References of "Andreux, Penelope A."
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See detailUrolithin A induces mitophagy and prolongs lifespan in C. elegans and increases muscle function in rodents.
Ryu, Dongryeol; Mouchiroud, Laurent; Andreux, Penelope A. et al

in Nature medicine (2016), 22(8), 879-88

The biological effects of urolithins remain poorly characterized, despite wide-spread human exposure via the dietary consumption of their metabolic precursors, the ellagitannins, which are found in the ... [more ▼]

The biological effects of urolithins remain poorly characterized, despite wide-spread human exposure via the dietary consumption of their metabolic precursors, the ellagitannins, which are found in the pomegranate fruit, as well as in nuts and berries. We identified urolithin A (UA) as a first-in-class natural compound that induces mitophagy both in vitro and in vivo following oral consumption. In C. elegans, UA prevented the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria with age and extended lifespan. Likewise, UA prolonged normal activity during aging in C. elegans, including mobility and pharyngeal pumping, while maintaining mitochondrial respiratory capacity. These effects translated to rodents, where UA improved exercise capacity in two different mouse models of age-related decline of muscle function, as well as in young rats. Our findings highlight the health benefits of urolithin A and its potential application in strategies to improve mitochondrial and muscle function. [less ▲]

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See detailAn evolutionarily conserved role for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the regulation of movement.
Williams, Evan UL; Mouchiroud, Laurent; Frochaux, Michael et al

in PLoS genetics (2014), 10(9), 1004673

The BXD genetic reference population is a recombinant inbred panel descended from crosses between the C57BL/6 (B6) and DBA/2 (D2) strains of mice, which segregate for about 5 million sequence variants ... [more ▼]

The BXD genetic reference population is a recombinant inbred panel descended from crosses between the C57BL/6 (B6) and DBA/2 (D2) strains of mice, which segregate for about 5 million sequence variants. Recently, some of these variants have been established with effects on general metabolic phenotypes such as glucose response and bone strength. Here we phenotype 43 BXD strains and observe they have large variation (-5-fold) in their spontaneous activity during waking hours. QTL analyses indicate that -40% of this variance is attributable to a narrow locus containing the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor with well-established roles in development and xenobiotic metabolism. Strains with the D2 allele of Ahr have reduced gene expression compared to those with the B6 allele, and have significantly higher spontaneous activity. This effect was also observed in B6 mice with a congenic D2 Ahr interval, and in B6 mice with a humanized AHR allele which, like the D2 allele, is expressed much less and has less enzymatic activity than the B6 allele. Ahr is highly conserved in invertebrates, and strikingly inhibition of its orthologs in D. melanogaster and C. elegans (spineless and ahr-1) leads to marked increases in basal activity. In mammals, Ahr has numerous ligands, but most are either non-selective (e.g. resveratrol) or highly toxic (e.g., 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)). Thus, we chose to examine a major environmental influence--long term feeding with high fat diet (HFD)--to see if the effects of Ahr are dependent on major metabolic differences. Interestingly, while HFD robustly halved movement across all strains, the QTL position and effects of Ahr remained unchanged, indicating that the effects are independent. The highly consistent effects of Ahr on movement indicate that changes in its constitutive activity have a role on spontaneous movement and may influence human behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailSystems genetics of metabolism: the use of the BXD murine reference panel for multiscalar integration of traits.
Andreux, Penelope A.; Williams, Evan UL; Koutnikova, Hana et al

in Cell (2012), 150(6), 1287-99

Metabolic homeostasis is achieved by complex molecular and cellular networks that differ significantly among individuals and are difficult to model with genetically engineered lines of mice optimized to ... [more ▼]

Metabolic homeostasis is achieved by complex molecular and cellular networks that differ significantly among individuals and are difficult to model with genetically engineered lines of mice optimized to study single gene function. Here, we systematically acquired metabolic phenotypes by using the EUMODIC EMPReSS protocols across a large panel of isogenic but diverse strains of mice (BXD type) to study the genetic control of metabolism. We generated and analyzed 140 classical phenotypes and deposited these in an open-access web service for systems genetics (www.genenetwork.org). Heritability, influence of sex, and genetic modifiers of traits were examined singly and jointly by using quantitative-trait locus (QTL) and expression QTL-mapping methods. Traits and networks were linked to loci encompassing both known variants and novel candidate genes, including alkaline phosphatase (ALPL), here linked to hypophosphatasia. The assembled and curated phenotypes provide key resources and exemplars that can be used to dissect complex metabolic traits and disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailMurine gut microbiota is defined by host genetics and modulates variation of metabolic traits.
McKnite, Autumn M.; Perez-Munoz, Maria Elisa; Lu, Lu et al

in PloS one (2012), 7(6), 39191

The gastrointestinal tract harbors a complex and diverse microbiota that has an important role in host metabolism. Microbial diversity is influenced by a combination of environmental and host genetic ... [more ▼]

The gastrointestinal tract harbors a complex and diverse microbiota that has an important role in host metabolism. Microbial diversity is influenced by a combination of environmental and host genetic factors and is associated with several polygenic diseases. In this study we combined next-generation sequencing, genetic mapping, and a set of physiological traits of the BXD mouse population to explore genetic factors that explain differences in gut microbiota and its impact on metabolic traits. Molecular profiling of the gut microbiota revealed important quantitative differences in microbial composition among BXD strains. These differences in gut microbial composition are influenced by host-genetics, which is complex and involves many loci. Linkage analysis defined Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) restricted to a particular taxon, branch or that influenced the variation of taxa across phyla. Gene expression within the gastrointestinal tract and sequence analysis of the parental genomes in the QTL regions uncovered candidate genes with potential to alter gut immunological profiles and impact the balance between gut microbial communities. A QTL region on Chr 4 that overlaps several interferon genes modulates the population of Bacteroides, and potentially Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes-the predominant BXD gut phyla. Irak4, a signaling molecule in the Toll-like receptor pathways is a candidate for the QTL on Chr15 that modulates Rikenellaceae, whereas Tgfb3, a cytokine modulating the barrier function of the intestine and tolerance to commensal bacteria, overlaps a QTL on Chr 12 that influence Prevotellaceae. Relationships between gut microflora, morphological and metabolic traits were uncovered, some potentially a result of common genetic sources of variation. [less ▲]

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