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See detailTumor necrosis factor alpha induces gamma-glutamyltransferase expression via nuclear factor-kappaB in cooperation with Sp1
Reuter, Simone; Schnekenburger, Michael; Cristofanon, Silvia et al

in Biochemical Pharmacology (2009), 77(3), 397-411

Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) cleaves the gamma-glutamyl moiety of glutathione (GSH), an endogenous antioxidant, and is involved in mercapturic acid metabolism and in cancer drug resistance when ... [more ▼]

Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) cleaves the gamma-glutamyl moiety of glutathione (GSH), an endogenous antioxidant, and is involved in mercapturic acid metabolism and in cancer drug resistance when overexpressed. Moreover, GGT converts leukotriene (LT) C4 into LTD4 implicated in various inflammatory pathologies. So far the effect of inflammatory stimuli on regulation of GGT expression and activity remained to be addressed. We found that the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) induced GGT promoter transactivation, mRNA and protein synthesis, as well as enzymatic activity. Remicade, a clinically used anti-TNFalpha antibody, small interfering RNA (siRNA) against p50 and p65 nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) isoforms, curcumin, a well characterized natural NF-kappaB inhibitor, as well as a dominant negative inhibitor of kappaB alpha (IkappaBalpha), prevented GGT activation at various levels, illustrating the involvement of this signaling pathway in TNFalpha-induced stimulation. Over-expression of receptor of TNFalpha-1 (TNFR1), TNFR-associated factor-2 (TRAF2), TNFR-1 associated death domain (TRADD), dominant negative (DN) IkappaBalpha or NF-kappaB p65 further confirmed GGT promoter activation via NF-kappaB. Linker insertion mutagenesis of 536 bp of the proximal GGT promoter revealed NF-kappaB and Sp1 binding sites at -110 and -78 relative to the transcription start site, responsible for basal GGT transcription. Mutation of the NF-kappaB site located at -110 additionally inhibited TNFalpha-induced promoter induction. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed mutagenesis results and further demonstrated that TNFalpha treatment induced in vivo binding of both NF-kappaB and Sp1, explaining increased GGT expression, and led to RNA polymerase II recruitment under inflammatory conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailModulation of anti-apoptotic and survival pathways by curcumin as a strategy to induce apoptosis in cancer cells
Reuter, Simone; Eifes, Serge UL; Dicato, Mario et al

in Biochemical Pharmacology (2008), 76(11), 1340-51

Apoptosis is a highly regulated mechanism by which cells undergo cell death in an active way. As one of the most challenging tasks concerning cancer is to induce apoptosis in malignant cells, researchers ... [more ▼]

Apoptosis is a highly regulated mechanism by which cells undergo cell death in an active way. As one of the most challenging tasks concerning cancer is to induce apoptosis in malignant cells, researchers increasingly focus on natural products to modulate apoptotic signaling pathways. Curcumin, a natural compound isolated from the plant Curcuma longa, has chemopreventive properties, which are mainly due to its ability to arrest cell cycle and to induce apoptosis. This article reviews the main effects of curcumin on the different apoptotic signaling pathways involved in curcumin-induced apoptosis of cancer cells, including the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways, the NF-kappaB-mediated pathway as well as the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This review also focuses on the sensitization of cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis after curcumin treatment and shows that curcumin enhances the capacity to induce cell death of different chemotherapeutical drugs. [less ▲]

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