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See detailLaser Welding of Metals to Polymers Under the Special Influence of Surface Pretreatment on Interfacial Thermal Transfer
Alsayyad, Adham Ayman Amin UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

Joining of metals to polymers is increasing among various industries because of its ability to produce lightweight hybrid products with tailored properties. Common joining methods, such as adhesive ... [more ▼]

Joining of metals to polymers is increasing among various industries because of its ability to produce lightweight hybrid products with tailored properties. Common joining methods, such as adhesive bonding and mechanical fastening, require adding a third material which might involve hazardous chemicals or add extra weight and stress concentration points to the component. On the other hand, Laser-Assisted Metal – Polymer joining (LAMP) is a contactless, rapid, highly precise and energy-efficient technique, that produces autogenous and miniaturized joints. It was already demonstrated that surface pretreatment prior to the welding process has a significant impact on the joint performance by modifying surface chemistry and topography, promoting chemical bonding and mechanical interlocking. This research aims at expanding the understanding of the effects of surface properties on the joint’s performance by investigating their influence on interfacial thermal transfer. While increased surface roughness of metallic partner is expected to improve LAMP joint performance by promoting mechanical interlocking, it is hypothesized that a smoother surface would improve the joint quality by enhancing the interfacial thermal transfer during the welding process, resulting in a larger area of molten polymer at the interface and a better joint performance. In this research, aluminum (Al1050) and titanium (Ti64) were joined with polyamide (PA6.6). Initially, laser welding parameters were optimized and kept constant during all surface pretreatments’ investigations. Preliminary surface pretreatments, using short-pulsed laser ablation and atmospheric plasma pretreatment, were conducted on Al1050 – PA6.6 to analyze the effects of surface composition and topography on joint quality and performance, and to optimize interfacial adhesion. Results show a correlation between increased surface oxidation and surface energy with improved interfacial adhesion and joint resistance to shear failure. Compared to plasma pretreated surfaces, laser ablation of metals results in a very rough surface which exhibits perfect wettability to both water and diiodomethane. This promotes mechanical interlocking and interfacial adhesion, resulting in a relatively stronger joint failing in a cohesive failure mode. Results confirm that an improvement of the assembly’s shear resistance to failure can certainly be achieved without an increase in surface roughness and interfacial interlocking, as observed in case of plasma pretreatment. Design of Experiments (DoE) techniques were utilized for both material combinations in order to optimize laser ablation process and to investigate the effects of pretreatment parameters on surface properties, interfacial thermal transfer, joint quality and resistance to failure. Laser ablation parameters influenced the surface topography with no significant effect on the surface composition, and all laser-ablated surfaces showed perfect wettability to both water and diiodomethane. While all ablated surfaces demonstrate cohesive failure mode, smoother ablated surfaces results in a better interfacial thermal transfer as indicated by the Thermal Contact Resistance (TCR) calculations and measurements, based on Cooper–Mikic–Yovanovich (CMY) model and layered Laser Flash Analysis (LFA) investigations, respectively. Results show that a smoother ablated surface results in better interfacial thermal transfer, melting a larger area of polymer which increases the joint quality and resistance to shear load. [less ▲]

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See detailHighlighting chemical bonding between nylon-6.6 and the native oxide from an aluminum sheet assembled by laser welding
Hirchenhahn,, Pierre; Alsayyad, Adham Ayman Amin UL; Bardon, Julien et al

in ACS Applied Polymer Materials (2020)

Polymer/metal hybrid assemblies are well suited for automotive and biomedical applications because of their ability to create lightweight structures with a wide range of design possibilities. Laser ... [more ▼]

Polymer/metal hybrid assemblies are well suited for automotive and biomedical applications because of their ability to create lightweight structures with a wide range of design possibilities. Laser welding is a promising technique for joining dissimilar materials thanks to its quickness, freedom of design and absence of adhesives. Still, the fundamental causes of adhesion in hybrid laser welding remain not well understood. Therefore the present work aims at highlighting a chemical bonding between a polymer, nylon-6.6 and a metal, aluminum. To access the interface information, the samples were first broken, leaving a residue on the surface, which was dissolved afterwards. The chemical reactive sites of nylon molecule able to react with aluminum surface were suggested and the feasibility of these reactions was analyzed in the light of the results obtained by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Time of flight secondary electron microscopy (ToF-SIMS). [less ▲]

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See detailLaser joining of titanium alloy to polyamide: influence of process parameters on the joint strength and quality
Alsayyad, Adham Ayman Amin UL; Lama, Prashant; Bardon, Julien et al

in International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology (2020)

Laser-assisted metal–polymer joining (LAMP) is a novel assembly process for the development ofminiaturized joints in hybrid lightweight products. This work adopts a design of experiments (DoE) approach to ... [more ▼]

Laser-assisted metal–polymer joining (LAMP) is a novel assembly process for the development ofminiaturized joints in hybrid lightweight products. This work adopts a design of experiments (DoE) approach to investigate the influence of several laser welding parameters on the strength and quality of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)–polyamide (PA6.6) assembly. Significant param- eters were highlighted using the Plackett Burmann design, and process window was outlined using the Response Surface Method (RSM). A statistically reliable mathematical model was generated to describe the relation between highlighted welding param- eters and joint strength. The analysis ofvariance (ANOVA) method was implemented to identify significant parametric interac- tions. Results show the prominence offocal position and laser power, as well as significant interaction between laser power and beam speed, on the joint strength. The evolution ofweld defects (bubbles, excessive penetration, flashing, titaniumcoloring, weld pool cavities, and welding-induced deflection) along the process windowwas investigated using optical microscopy. The resulted deflection in titaniumwas quantified, and its relationship with welding parameters was mathematically modeled. Robust process window was outlined to maintain insignificant deflection in the welded joints. Results showed that the growth ofweld defects correlates with a decline in joint strength. Optimal parameters demonstrated a defect-free joint, maximizing joint strength. [less ▲]

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