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See detailMechanisms of neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease: keep neurons in the PINK1
Brunelli, Francesco UL; Valente, Enza Maria; Arena, Giuseppe UL

in Mechanisms of Ageing and Development (2020)

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See detailThe Emerging Role of RHOT1/Miro1 in the Pathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease.
Grossmann, Dajana; Berenguer-Escuder, Clara; Chemla, Axel UL et al

in Frontiers in neurology (2020), 11

The expected increase in prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) as the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder over the next years underscores the need for a better understanding of the underlying ... [more ▼]

The expected increase in prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) as the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder over the next years underscores the need for a better understanding of the underlying molecular pathogenesis. Here, first insights provided by genetics over the last two decades, such as dysfunction of molecular and organellar quality control, are described. The mechanisms involved relate to impaired intracellular calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial dynamics, which are tightly linked to the cross talk between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria. A number of proteins related to monogenic forms of PD have been mapped to these pathways, i.e., PINK1, Parkin, LRRK2, and α-synuclein. Recently, Miro1 was identified as an important player, as several studies linked Miro1 to mitochondrial quality control by PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy and mitochondrial transport. Moreover, Miro1 is an important regulator of mitochondria-ER contact sites (MERCs), where it acts as a sensor for cytosolic calcium levels. The involvement of Miro1 in the pathogenesis of PD was recently confirmed by genetic evidence based on the first PD patients with heterozygous mutations in RHOT1/Miro1. Patient-based cellular models from RHOT1/Miro1 mutation carriers showed impaired calcium homeostasis, structural alterations of MERCs, and increased mitochondrial clearance. To account for the emerging role of Miro1, we present a comprehensive overview focusing on the role of this protein in PD-related neurodegeneration and highlighting new developments in our understanding of Miro1, which provide new avenues for neuroprotective therapies for PD patients. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman Dopaminergic Neurons Lacking PINK1 Exhibit Disrupted Dopamine Metabolism Related to Vitamin B6 Co-Factors.
Bus, Christine; Zizmare, Laimdota; Feldkaemper, Marita et al

in iScience (2020), 23(12), 101797

PINK1 loss-of-function mutations cause early onset Parkinson disease. PINK1-Parkin mediated mitophagy has been well studied, but the relevance of the endogenous process in the brain is debated. Here, the ... [more ▼]

PINK1 loss-of-function mutations cause early onset Parkinson disease. PINK1-Parkin mediated mitophagy has been well studied, but the relevance of the endogenous process in the brain is debated. Here, the absence of PINK1 in human dopaminergic neurons inhibits ionophore-induced mitophagy and reduces mitochondrial membrane potential. Compensatory, mitochondrial renewal maintains mitochondrial morphology and protects the respiratory chain. This is paralleled by metabolic changes, including inhibition of the TCA cycle enzyme mAconitase, accumulation of NAD(+), and metabolite depletion. Loss of PINK1 disrupts dopamine metabolism by critically affecting its synthesis and uptake. The mechanism involves steering of key amino acids toward energy production rather than neurotransmitter metabolism and involves cofactors related to the vitamin B6 salvage pathway identified using unbiased multi-omics approaches. We propose that reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential that cannot be controlled by PINK1 signaling initiates metabolic compensation that has neurometabolic consequences relevant to Parkinson disease. [less ▲]

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See detailImpaired Mitochondrial-Endoplasmic Reticulum Interaction and Mitophagy in Miro1-Mutant Neurons in Parkinson’s Disease
Berenguer-Escuder, Clara; Grossmann, Dajana; Antony, Paul UL et al

in Human Molecular Genetics (2020)

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