SIIs) are a new type of incubator that support social enterprises (SEs) in their early business stages to foster and develop their hybrid objectives. However, research on SIIs is ... [more ▼]

Social impact incubators (SIIs) are a new type of incubator that support social enterprises (SEs) in their early business stages to foster and develop their hybrid objectives. However, research on SIIs is still scarce, and little is known about SIIs’ motives, supporting activities, and selection criteria. In investigating 71 SII decision- makers, we find the societal duty motive stated as “most important,” while the financial motive is stated as “least important.” Furthermore, we identify the authenticity of the founding team and the importance of the societal problem addressed as SIIs’ most important selection criteria. However, significant heterogeneity exists within the group of SIIs with regard to their selection criteria. In particular, SIIs with strong innovation and societal duty motives stand out and differ in their SE selection criteria from other SIIs. Our results extend prior research on SIIs and contribute to the discussion on the selection criteria of SE supporters. [less ▲]

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See detailHistorical institutional differences and entrepreneurship: socialist legacy in Vietnam
Fisch, Christian UL; Wyrwich, Michael; Nguyen, Thi Lanh et al

in International Review of Entrepreneurship (2021), 19(4), 499-522

We study the case of Vietnam to assess the long-lasting role of institutional and historical legacy on entrepreneurial outcomes. In particular, we investigate the detrimental effect of socialist ... [more ▼]

We study the case of Vietnam to assess the long-lasting role of institutional and historical legacy on entrepreneurial outcomes. In particular, we investigate the detrimental effect of socialist institutions on entrepreneurship. Vietnam offers a unique quasi-experimental setting because the country was divided into the socialist North and the nonsocialist South for a relatively short period of two decades. After reunification, the South adopted the institutional framework conditions of the North. To assess the relationship between socialist history and entrepreneurship in this unique setting, we survey more than 3,000 North and South Vietnamese individuals more than four decades after the reunification of the country. We find that North Vietnamese respondents have lower entrepreneurship intentions, are less likely to select into entrepreneurship education programs, and are less willing to engage in a business takeover. These patterns indicate the persistence of historical differences in institutional framework conditions on entrepreneurship. We conclude by outlining the implications of a socialist legacy for entrepreneurship theory and policymakers. [less ▲]

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See detailHow does entrepreneurial failure change an entrepreneur’s digital identity? Evidence from Twitter data
Fisch, Christian UL; Block, Jörn

in Journal of Business Venturing (2021), 36(1), 106015

We assess whether and how entrepreneurs' digital identities change in response to entrepreneurial failure based on a sample of 760 entrepreneurs who experienced failure. We analyze a longitudinal dataset ... [more ▼]

We assess whether and how entrepreneurs' digital identities change in response to entrepreneurial failure based on a sample of 760 entrepreneurs who experienced failure. We analyze a longitudinal dataset of Twitter messages before, during, and after a business failure with a language-based method of computerized text analysis. The results of our explorative research indicate that the financial, social, and psychological consequences of failure are reflected in entrepreneurs' Tweets and lead to changes in their digital identities. Among others, entrepreneurs' language decreases in emotional tone and indicates increased psychological distress. Simultaneously, we observe higher levels of self-assurance and reflection after failure. We conclude by outlining the potential of using Twitter-generated digital footprints in future entrepreneurship research. [less ▲]

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See detailMotives and profiles of ICO investors
Fisch, Christian UL; Masiak, Christian; Vismara, Silvio et al

in Journal of Business Research (2021), 125(3), 564-576

Research on initial coin offerings (ICOs) is nascent and assesses ICOs from the perspectives of ventures and regulators. Little is known about the equally important group of investors who provide their ... [more ▼]

Research on initial coin offerings (ICOs) is nascent and assesses ICOs from the perspectives of ventures and regulators. Little is known about the equally important group of investors who provide their capital to ventures in ICOs. Using a primary dataset of 517 ICO investors, we identify and categorize the motivations to invest in ICOs using factor analysis. We find that investors are driven by ideological, technological, and financial motives. Regarding the relative importance of the motives, we find that technological motives are the most important motives to ICO investors, followed by financial and ideological motives. To further profile investors, we conduct a regression analysis to distinguish investors across different motives. For example, we show significant differences across motives with regard to investors' risk perception, sources of information, and demand for strict regulation. The implications of this study for both theory and practice are considerable. [less ▲]

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See detailEight tips and questions for your bibliographic study in business and management research
Block, Jörn; Fisch, Christian UL

in Management Review Quarterly (2020), 70(3), 307-312

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See detailReligion and entrepreneurship: a map of the field and a bibliometric analysis
Block, Jörn; Fisch, Christian UL; Rehan, Farooq

in Management Review Quarterly (2020), 70(4), 591-627

Research concerning religion and entrepreneurship has greatly increased over the last years and is scattered across various academic disciplines and fields. To provide an overview, we conduct a systematic ... [more ▼]

Research concerning religion and entrepreneurship has greatly increased over the last years and is scattered across various academic disciplines and fields. To provide an overview, we conduct a systematic literature search leading to a descriptive overview of the field based on 270 articles published in 163 journals. We identify and characterize the most important publications, journals, and authors in the field and map the analyzed religions and regions. Then, we perform a bibliometric analysis to structure the field and identify thematic clusters and author and journal interconnections and networks. Our study provides a better understanding of the field of religion and entrepreneurship research and, based on these results, outlines avenues for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailIn which regions do governmental, independent, and corporate venture capital firms invest? An empirical investigation across 402 German regions
Masiak, Christian; Fisch, Christian UL; Block, Jörn

in Moritz, Alexandra; Block, Jörn; Golla, Stephan (Eds.) et al Contemporary Developments in Entrepreneurial Finance (2020)

We analyze the distribution of venture capital (VC) investments across German regions and explore the geographical determinants of these investments. So far, little is known about the regional ... [more ▼]

We analyze the distribution of venture capital (VC) investments across German regions and explore the geographical determinants of these investments. So far, little is known about the regional determinants of governmental (GVC), independent (IVC), and corporate (CVC) VC firms and about whether these types of VC firms invest in different regions. Combining a dataset of 402 German districts, our regressions show that regions with a higher supply of human capital and knowledge creators attract a significantly higher number of GVC investments. Moreover, we find a significant difference in economically weaker regions but do not find a metropolitan bias. Hence, GVC firms do not invest more frequently in rural regions per se and do not prevent regional disparities more often than other types of VC firms. The implications of these findings for high-tech firms and regional policy are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Unterstützungslandschaft für Social Entrepreneurship im DACH-Raum – ein Überblick
Block, Jörn; Hirschmann, Mirko UL; Leirich, Lilli et al

in ZfKE: Zeitschrift für KMU und Entrepreneurship (2020), 68(3-4), 219-257

Dieser Beitrag befasst sich mit der Unterstützungslandschaft für Social Entrepreneurship (SE) im DACHRaum und liefert Antworten auf die Fragen, welche Organisationen SE im DACH-Raum fördern, wie und warum ... [more ▼]

Dieser Beitrag befasst sich mit der Unterstützungslandschaft für Social Entrepreneurship (SE) im DACHRaum und liefert Antworten auf die Fragen, welche Organisationen SE im DACH-Raum fördern, wie und warum 4diese Organisationen SE fördern und welche Typen von Sozialunternehmen gefördert werden. Zur Beantwortung dieser Forschungsfragen wurden in einer quantitativ empirischen Datenerhebung Entscheidungsträger aus Organisationen im DACH-Raum befragt, die SE finanziell und nicht-finanziell unterstützen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen sowohl ein starkes Wachstum des SE-Unterstützungsbereichs über die letzten Jahre als auch eine zunehmende Heterogenität der verschiedenen Organisationsarten, Unterstützungsinstrumente und geförderten Sozialunternehmen. Im Gegensatz zu Forschungsergebnissen im verwandten Forschungsfeld der Corporate Social Responsibility, zeigen wir, dass die Unterstützungsmotive „Employer Branding“ und „Reputation“ für Unterstützende von Sozialunternehmen eine nachrangige Rolle spielen. Vielmehr scheinen das Bestreben nach Veränderung und die Förderung der Ausbreitung von SE im DACH-Raum bei Unterstützenden im Vordergrund zu stehen. Wir identifizieren eine Unterstützungslücke insbesondere in der Wachstumsphase von Sozialunternehmen, die mithilfe von politischer und privatwirtschaftlicher Unterstützung geschlossen werden könnte. [less ▲]

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See detailPrivate equity investment criteria: An experimental conjoint analysis of venture capital, business angels, and family offices
Block, Jörn; Fisch, Christian UL; Vismara, Silvio et al

in Journal of Corporate Finance (2019), 58

We use an experimental conjoint analysis to investigate the investment criteria of 749 private equity investors, distinguishing between family offices, business angels, venture capital funds, growth ... [more ▼]

We use an experimental conjoint analysis to investigate the investment criteria of 749 private equity investors, distinguishing between family offices, business angels, venture capital funds, growth equity funds, and leveraged buyout funds. Our results indicate that revenue growth is the most important investment criterion, followed by the value-added of product/service, the management team's track record, and profitability. Regarding differences across investor types, we find that family offices, growth equity funds, and leveraged buyout funds place a higher value on profitability as compared to business angels and venture capital funds. Venture capital funds, in turn, pay more attention to companies' revenue growth, business models, and current investors. With these results, our study contributes to the corporate finance literature by deepening our understanding of how different types of private equity investors make investment decisions. [less ▲]

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See detailEntrepreneurship in Islamic communities: how do Islamic values and Islamic practices influence entrepreneurship intentions?
Rehan, Farooq; Fisch, Christian UL; Block, Jörn

in Journal of Enterprising Communities (2019), 13(5), 557-583

Purpose – Prior research has investigated the development of Islamic communities. The authors contribute to this line of research by analyzing the effects of Islamic values and Islamic religious practices ... [more ▼]

Purpose – Prior research has investigated the development of Islamic communities. The authors contribute to this line of research by analyzing the effects of Islamic values and Islamic religious practices on entrepreneurship intentions in Islamic communities. Using theory of planned behavior as a theoretical lens, they also take into account that the relationship between religion and entrepreneurial intentions can be mediated by individual’s attitude toward entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach – The authors analyze primary data obtained from a sample of 1,895 Pakistani university students. They also use structural equation modeling to perform a nuanced assessment of the relationship between Islamic values and practices and entrepreneurship intentions and to account for mediating effects. Findings – The results show that both Islamic values and Islamic practices positively influence entrepreneurship intentions. Both effects are mediated by the attitude toward entrepreneurship. Originality/value – The authors contribute to prior research on entrepreneurship in Islamic communities by applying a more fine-grained approach to capture the link between religion and entrepreneurship. Further, they contribute to the literature on entrepreneurship intentions by showing that the influence of religion on entrepreneurship intentions is mainly due to religious values and practices, which shape the attitude [less ▲]

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