References of "van der Torre, Leon 50003247"
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See detailDependence Networks for Agreement Technologies
Boella, Guido; Caire, Patrice UL; van der Torre, Leon UL et al

in AT2012, Agreement Technologies, Proceedings of the First International Conference on Agreement Technologies (2012)

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See detailAbstract Normative Systems: Semantics and Proof Theory
Colombo Tosatto, Silvano UL; Boella, Guido; van der Torre, Leon UL et al

in PRINCIPLES OF KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION AND REASONING: PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTEENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (2012)

In this paper we introduce an abstract theory of normative reasoning, whose central notion is the generation of obligations, permissions and institutional facts from conditional norms. We present various ... [more ▼]

In this paper we introduce an abstract theory of normative reasoning, whose central notion is the generation of obligations, permissions and institutional facts from conditional norms. We present various semantics and their proof systems. The theory can be used to classify and compare new candidates for standards of normative reasoning, and to explore more elaborate forms of normative reasoning than studied thus far. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscussion Paper: Changing Norms Is Changing Obligation Change
Broersen, Jan UL; Gabbay, Dov M. UL; van der Torre, Leon UL

in Deontic Logic in Computer Science (2012)

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See detailContrary-To-Duties in Games
Turrini, Paolo UL; Parent, Xavier UL; van der Torre, Leon UL et al

in Logic Programs, Norms and Action: Essays in Honor of Marek J. Sergot on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday (Lecture Notes in Computer Science / Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence) (2012)

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See detailEunomos, a Legal Document and Knowledge Management System to Build Legal Services
Boella, Guido; Humphreys, Llio UL; Martin, Marco et al

in Palmirani, Monica; Pagallo, Ugo; Casanovas, Pompeu (Eds.) et al AI Approaches to the Complexity of Legal Systems. Models and Ethical Challenges for Legal Systems, Legal Language and Legal Ontologies, Argumentation and Software Agents (2012)

We introduce the Eunomos software, an advanced legal document management system with terminology management. We describe the challenges of legal research in an increasingly complex, multi-level and multi ... [more ▼]

We introduce the Eunomos software, an advanced legal document management system with terminology management. We describe the challenges of legal research in an increasingly complex, multi-level and multi-lingual world and how the Eunomos software helps expert users keep track of the state of the relevant law on any given topic. We will describe in particular the editorial process for building legal knowledge. [less ▲]

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See detailA logic of argumentation for specification and verification of abstract argumentation frameworks
Villata, Serena; Boella, Guido; Gabbay, Dov M. UL et al

in Annals of Mathematics & Artificial Intelligence (2012), 66(1-4), 199-230

In this paper, we propose a logic of argumentation for the specification and verification (LA4SV) of requirements on Dung’s abstract argumentation frameworks. We distinguish three kinds of decision ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we propose a logic of argumentation for the specification and verification (LA4SV) of requirements on Dung’s abstract argumentation frameworks. We distinguish three kinds of decision problems for argumentation verification, called extension verification, framework verification, and specification verification respectively. For example, given a political requirement like “if the argument to increase taxes is accepted, then the argument to increase services must be accepted too,” we can either verify an extension of acceptable arguments, or all extensions of an argumentation framework, or all extensions of all argumentation frameworks satisfying a framework specification. We introduce the logic of argumentation verification to specify such requirements, and we represent the three verification problems of argumentation as model checking and theorem proving properties of the logic. Moreover, we recast the logic of argumentation verification in a modal framework, in order to express multiple extensions, and properties like transitivity and reflexivity of the attack relation. Finally, we introduce a logic of meta-argumentation where abstract argumentation is used to reason about abstract argumentation itself. We define the logic of meta-argumentation using the fibring methodology in such a way to represent attack relations not only among arguments but also among attacks. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards Legal Knowledge Management Systems for Regulatory Compliance
Boella, Guido; Hulstijn, Joris; Humphreys, Llio UL et al

in IX Conference of the Italian Chapter of AIS (2012)

Maintaining regulatory compliance is an increasing concern. Legal Knowledge Management systems could support the work of compliance managers. However, there are challenges to overcome, of interpreting ... [more ▼]

Maintaining regulatory compliance is an increasing concern. Legal Knowledge Management systems could support the work of compliance managers. However, there are challenges to overcome, of interpreting legal knowledge and mapping it onto business processes. In this discussion paper we determine requirements for Legal Knowledge Management systems that can handle these challenges. We argue that an approach to Legal Knowledge Management should consist of four pillars: (1) a legal ontology to express the legal concepts that are central to the interpretation of rules and regulations in practice, (2) natural language processing techniques, to semi-automatically populate the ontology, (3) a systematic method for mapping the legal concepts onto the actual data and business processes of a company, and (4) a method to construct an audit trail as part of the process design, providing legally acceptable evidence of compliance. The challenges are illustrated by an example of MIFID, a set of European regulations in the financial domain. [less ▲]

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See detailComputational Logic in Multi-Agent Systems - 13th International Workshop, CLIMA XIII
Fisher, Michael; van der Torre, Leon UL; Dastani, Mehdi et al

in Computational Logic in Multi-Agent Systems - 13th International Workshop, CLIMA XIII (2012)

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See detailComputational Logic in Multi-Agent Systems - 14th International Workshop, CLIMA XIV
Leite, Joao; Son, Tran Cao; Torroni, Paolo et al

in Computational Logic in Multi-Agent Systems - 14th International Workshop, CLIMA XIV (2012)

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See detailSelecting judgment aggregation rules for NAO robots: an experimental approach
Garcia Becerro, Frederic UL; Sousa, Sergio; Slavkovik, Marija UL et al

in Selecting judgment aggregation rules for NAO robots: an experimental approach (2012)

Social choice rules can be used to reach group decisions in multiagent systems. We consider judgment aggregation, the problem of aggregating answers to binary logically related questions. In general ... [more ▼]

Social choice rules can be used to reach group decisions in multiagent systems. We consider judgment aggregation, the problem of aggregating answers to binary logically related questions. In general "fairness" is usually considered to be the main concern when selecting a social choice rule, however we believe that in judgment aggregation often a more relevant property is how efficient the rule is in truth tracking, that is, how often does it return the correct answer to the binary questions. Whereas "fairness" can be studied axiomatically, truth tracking efficiency needs to be studied experimentally. We accomplish the experimental analysis by constructing a multi-robot system. [less ▲]

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See detailNLP Challenges for Eunomos, a Tool to Build and Manage Legal Knowledge
Boella, Guido; di Caro, Luigi; Humphreys, Llio UL et al

in Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC) (2012)

In this paper, we describe how NLP can semi-automate the construction and analysis of knowledge in Eunomos, a legal knowledge management service which enables users to view legislation from various ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we describe how NLP can semi-automate the construction and analysis of knowledge in Eunomos, a legal knowledge management service which enables users to view legislation from various sources and ?nd the right de?nitions and explanations of legal concepts in a given context. NLP can semi-automate some routine tasks currently performed by knowledge engineers, such as classifying norms, or linking key terms within legislation to ontological concepts. This helps overcome the resource bottleneck problem of creating specialist knowledge management systems. While accuracy is of the utmost importance in the legal domain, and the information should be veri?ed by domain experts as a matter of course, a semi-automated approach can result in considerable ef?ciency gains. [less ▲]

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See detailBeyond Maxi-Consistent Argumentation Operators
Vesic, Srdjan UL; van der Torre, Leon UL

in 13th European Conference on Logics in Artificial Intelligence, JELIA 2012 (2012)

The question whether Dung’s abstract argumentation theory can be instantiated with classical propositional logic has drawn a considerable amount of attention among scientists in recent years. It was shown ... [more ▼]

The question whether Dung’s abstract argumentation theory can be instantiated with classical propositional logic has drawn a considerable amount of attention among scientists in recent years. It was shown by Cayrol in 1995 that if direct undercut is used, then stable extensions of an argumentation system correspond exactly to maximal (for set inclusion) consistent subsets of the knowledge base from which the argumentation system was constructed. Until now, no other correspondences were found between the extensions of an argumentation framework and its knowledge base (except if preferences are also given at the input of the system). This paper’s contribution is twofold. First, we identify four intuitive conditions describing a class of attack relations which return extensions corresponding exactly to the maximal (for set inclusion) consistent subsets of the knowledge base. Second, we show that if we relax those conditions, it is possible to instantiate Dung’s abstract argumentation theory with classical propositional logic and obtain a meaningful result which does not correspond to the maximal consistent subsets of the knowledge base used for constructing arguments. Indeed, we define a whole class of instantiations that return different results. Furthermore, we show that these instantiations are sound in the sense that they satisfy the postulates from argumentation literature (e.g. consistency, closure). In order to illustrate our results, we present one particular instantiation from this class, which is based on cardinalities of minimal inconsistent sets a formula belongs to. [less ▲]

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See detailLogics for Security and Privacy
van der Torre, Leon UL

in 2012 (2012)

In this presentation I first review new developments of deontic logic in computer science, then I discuss the use of dynamic epistemic deontic logic to reason about privacy policies, and finally I discuss ... [more ▼]

In this presentation I first review new developments of deontic logic in computer science, then I discuss the use of dynamic epistemic deontic logic to reason about privacy policies, and finally I discuss the use of modal logic for access control. This presentation is based on joint work with Guillaume Aucher, Guido Boella, Jan Broersen, Dov Gabbay and Valerio Genovese. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning and Reasoning about Norms using Neural-Symbolic Systems
Perotti, Alan; Boella, Guido; Colombo Tosatto, Silvano UL et al

in International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, AAMAS 2012, Valencia, Spain, June 4-8, 2012 (2012)

In this paper we provide a neural-symbolic framework to model, reason about and learn norms in multi-agent systems. To this purpose, we define a fragment of Input/Output (I/O) logic that can be embedded ... [more ▼]

In this paper we provide a neural-symbolic framework to model, reason about and learn norms in multi-agent systems. To this purpose, we define a fragment of Input/Output (I/O) logic that can be embedded into a neural network. We extend d’Avila Garcez et al. Connectionist Inductive Learning and Logic Programming System (CILP) to translate an I/O logic theory into a Neural Network (NN) that can be trained further with examples: we call this new system Normative- CILP (N-CILP). We then present a new algorithm to handle priorities between rules in order to cope with normative issues like Contrary to Duty (CTD), Priorities, Exceptions and Permissions. We illustrate the applicability of the framework on a case study based on RoboCup rules: within this working example, we compare the learning capacity of a network built with N-CILP with a non symbolic neural net- work, we explore how the initial knowledge impacts on the overall performance, and we test the NN capacity of learn- ing norms, generalizing new Contrary to Duty rules from examples. [less ▲]

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See detailConditional acceptance functions
Booth, Richard UL; Kaci, Souhila; Rienstra, Tjitze UL et al

in 4th International Conference on Computational Models of Argument (COMMA 2012) (2012)

Dung-style abstract argumentation theory centers on argumentation frameworks and acceptance functions. The latter take as input a framework and return sets of labelings. This methodology assumes full ... [more ▼]

Dung-style abstract argumentation theory centers on argumentation frameworks and acceptance functions. The latter take as input a framework and return sets of labelings. This methodology assumes full awareness of the arguments relevant to the evaluation. There are two reasons why this is not satisfactory. Firstly, full awareness is, in general, not a realistic assumption. Second, frameworks have explanatory power, which allows us to reason abductively or counterfactually, but this is lost under the usual semantics. To recover this aspect, we generalize conventional acceptance, and we present the concept of a conditional acceptance function. [less ▲]

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See detailAgent Programming Languages Requirements for Programming Cognitive Robots (extended abstract)
Ziafati, Pouyan UL; Dastani, Mehdi; Meyer, John-Jules et al

Scientific Conference (2012)

This paper presents various requirements for BDI-based agent programming languages to provide better support for implementing autonomous robotic control systems. Examples of such requirements are: 1 ... [more ▼]

This paper presents various requirements for BDI-based agent programming languages to provide better support for implementing autonomous robotic control systems. Examples of such requirements are: 1- Built-in support for integration with existing robotic frameworks such as ROS, 2- Real-time reactivity to events, 3- Management of heterogeneous sensory data and reasoning on complex events, and 4- Representation of complex plans and coordination of the parallel execution of plans. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-sorted Argumentation
Rienstra, Tjitze UL; Perotti, Alan; Villata, Serena et al

in Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on the Theory and Applications of Formal Argumentation (TAFA 2011) (2011, July 16), 7132

In the theory of abstract argumentation, the acceptance status of arguments is normally determined for the complete set of arguments at once, under a single semantics. However, this is not always desired ... [more ▼]

In the theory of abstract argumentation, the acceptance status of arguments is normally determined for the complete set of arguments at once, under a single semantics. However, this is not always desired. In this paper, we extend the notion of an argumentation framework to a multi-sorted argumentation framework, and we motivate this extension using an example which considers practical and epistemic arguments. In a multi-sorted argumentation framework, the arguments are partitioned into a number of cells, where each cell is associated with a semantics under which its arguments are evaluated. We prove the properties of the proposed framework, and we demonstrate our theory with a number of examples. Finally, we relate our theory to the theory of modal fibring of argumentation networks. [less ▲]

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See detailJudgment aggregation rules based on minimization.
Lang, J. UL; Pigozzi, Gabriella UL; Slavkovik, Marija UL et al

in Actes des Cinquièmes Journées Francophones Modèles Formel de l'Interaction (MFI 11) (2011, July 12), XIII

Many voting rules are based on some minimization principle. Likewise, in the field of logic-based knowledge representation and reasoning, many belief change or inconsistency handling operators also make ... [more ▼]

Many voting rules are based on some minimization principle. Likewise, in the field of logic-based knowledge representation and reasoning, many belief change or inconsistency handling operators also make use of minimization. Surprisingly, minimization has not played a major role in the field of judgment aggregation, in spite of its proximity to voting theory and logic-based knowledge representation and reasoning. Here we make a step in this direction and study six judgment aggregation rules; two of them, based on distances, have been previously defined; the other four are new, and all inspired both by voting theory and knowledge representation and reasoning. We study the inclusion relationships between these rules and address some of their social choice theoretic properties. [less ▲]

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See detailA dynamic logic for privacy compliance
Aucher, Guillaume UL; Boella, Guido; van der Torre, Leon UL

in Artificial Intelligence and Law (2011)

Knowledge based privacy policies are more declarative than traditional action based ones, because they specify only what is permitted or forbidden to know, and leave the derivation of the permitted ... [more ▼]

Knowledge based privacy policies are more declarative than traditional action based ones, because they specify only what is permitted or forbidden to know, and leave the derivation of the permitted actions to a security monitor. This inference problem is already non trivial with a static privacy policy, and becomes challenging when privacy policies can change over time. We therefore introduce a dynamic modal logic that permits not only to reason about permitted and forbidden knowledge to derive the permitted actions, but also to represent explicitly the declarative privacy policies together with their dynamics. The logic can be used to check both regulatory and behavioral compliance, respectively by checking that the permissions and obligations set up by the security monitor of an organization are not in conflict with the privacy policies, and by checking that these obligations are indeed enforced. [less ▲]

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See detailA Satisficing Agreements Model
Boella, Guido UL; Pigozzi, Gabriella UL; Slavkovik, Marija UL et al

in Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Coordination, Organization, Institutions and Norms (COIN@WI-IAT) (2011)

Satisficing, the concept proposed by Herbert Simon, as an approach to reaching agreements is little explored. We propose a model for satisficing agreement reaching for an adaptive collaborative group of ... [more ▼]

Satisficing, the concept proposed by Herbert Simon, as an approach to reaching agreements is little explored. We propose a model for satisficing agreement reaching for an adaptive collaborative group of agents. The group consists of one human agent familiar with the problem and arbitrarily many artificial agents. Our model raises to the team level the recognition-primed decision model constructed in the field of cognitive decision-making by using social choice for reaching group opinions. [less ▲]

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