References of "Andres, Michael"
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See detailSpatial biases in mental arithmetic are independent of reading/writing habits: Evidence from French and Arabic speakers.
Masson, Nicolas UL; Andres, Michael; Alsamour, Marie et al

in Cognition (2020), 200

The representation of numbers in human adults is linked to space. In Western cultures, small and large numbers are associated respectively with the left and right sides of space. An influential framework ... [more ▼]

The representation of numbers in human adults is linked to space. In Western cultures, small and large numbers are associated respectively with the left and right sides of space. An influential framework attributes the emergence of these spatial-numerical associations (SNAs) to cultural factors such as the direction of reading and writing, because SNAs were found to be reduced or inverted in right-to-left readers/writers (e.g., Arabic, Farsi, or Hebrew speakers). However, recent cross-cultural and animal studies cast doubt on the determining role of reading and writing directions on SNAs. In this study, we assessed this role in mental arithmetic, which requires explicit number manipulations and has revealed robust leftward or rightward biases in Western participants. We used a temporal order judgement task in French and Arabic speakers, two languages that have opposite reading/writing directions. Participants had to solve subtraction and addition problems presented auditorily while at the same time determining which of a left or right visual target appeared first on a screen. The results showed that the right target was favoured more often when solving additions than when solving subtractions both in the French- (n = 31) and Arabic-speaking (n = 25) groups. This was true even in Arabic-speaking participants whose preference for ordering of various series of numerical and non-numerical stimuli went from right to left (n = 10). These results indicate that SNAs in mental arithmetic cannot be explained by the direction of reading/writing habits and call for a reconsideration of current models to acknowledge the pervasive role of biological factors in SNAs in adults. [less ▲]

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See detailExogenous covert shift of attention without the ability to plan eye movements.
Masson, Nicolas UL; Andres, Michael; Pereira, Sarah Carneiro et al

in Current Biology (2020), 30(18), 1032-1033

The automatic allocation of attention to a salient stimulus in the visual periphery (e.g., a traffic light turning red) while maintaining fixation elsewhere (e.g., on the car ahead) is referred to as ... [more ▼]

The automatic allocation of attention to a salient stimulus in the visual periphery (e.g., a traffic light turning red) while maintaining fixation elsewhere (e.g., on the car ahead) is referred to as exogenous covert shift of attention (ECSA). An influential explanation is that ECSA results from the programming of a saccadic eye movement toward the stimulus of interest [1,2], although the actual movement may be withheld if needed. In this paper, however, we report evidence of ECSA in the paralyzed axis of three individuals with either horizontal or vertical congenital gaze paralysis, including for stimuli appearing at locations that cannot be foveated through head movements. This demonstrates that ECSA does not require programming either eye or head movements and calls for a re-examination of the oculomotor account. [less ▲]

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See detailTranscranial electric stimulation optimizes the balance of visual attention across space.
Andres, Michael; Masson, Nicolas UL; Larigaldie, Nathanael et al

in Clinical Neurophysiology (2020), 131(4), 912-920

OBJECTIVE: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) provides a way to modulate spatial attention by enhancing the ratio of neural activity between the left and right hemispheres, with a potential ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) provides a way to modulate spatial attention by enhancing the ratio of neural activity between the left and right hemispheres, with a potential benefit for the rehabilitation of visual neglect. METHODS: We tested the effect of bilateral tDCS in healthy individuals performing a visual detection task. This protocol consists in the positioning of the anode and cathode on mirror positions over the left and right parietal areas. The stimulation was repeated over three days to maximize the chance to observe a bias to the hemispace controlateral to the anode. RESULTS: Compared to a sham treatment, left anodal - right cathodal stimulation enhanced attention across the full range of space, since the first day with no build-up effect on the next days, and modified the balance of left-right omissions when stimuli appeared at the same time. CONCLUSION: Bilateral tDCS improved detection in both visual fields, with no privileged processing of one side, except when concurrent stimuli were presented. The results provide partial support to the hemispheric rivalry hypothesis. SIGNIFICANCE: The technique has the potential to boost attention in neglect patients but should be used as an adjuvant rather than as an alternative to functional rehabilitation. [less ▲]

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See detailSemantic associations between arithmetic and space: Evidence from temporal order judgements.
Andres, Michael; Salvaggio, Samuel; Lefèvre, Nathalie et al

in Memory and Cognition (2020), 48(3), 361-369

Spatial biases associated with subtraction or addition problem solving are generally considered as reflecting leftward or rightward attention shifts along a mental numerical continuum, but an alternative ... [more ▼]

Spatial biases associated with subtraction or addition problem solving are generally considered as reflecting leftward or rightward attention shifts along a mental numerical continuum, but an alternative hypothesis not implying spatial attention proposes that the operator (plus or minus sign) may favour a response to one side of space (left or right) because of semantic associations. We tested these two accounts in a series of temporal order judgement experiments that consisted in the auditory presentation of addition or subtraction problems followed 200 ms (Experiments 1-2) or 800 ms (Experiment 3) later by the display of two lateralized targets in close temporal succession. To dissociate the side where the operation first brought their attention from the side they had to respond to, we asked participants to report which of the left or right target appeared first or last on screen. Under the attention-orienting account, addition should elicit more rightward responses than subtraction when participants have to focus on the first target, but more leftward responses when they have to focus on the last target, because the latter is opposite to the side where the operation first brought their attention. Under the semantic account, addition should elicit more rightward responses than subtraction, no matter the focus is on the first or last target, because participants should systematically favour the side conceptually linked to the operator. The results of the three experiments converge to indicate that, in lateralized target detection tasks, the spatial biases induced by arithmetic operations stem from semantic associations. [less ▲]

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See detailLet us redeploy attention to sensorimotor experience
Michaux, Nicholas; Pesenti, Mauro; Badets, Arnaud et al

in Behavioral and Brain Sciences (2010), 33(4), 283

With his massive redeployment hypothesis (MRH), Anderson claims that novel cognitive functions are likely to rely on pre-existing circuits already possessing suitable resources. Here, we put forward ... [more ▼]

With his massive redeployment hypothesis (MRH), Anderson claims that novel cognitive functions are likely to rely on pre-existing circuits already possessing suitable resources. Here, we put forward recent findings from studies in numerical cognition in order to show that the role of sensorimotor experience in the ontogenetical development of a new function has been largely underestimated in Anderson’s proposal. [less ▲]

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See detailFinger counting: The missing tool?
Andres, Michael; Di Luca, Samuel UL; Pesenti, Mauro

in Behavioral and Brain Sciences (2008), 31

Rips et al. claim that the principles underlying the structure of natural numbers cannot be inferred from interactions with the physical world. However, they failed to consider an important source of ... [more ▼]

Rips et al. claim that the principles underlying the structure of natural numbers cannot be inferred from interactions with the physical world. However, they failed to consider an important source of interaction: finger counting. Here, we show that finger counting satisfies all the conditions required for allowing the concept of numbers to emerge from sensorimotor experience through a bottom-up process. [less ▲]

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See detailNumber magnitude potentiates action judgements
Badets, Arnaud; Andres, Michael; Di Luca, Samuel UL et al

in Experimental Brain Research (2007), 180(3), 525-34

Motor actions can be simulated and generated through the perception of objects and their characteristics. Such functional characteristics of objects with given action capabilities are called affordances ... [more ▼]

Motor actions can be simulated and generated through the perception of objects and their characteristics. Such functional characteristics of objects with given action capabilities are called affordances. Here we report an interaction between the perception of affordances and the processing of numerical magnitude, and we show that the numerical information calibrates the judgement of action even when no actual action is required. In Experiment 1, participants had to judge whether they would be able to grasp a rod lengthways between their thumb and index finger. The presentation of the rod was preceded by a number or a non-numerical symbol. When a small number preceded the rod, participants overestimated their grasp; conversely, when a large number preceded the rods, they underestimated their grasp. In Experiment 2, participants were requested to judge if two successive rods had the same length, a judgement that did not involve any grasping. The numerical primes had no effect on this judgement, showing that the magnitude/affordance interaction was not due to a simple perceptual effect. Finally, Experiment 3 showed that the interaction was not present with a non-numerical ordered sequence, thereby eliminating sequence order as a potentially confounding variable. [less ▲]

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