References of "Biber, Knut"
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See detailSingle-cell transcriptomics reveals distinct inflammation-induced microglia signatures
Sousa, Carole UL; Golebiewska, Anna; Poovathingal, Suresh K et al

in EMBO Reports (2018)

Microglia are specialized parenchymal‐resident phagocytes of the central nervous system (CNS) that actively support, defend and modulate the neural environment. Dysfunctional microglial responses are ... [more ▼]

Microglia are specialized parenchymal‐resident phagocytes of the central nervous system (CNS) that actively support, defend and modulate the neural environment. Dysfunctional microglial responses are thought to worsen CNS diseases; nevertheless, their impact during neuroinflammatory processes remains largely obscure. Here, using a combination of single‐cell RNA sequencing and multicolour flow cytometry, we comprehensively profile microglia in the brain of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐injected mice. By excluding the contribution of other immune CNS‐resident and peripheral cells, we show that microglia isolated from LPS‐injected mice display a global downregulation of their homeostatic signature together with an upregulation of inflammatory genes. Notably, we identify distinct microglial activated profiles under inflammatory conditions, which greatly differ from neurodegenerative disease‐associated profiles. These results provide insights into microglial heterogeneity and establish a resource for the identification of specific phenotypes in CNS disorders, such as neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailCellular and Molecular Characterization of Microglia: A Unique Immune Cell Population.
Sousa, Carole UL; Biber, Knut; Michelucci, Alessandro UL

in Frontiers in immunology (2017), 8

Microglia are essential for the development and function of the adult brain. Microglia arise from erythro-myeloid precursors in the yolk sac and populate the brain rudiment early during development ... [more ▼]

Microglia are essential for the development and function of the adult brain. Microglia arise from erythro-myeloid precursors in the yolk sac and populate the brain rudiment early during development. Unlike monocytes that are constantly renewed from bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells throughout life, resident microglia in the healthy brain persist during adulthood via constant self-renewal. Their ontogeny, together with the absence of turnover from the periphery and the singular environment of the central nervous system, make microglia a unique cell population. Supporting this notion, recent genome-wide transcriptional studies revealed specific gene expression profiles clearly distinct from other brain and peripheral immune cells. Here, we highlight the breakthrough studies that, over the last decades, helped elucidate microglial cell identity, ontogeny, and function. We describe the main techniques that have been used for this task and outline the crucial milestones that have been achieved to reach our actual knowledge of microglia. Furthermore, we give an overview of the "microgliome" that is currently emerging thanks to the constant progress in the modern profiling techniques. [less ▲]

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