References of "Arauzo-Bravo, Marcos J."
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See detailDirect reprogramming of fibroblasts into neural stem cells by defined factors.
Han, Dong Wook; Tapia, Natalia; Hermann, Andreas et al

in Cell Stem Cell (2012), 10(4), 465-72

Recent studies have shown that defined sets of transcription factors can directly reprogram differentiated somatic cells to a different differentiated cell type without passing through a pluripotent state ... [more ▼]

Recent studies have shown that defined sets of transcription factors can directly reprogram differentiated somatic cells to a different differentiated cell type without passing through a pluripotent state, but the restricted proliferative and lineage potential of the resulting cells limits the scope of their potential applications. Here we show that a combination of transcription factors (Brn4/Pou3f4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, plus E47/Tcf3) induces mouse fibroblasts to directly acquire a neural stem cell identity-which we term as induced neural stem cells (iNSCs). Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into iNSCs is a gradual process in which the donor transcriptional program is silenced over time. iNSCs exhibit cell morphology, gene expression, epigenetic features, differentiation potential, and self-renewing capacity, as well as in vitro and in vivo functionality similar to those of wild-type NSCs. We conclude that differentiated cells can be reprogrammed directly into specific somatic stem cell types by defined sets of specific transcription factors. [less ▲]

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See detailModular architecture of protein structures and allosteric communications: potential implications for signaling proteins and regulatory linkages.
del Sol Mesa, Antonio UL; Arauzo-Bravo, Marcos J.; Amoros, Dolors et al

in Genome biology (2007), 8(5), 92

BACKGROUND: Allosteric communications are vital for cellular signaling. Here we explore a relationship between protein architectural organization and shortcuts in signaling pathways. RESULTS: We show that ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Allosteric communications are vital for cellular signaling. Here we explore a relationship between protein architectural organization and shortcuts in signaling pathways. RESULTS: We show that protein domains consist of modules interconnected by residues that mediate signaling through the shortest pathways. These mediating residues tend to be located at the inter-modular boundaries, which are more rigid and display a larger number of long-range interactions than intra-modular regions. The inter-modular boundaries contain most of the residues centrally conserved in the protein fold, which may be crucial for information transfer between amino acids. Our approach to modular decomposition relies on a representation of protein structures as residue-interacting networks, and removal of the most central residue contacts, which are assumed to be crucial for allosteric communications. The modular decomposition of 100 multi-domain protein structures indicates that modules constitute the building blocks of domains. The analysis of 13 allosteric proteins revealed that modules characterize experimentally identified functional regions. Based on the study of an additional functionally annotated dataset of 115 proteins, we propose that high-modularity modules include functional sites and are the basic functional units. We provide examples (the Galphas subunit and P450 cytochromes) to illustrate that the modular architecture of active sites is linked to their functional specialization. CONCLUSION: Our method decomposes protein structures into modules, allowing the study of signal transmission between functional sites. A modular configuration might be advantageous: it allows signaling proteins to expand their regulatory linkages and may elicit a broader range of control mechanisms either via modular combinations or through modulation of inter-modular linkages. [less ▲]

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