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See detailNeurodegeneration and Neuroinflammation in Parkinson’s Disease: a Self-Sustained Loop
Arena, Giuseppe UL; Sharma, K.; Agyeah, Gideon UL et al

in Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports (2022), 22(8), 427440

Purpose of Review: Neuroinflammation plays a significant role in Parkinson’s disease (PD) etiology along with mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired proteostasis. In this context, mechanisms related to ... [more ▼]

Purpose of Review: Neuroinflammation plays a significant role in Parkinson’s disease (PD) etiology along with mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired proteostasis. In this context, mechanisms related to immune response can act as modifiers at different steps of the neurodegenerative process and justify the growing interest in anti-inflammatory agents as potential disease-modifying treatments in PD. The discovery of inherited gene mutations in PD has allowed researchers to develop cellular and animal models to study the mechanisms of the underlying biology, but the original cause of neuroinflammation in PD is still debated to date. Recent Findings: Cell autonomous alterations in neuronal cells, including mitochondrial damage and protein aggregation, could play a role, but recent findings also highlighted the importance of intercellular communication at both local and systemic level. This has given rise to debate about the role of non-neuronal cells in PD and reignited intense research into the gut-brain axis and other non-neuronal interactions in the development of the disease. Whatever the original trigger of neuroinflammation in PD, what appears quite clear is that the aberrant activation of glial cells and other components of the immune system creates a vicious circle in which neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation nourish each other. Summary: In this review, we will provide an up-to-date summary of the main cellular alterations underlying neuroinflammation in PD, including those induced by environmental factors (e.g. the gut microbiome) and those related to the genetic background of affected patients. Starting from the lesson provided by familial forms of PD, we will discuss pathophysiological mechanisms linked to inflammation that could also play a role in idiopathic forms. Finally, we will comment on the potential clinical translatability of immunobiomarkers identified in PD patient cohorts and provide an update on current therapeutic strategies aimed at overcoming or preventing inflammation in PD. © 2022, The Author(s). [less ▲]

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See detailParkin Deficiency Impairs Mitochondrial DNA Dynamics and Propagates Inflammation.
Wasner, Kobi; Smajic, Semra UL; Ghelfi, Jenny UL et al

in Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society (2022)

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin cause autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). Together with PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), parkin regulates the clearance of dysfunctional ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin cause autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). Together with PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), parkin regulates the clearance of dysfunctional mitochondria. New mitochondria are generated through an interplay of nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded proteins, and recent studies suggest that parkin influences this process at both levels. In addition, parkin was shown to prevent mitochondrial membrane permeability, impeding mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) escape and subsequent neuroinflammation. However, parkin's regulatory roles independent of mitophagy are not well described in patient-derived neurons. OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate parkin's role in preventing neuronal mtDNA dyshomeostasis, release, and glial activation at the endogenous level. METHODS: We generated induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived midbrain neurons from PD patients with parkin (PRKN) mutations and healthy controls. Live-cell imaging, proteomic, mtDNA integrity, and gene expression analyses were employed to investigate mitochondrial biogenesis and genome maintenance. To assess neuroinflammation, we performed single-nuclei RNA sequencing in postmortem tissue and quantified interleukin expression in mtDNA/lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-treated iPSC-derived neuron-microglia co-cultures. RESULTS: Neurons from patients with PRKN mutations revealed deficits in the mitochondrial biogenesis pathway, resulting in mtDNA dyshomeostasis. Moreover, the energy sensor sirtuin 1, which controls mitochondrial biogenesis and clearance, was downregulated in parkin-deficient cells. Linking mtDNA disintegration to neuroinflammation, in postmortem midbrain with PRKN mutations, we confirmed mtDNA dyshomeostasis and detected an upregulation of microglia overexpressing proinflammatory cytokines. Finally, parkin-deficient neuron-microglia co-cultures elicited an enhanced immune response when exposed to mtDNA/LPS. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that parkin coregulates mitophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis, and mtDNA maintenance pathways, thereby protecting midbrain neurons from neuroinflammation and degeneration. © 2022 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. [less ▲]

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