References of "Van Kerm, Philippe 50026710"
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See detailHigher Education Expansion and Inequality in Labour Incomes: The Importance of a Gendered Perspective
Sauer, Petra; van Kerm, Philippe UL

Article for general public (2021)

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See detailAccounting for Differences in Income Inequality across Countries: Tax-benefit Policy, Labour Market Structure, Returns and Demographics
Sologon, Denisa UL; van Kerm, Philippe UL; Li, Jinjing et al

in Journal of Economic Inequality (2021), 19

This paper presents a framework for studying international differences in the distribution of household income. Integrating micro-econometric and micro-simulation approaches in a decomposition analysis ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a framework for studying international differences in the distribution of household income. Integrating micro-econometric and micro-simulation approaches in a decomposition analysis, it quantifies the role of tax-benefit systems, employment and occupational structures, labour and financial market returns, and demographic composition in accounting for differences in income inequality across countries. Building upon EUROMOD (the European tax-benefit calculator) and its harmonised datasets, the model is portable and can be implemented for cross-country comparisons between any participating country. An application to the UK and Ireland—two countries that have much in common while displaying different levels of inequality—shows that differences in tax benefit rules between the two countries account for roughly half of the observed difference in disposable household income inequality. Demographic differences play negligible roles. The Irish tax-benefit system is more redistributive than UK\textquoterights due to a higher tax progressivity and higher average transfer rates. These are largely attributable to policy parameter differences, but also to differences in pre-tax, pre-transfer income distributions. [less ▲]

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See detailIntergenerational wealth transfers and wealth inequality in rich countries: What do we learn from Gini decomposition?
Nolan, Brian; Palomino, Juan C.; van Kerm, Philippe UL et al

in Economics Letters (2021), 199

The role of intergenerational transfers of wealth via inheritance and gifts inter vivos in the accumulation of household wealth and the generation of wealth inequality has been hotly debated. This paper ... [more ▼]

The role of intergenerational transfers of wealth via inheritance and gifts inter vivos in the accumulation of household wealth and the generation of wealth inequality has been hotly debated. This paper uses data from household wealth surveys for six rich countries – Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the US – to assess the contribution of intergenerational wealth transfers to wealth inequality using decomposition methods for the Gini coefficient. The results show that transfer wealth is consistently a good deal more unequally distributed than non-transfer wealth and total wealth. Transfer wealth accounts for only about one-tenth of overall wealth inequality for the US compared to one-third for Germany and Italy. This mirrors the importance of transfer wealth in total wealth in each country, with differences in inequality in transfer wealth and its correlation with total wealth having only a modest impact. We find that a marginal percentage increase in all transfers reduces total wealth inequality in Britain, Germany and the US, while it would increase total wealth inequality in France, Italy and Spain. [less ▲]

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See detailThe intergenerational transmission of wealth in rich countries
Nolan, Brian; Palomino, Juan; van Kerm, Philippe UL et al

Article for general public (2020)

Whether and how much intergenerational transfers contribute to wealth inequality is still subject to debate. This column analyses household survey data on inheritance and gifts inter vivos in France ... [more ▼]

Whether and how much intergenerational transfers contribute to wealth inequality is still subject to debate. This column analyses household survey data on inheritance and gifts inter vivos in France, Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, Italy, Spain, and the US to relate current household wealth levels and inequality to the receipt of intergenerational wealth transfers. In these countries, large transfers increase overall wealth inequality. Strengthening taxation capacity and instating lifetime capital acquisitions tax for gifts and inheritances may help counter the dis-equalising effect of intergenerational transfers. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Wealth of Families: The Intergenerational Transmission of Wealth in Britain in Comparative Perspective
Nolan, Brian; Palomino, Juan; van Kerm, Philippe UL et al

Report (2020)

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See detailBIPOLAR: Stata module to calculate four measures of income bi-polarization
Fusco, Alessio UL; van Kerm, Philippe UL

Software (2020)

-bipolar- calculates four measures of income bi-polarization.

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (1 UL)
See detailSGINI: Stata module to compute Generalized Gini and Concentration coefficients, Gini correlations and fractional ranks
van Kerm, Philippe UL

Software (2020)

sgini is a light-weight package to calculate generalized Gini and Concentration coefficients. It also allows factor decomposition (income source). As a by-product, the companion commands sginicorr ... [more ▼]

sgini is a light-weight package to calculate generalized Gini and Concentration coefficients. It also allows factor decomposition (income source). As a by-product, the companion commands sginicorr computes (generalized) Gini correlations and fracrank generates fractional rank variables. [less ▲]

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See detailMinimum Wages and the Gender Gap in Pay: New Evidence from the United Kingdom and Ireland
Bargain, Olivier; Doorley, Karina; Van Kerm, Philippe UL

in Review of Income and Wealth (2019), 65(3), 514-539

Women are disproportionately in low‐paid work compared to men so, in the absence of rationing effects on their employment, they should benefit the most from minimum wage policies. This study examines the ... [more ▼]

Women are disproportionately in low‐paid work compared to men so, in the absence of rationing effects on their employment, they should benefit the most from minimum wage policies. This study examines the change in the gender wage gap around the introduction of minimum wages in Ireland and the United Kingdom (U.K.). Using survey data for the two countries, we develop a decomposition of the change in the gender differences in wage distributions around the date of introduction of minimum wages. We separate out “price” effects attributed to minimum wages from “employment composition” effects. A significant reduction of the gender gap at low wages is observed after the introduction of the minimum wage in Ireland, while there is hardly any change in the U.K. Counterfactual simulations show that the difference between countries may be attributed to gender differences in non‐compliance with the minimum wage legislation in the U.K. [less ▲]

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See detailDo Children Carry the Weight of Divorce?
van Kerm, Philippe UL; Goisis, Alice; Ozcan, Berkay

in Demography (2019), 56(3), 785-811

Relatively few studies have examined the physical health of children who experience parental separation. The few studies on this topic have largely focused on the United States and have used cross ... [more ▼]

Relatively few studies have examined the physical health of children who experience parental separation. The few studies on this topic have largely focused on the United States and have used cross-sectional designs. Our study investigates the relationship between parental separation and children’s body mass index (BMI) and overweight/obesity risk using the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Treating parental separation as a process, we analyze variations in children’s physical health before and after the date of their parents’ separation in order to capture potential anticipation, adaptation, delayed, or cumulative effects. We estimate fixed-effects models to account for the potential correlation between children’s physical health and unobserved factors associated with parental separation, such as socioeconomic background and other time-invariant parental characteristics. We find no evidence of statistically significant anticipation effects in the build-up to parental separation or of statistically significant changes in children’s physical health immediately after separation. However, our results show that in the longer term, the BMI of children whose parents separate significantly deviates from the BMI of children from intact families. Furthermore, this association is especially strong for separations that occur when children are under age 6. [less ▲]

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See detailAccounting for the distributional effects of the 2007-2008 crisis and the Economic Adjustment Program in Portugal
Sologon, Denisa; Almeida, Vanda; van Kerm, Philippe UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

This paper develops a new method to model the household disposable income distribution and decompose changes in this distribution (or functionals such as inequality measures) over time. It integrates both ... [more ▼]

This paper develops a new method to model the household disposable income distribution and decompose changes in this distribution (or functionals such as inequality measures) over time. It integrates both a micro-econometric and microsimulation approaches, combining a flexible parametric modelling of the distribution of market income with the EUROMOD microsimulation model to simulate the value of taxes and benefits. The method allows for the quantification of the contributions of four main factors to changes in the disposable income distribution between any two years: (i) labour market structure; (ii) returns; (iii) demographic composition; and (iv) tax-benefit system. We apply this new framework to the study of changes in the income distribution in Portugal between 2007 and 2013, accounting for the distributional effects of the 2007-2008 crisis and aftermath policies, in particular the Economic Adjustment Program (EAP). Results show that these effects were substantial and reflected markedly different developments over two periods: 2007-2009, when stimulus packages determined important income gains for the bottom of the distribution and a decrease in income inequality; 2010-2013, when the crisis and austerity measures took a toll on the incomes of Portuguese households, particularly those at the bottom and top of the distribution, leading to an increase in income inequality. [less ▲]

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See detailDistributional change: Assessing the contribution of household income sources
Kyzyma, Iryna; Fusco; van Kerm, Philippe UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

We develop a decomposition of distributional change by factor components to quantify how changes in the association between sources of income and changes in their marginal distributions contribute to the ... [more ▼]

We develop a decomposition of distributional change by factor components to quantify how changes in the association between sources of income and changes in their marginal distributions contribute to the change in the distribution of household incomes over time. The two components are further broken down to isolate the contribution of specific income sources. Application to the change in the distribution of household incomes in Luxembourg between 2004 and 2013 reveals contrasted results: increased association between spouse earnings, public transfers, and taxes depressed the income share of poor households while changes in marginal distributions increased incomes in the upper half of the distribution. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat Drives Inequality
Decancq, Koen; van Kerm, Philippe UL

Book published by Emerald Publishing Ltd (2019)

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See detailIncome and Wealth Above the Median: New Measurements and Results for Europe and the United States
Chauvel, Louis UL; Hartung, Anne UL; Bar-Haim, Eyal et al

in Decancq, Koen; van Kerm, Philippe (Eds.) What Drives Inequality (2019)

The study of the upper tail of the income and wealth distributions is important to the understanding of economic inequality. By means of the ‘isograph’, a new tool to describe income or wealth ... [more ▼]

The study of the upper tail of the income and wealth distributions is important to the understanding of economic inequality. By means of the ‘isograph’, a new tool to describe income or wealth distributions, the authors compare wealth and income and wealth-to-income ratios in 16 European countries and the United States using data for years 2013/2014 from the Eurozone Household Finance and Consumption Survey and the US Survey on Consumer Finance. Focussing on the top half of the distribution, the authors find that for households in the top income quintile, wealth-to-income ratios generally increase rapidly with income; the association between high wealth and high incomes is highest among the highest percentiles. There is generally a positive relationship between median wealth in the country and the wealth of the top 1%. However, the United States is an outlier where the median wealth is relatively low but the wealth of the top 1% is extremely high. [less ▲]

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See detailWealth Inequality
Nolan, Brian; Morelli, Salvatore; Van Kerm, Philippe UL

in Nolan, Brian (Ed.) Generating Prosperity for Working Families in Affluent Countries (2018)

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See detailForeign Workers and the Wage Distribution: What Does the Influence Function Reveal?
Choe, Chung; Van Kerm, Philippe UL

in Econometrics (2018), 6(3),

This paper draws upon influence function regression methods to determine where foreign workers stand in the distribution of private sector wages in Luxembourg, and assess whether and how much their wages ... [more ▼]

This paper draws upon influence function regression methods to determine where foreign workers stand in the distribution of private sector wages in Luxembourg, and assess whether and how much their wages contribute to wage inequality. This is quantified by measuring the effect that a marginal increase in the proportion of foreign workers—foreign residents or cross-border workers—would have on selected quantiles and measures of inequality. Analysis of the 2006 Structure of Earnings Survey reveals that foreign workers have generally lower wages than natives and therefore tend to haul the overall wage distribution downwards. Yet, their influence on wage inequality reveals small and negative. All impacts are further muted when accounting for human capital and, especially, job characteristics. Not observing any large positive inequality contribution on the Luxembourg labour market is a striking result given the sheer size of the foreign workforce and its polarization at both ends of the skill distribution. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreasing Inequality in Joint Income and Wealth Distributions in the United States, 1995 to 2013
Chauvel, Louis UL; Bar-Haim, Eyal UL; Hartung, Anne UL et al

in Conference Online Programme & Papers (2018, May)

The study of joint income and wealth distributions is important to the understanding of economic inequality. However, these are extremely skewed variables that present tails containing strategic ... [more ▼]

The study of joint income and wealth distributions is important to the understanding of economic inequality. However, these are extremely skewed variables that present tails containing strategic information that usual methods – such as percentile grouping – cannot easily underline. In this paper, we propose a new method that is able to provide a thorough examination of tails: the isograph and the logitrank. These tools entail a more detailed conception of inequality by describing inequality at different points of the distribution. Using US data 1995-2013 from the Luxembourg Wealth Study (LWS), we find first that income inequality increased significantly, in particular in the upper middle classes. Second, the wealth- to-income ratio measuring the importance of wealth relative to income, increased significantly. The association between high wealth and high incomes, fourth, increased as well. Based on our analysis, we can conclude that this increase in the association between wealth and income is not a trivial consequence of increasing inequality, but a stronger coherence of the diagonal at the top of the income and wealth distributions. [less ▲]

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See detailAccounting for income distribution differences over time and across countries
Van Kerm, Philippe UL

Presentation (2018, January)

Detailed reference viewed: 92 (12 UL)
See detailAccounting for Differences in Income Inequality across Countries: Ireland and the United Kingdom
Sologon, Denisa M.; Van Kerm, Philippe UL; Li, Jinjing et al

E-print/Working paper (2018)

This paper proposes a framework for studying international differences in the distribution of household income. Integrating micro-econometric and micro-simulation approaches in a decomposition analysis it ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a framework for studying international differences in the distribution of household income. Integrating micro-econometric and micro-simulation approaches in a decomposition analysis it quantifies the role of tax-benefit systems, employment and occupational structures, labour prices and market returns, and demographic composition in accounting for differences in income inequality across countries. Building upon EUROMOD (the European tax-benefit calculator) and its harmonized datasets, the model is portable and can be implemented for any cross-country comparisons within the EU. An application to the UK and Ireland--two countries that have much in common while displaying different levels of inequality--shows that differences in tax-benefit rules between the two countries account for roughly half of the observed difference in disposable household income inequality. Demographic differences play negligible roles. The Irish tax-benefit system is more redistributive than UK's due to a higher tax progressivity and higher average transfer rates. These are largely attributable to policy parameter differences, but also to differences in pre-tax, pre-transfer income distributions. [less ▲]

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See detailMacroprudential policy and household wealth inequality
Carpantier, Jean-Francois; Olivera, Javier; Van Kerm, Philippe UL

in Journal of International Money and Finance (2018), 85(C), 262-277

Macroprudential policies, such as caps on loan-to-value (LTV) ratios, have become part of the policy paradigm in emerging markets and advanced countries alike. Given that housing is the most important ... [more ▼]

Macroprudential policies, such as caps on loan-to-value (LTV) ratios, have become part of the policy paradigm in emerging markets and advanced countries alike. Given that housing is the most important asset in household portfolios, relaxing or tightening access to mortgages may affect the distribution of household wealth in the country. In a stylised model we show that the final level of wealth inequality depends on the size of the LTV ratio, housing prices, credit cost and the strength of a bequest motive, and therefore it is not possible to predict an unequivocal effect of LTV ratios on wealth inequality. These trade-offs are illustrated with estimations of `Gini Recentered Influence Function' regressions on household survey data from 12 Euro-zone countries that participated in the first wave of the Household Finance and Consumption Survey. The results show that, among the households with active mortgages, high LTV ratios at the time of acquisition are related to high contributions to wealth inequality today, while house price increases are negatively related to inequality contributions. A proxy for the strength of bequest motives tends to be negatively related with wealth inequality, but credit cost does not show a significant link to the distribution of wealth. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 207 (10 UL)