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See detailVon der Forschung zur Praxis - 13. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Verhaltensmedizin und Verhaltensmodifikation - DGVM
Vögele, Claus UL

in Verhaltenstherapie (2011), 21 (suppl1)

Abstract-Band des 13. Kongresses der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Verhaltensmedizin und Verhaltensmodifikation, Luxemburg, 29.9.-1.10.2011

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See detailStressbewältigung bei Kindern und Jugendlichen.
Vögele, Claus UL

in Meinlschmidt, G.; Schneider, S.; Margraf, J. (Eds.) Lehrbuch der Verhaltenstherapie: Materialien für die Psychotherapie., 4 (2011)

Körperliche und psychische Probleme, die durch Stress verursacht oder begünstigt werden, treten in zunehmendem Maß schon im Kindes- und Jugendalter auf (7 Kap. II/30). So leiden viele Kinder im ... [more ▼]

Körperliche und psychische Probleme, die durch Stress verursacht oder begünstigt werden, treten in zunehmendem Maß schon im Kindes- und Jugendalter auf (7 Kap. II/30). So leiden viele Kinder im Grundschulalter unter Stresssymptomen wie Nervosität, Unkonzentriertheit, Bauch- und Kopfschmerzen oder Schlafschwierigkeiten. Jugendliche berichten häufig über Kopfschmerzen, Schlafprobleme und Appetitlosigkeit, aber auch über Gefühle der Anspannung und Überforderung. Die Gründe dafür sind vielfältig, auch wenn die Belastung durch die Schule und soziale Konfliktsituationen mit Geschwistern, Eltern oder Freunden die am häufigsten von Kindern und Jugendlichen genannten Alltagsbelastungen sind. Dazu kommt, dass die Adoleszenz mit ihren vielfältigen körperlichen, psychischen und sozialen Veränderungen eine Lebensphase erhöhter Vulnerabilität für Belastungen darstellt, die erfolgreich bewältigt werden muss. Viele Kinder und Jugendliche bewältigen diese Anforderungen mit Strategien wie Problemlösung, Suche nach sozialer Unterstützung und Ablenkung erfolgreich und nützen die Erfahrung in der Auseinandersetzung mit der Belastung, um ein Bewältigungspotenzial aufzubauen. Andere fühlen sich überfordert und zeigen Fehlanpassungen bzw. reagieren mit Resignation, Aggression, Ruminieren und passiver Vermeidung. Insgesamt sprechen die derzeitigen empirischen Befunde dafür, dass durch die Förderung günstiger Bewältigungsstrategien Belastungssymptome reduziert und das Gesundheitsverhalten oder der Verlauf bereits aufgetretener chronisch-körperlicher Erkrankungen günstig beeinflusst werden (Lohaus et al. 2006a). Wie bei Erwachsenen auch (7 Kap. II/30, Kap. IV/37) bedarf es dazu eines breiten Angebots innerhalb eines Stressbewältigungstrainings. Beispielsweise sind Programme, die nur Entspannungsverfahren oder Problemlösetrainings als alleinige Interventionen einsetzten, langfristig wenig erfolgreich (Seiffge-Krenke u. Lohaus 2007). Deshalb integrieren erfolgreiche Stressbewältigungstrainings für Kinder und Jugendliche mehrere unterschiedliche Interventionsmethoden in multimodalen Programmen. Diese beruhen zum größten Teil auf dem Stressimpfungstraining (SIT) von Meichenbaum (2003; 7 Kap. II/30) und passen es kindgerecht an. Das SIT vermittelt Methoden der Entspannung und übt den Aufbau von sozialen Fertigkeiten und das Erlernen von schulbezogenen oder allgemeinen Problemlösestrategien. Wesentlich ist jedoch die kognitive Umstrukturierung, d. h. die Erfahrung, dass Belastungssituationen nicht als persönliche Bedrohung, sondern als lösbare Probleme bewertet werden sollen. Im vorliegenden Kapitel werden nur wenige ausgewählte übergeordnete Materialien vorgestellt und es wird auf eine Auswahl der wichtigsten deutschsprachigen diagnostischen Verfahren zur Erfassung von Bewältigungsstrategien und therapeutischen Interventionen zur Stressbewältigung im Kindes- und Jugendalter verwiesen. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychometrische Evaluation der deutschen Barratt Impulsiveness Scale - Kurzversion (BIS-15) - Psychometric evaluation of the German Barratt Impulsiveness Scale - Short Version (BIS-15).
Meule, Adrian; Vögele, Claus UL; Kübler, Andrea

in Diagnostica (2011), 57(3), 126-133

Impulsivity is a personality trait which is characterized by rapid, unplanned actions regardless of possible negative consequences. One of the most widely used methods to assess impulsivity is the Barratt ... [more ▼]

Impulsivity is a personality trait which is characterized by rapid, unplanned actions regardless of possible negative consequences. One of the most widely used methods to assess impulsivity is the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11; Patton, Stanford & Barratt, 1995). The three factors nonplanning, motor, and attentional impulsivity can be measured sufficiently well with a short version of the BIS-11 (BIS-15; Spinella, 2007). The present study introduces the German version of this short version of the BIS-11. Reliability and factorial structure of this questionnaire were determined in a sample of predominantly university students (N = 752). The three-factorial solution was replicated. Internal consistency was good (Cronbach’s α = .81). Associations with another impulsivity questionnaire (UPPS) in a second study (N = 51) proved convergent validity. We recommend the BIS-15 for assessing impulsivity in German-speaking regions because of its good psychometric properties and economic procedure. [less ▲]

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See detailPrepubertal gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog leads to exaggerated behavioral and emotional sex differences in sheep
Wojniusz, Slawomir; Vögele, Claus UL; Ropstad, Erik et al

in Hormones and Behavior (2011), 59(1), 22-27

In mammals, sex specialization is reflected by differences in brain anatomy and function. Measurable differences are documented in reproductive behavior, cognition, and emotion. We hypothesized that ... [more ▼]

In mammals, sex specialization is reflected by differences in brain anatomy and function. Measurable differences are documented in reproductive behavior, cognition, and emotion. We hypothesized that gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a crucial role in controlling the extent of the brain's sex specificity and that changes in GnRH action during critical periods of brain development, such as puberty, will result in altered sex-specific behavioral and physiological patterns. We blocked puberty in half of the 48 same-sex Scottish mule Texel cross sheep twins with GnRH analog (GnRHa) goserelin acetate every 3 weeks, beginning just before puberty. To determine the effects of GnRHa treatment on sex-specific behavior and emotion regulation in different social contexts, we employed the food acquisition task (FAT) and measurement of heart rate variability (HRV). ANOVA revealed significant sex and sex × treatment interaction effects, suggesting that treated males were more likely to leave their companions to acquire food than untreated, while the opposite effect was observed in females. Concordant results were seen in HRV; treated males displayed higher HRV than untreated, while the reverse pattern was found in females, as shown by significant sex and sex × treatment interaction effects. We conclude that long-term prepubertal GnRHa treatment significantly affected sex-specific brain development, which impacted emotion and behavior regulation in sheep. These results suggest that GnRH is a modulator of cognitive function in the developing brain and that the sexes are differentially affected by GnRH modulation. [less ▲]

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See detailStressbewältigung
Vögele, Claus UL

in Meinlschmidt, G.; Schneider, S.; Margraf, J. (Eds.) Lehrbuch der Verhaltenstherapie: Materialien für die Psychotherapie, 4 (2011)

Das Thema Stressbewältigung (7 Kap. II/30) hat seit den 1960er Jahren einen rasanten Aufschwung genommen. Die damals beginnende Abkehr von dem bis dahin vorherrschenden biologisch-medizinischen Modell ... [more ▼]

Das Thema Stressbewältigung (7 Kap. II/30) hat seit den 1960er Jahren einen rasanten Aufschwung genommen. Die damals beginnende Abkehr von dem bis dahin vorherrschenden biologisch-medizinischen Modell, die zunehmende Unzufriedenheit mit der traditionellen Psychiatrie und die wachsende Bedeutung psychologischer Modelle und klinisch-psychologischer Interventionen haben dazu beigetragen, dass über die letzten 50 Jahre mehr als 4.000 wissenschaft liche Artikel zu diesem Th ema veröffentlicht wurden. Dabei finden sich die unterschiedlichsten Anwendungsbereiche, z. B. Stressbewältigung im Arbeitsbereich, in der Psychotherapie, in der Gesundheitsförderung und der medizinischen Versorgung, in der Paartherapie und in der Krisenintervention. Die Breite dieser Anwendungsbereiche ist sicherlich einer unter mehreren Gründen für die Unterschiedlichkeit der Interventionsmethoden, die unter dem Begriff Stressbewältigungstraining (z. B. Kaluza 2004) zusammengefasst werden. Üblicherweise beginnen die Stressbewältigungsprogramme mit einer allgemeinen Einführung zum Thema »was ist Stress«, ergänzt um eine Darstellung psychobiologischer Zusammenhänge und körperlicher Folgen vonchronischem Stress (7 Kap. IV/19). Die einzelnen Module beziehen sich dann auf spezifische Bereiche, die auch in anderen klinischen Kontexten von Relevanz sind. Dazu gehören Entspannungsverfahren (progressive Muskelrelaxation nach Jacobson, Meditation, autogenes Training, Biofeedback, Atementspannung; 7 Kap. IV/6), klinischpsychologische Interventionen (kognitive Umstrukturierung; 7 Kap. IV/11), Problemlösetraining, Training sozialerFertigkeiten (7 Kap. IV/10), Kommunikationstraining, Genusstraining (7 Kap. IV/8), Aufb au von Aktivitäten (7 Kap. IV/34)) und edukative Maßnahmen (Beratung zu Ernährung, Bewegung und Gesundheit sowie Techniken zur Optimierung von Arbeitsabläufen, Lernen oder Zeitmanagement). Bei aller Verschiedenartigkeit haben Stressbewältigungstrainings allerdings ein gemeinsames Ziel: die Förderung der körperlichen und psychischen Gesundheit und des Wohlbefindens durch eine Verbesserung der individuellen Kompetenzen zur Stressbewältigung. Genauer gesagt besteht das Ziel in der Erhöhung der Flexibilität im Umgang mit Belastungen. Um dieses Ziel zu erreichen und den individuellen Bewältigungskompetenzen des Einzelnen gerecht zu werden, bedarf es eines breiten Angebots innerhalb eines Stressbewältigungstrainings. Deshalb integrieren die meisten Stressbewältigungstrainings mehrere unterschiedliche Interventionsmethoden in multimodale Programme. Wie bei anderen Interventionen auch, kann ein auf die einzelne Person zugeschnittenes Stressbewältigungstraining allerdings erst nach einer genauen Diagnostik der individuellen Voraussetzungen und Bedürfnisse durchgeführt werden. Im vorliegenden Kapitel werden nur wenige ausgewählte übergeordnete Materialien vorgestellt und es wird auf eine Auswahl der wichtigsten deutschsprachigen diagnostischen Verfahren zur Erfassung von Bewältigungsstrategien und therapeutischen Interventionen zur Stressbewältigung verwiesen. Verschiedene Bausteine zur Stressbewältigung können zudem – auf die individuellen Bedürfnisse eines Patienten angepasst – aus den o. g. Kapiteln zusammengestellt werden. [less ▲]

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See detailInteroception and inhibitory capacity in panic disorder and somatoform disorders
Grosche, Christian; Sütterlin, Stefan UL; Koch, Stefan et al

in 13. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Verhaltensmedizin und Verhaltensmodifikation (2011)

Hintergrund: Nach Damasios Theorie der Somatischen Marker werden Entscheidungen in komplexen Situationen durch die Wahrnehmung physiologischer Vorgänge (Interozeption) sowie durch die individuelle ... [more ▼]

Hintergrund: Nach Damasios Theorie der Somatischen Marker werden Entscheidungen in komplexen Situationen durch die Wahrnehmung physiologischer Vorgänge (Interozeption) sowie durch die individuelle Fähigkeit zu dieser Wahrnehmung (Interozeptivität) beeinflusst. Im Sinne zielgerichteten Verhaltens müssen die auf diese Weise gewonnenen, emotional mediierten Informationen bei Bedarf reguliert werden, wofür präfrontal initiierte, inhibitorische Prozesse maßgeblich sind. Die hierfür notwendige Inhibitionskapazität kann durch die vagal mediierte und präfrontal modulierte Herzratenvariabilität (HRV) peripherphysiologisch quantifiziert werden. Die Interaktion interozeptiver und inhibitorischer Fähigkeiten bei Entscheidungen unter emotional ablenkenden Bedingungen ist im klinischen Kontext insbesondere bei Krankheitsbildern mit disinhibitorischen und körperwahrnehmungsbezogenen Symptomen relevant. Die vorliegende Studie untersuchte Entscheidungsprozesse unter emotionalen Einflüssen bei Patienten mit Panikstörung und Somatoformen Störungen. Methode: 17 Patienten mit Panikstörung und 20 Patienten mit Somatoformen Störungen wurden im stationären Setting einer psychosomatischen Klinik untersucht. Die Interozeptivität wurde mit einer Trackingaufgabe des Herzschlages bestimmt, zur HRV-Bestimmung ein EKG unter Ruhebedingung aufgezeichnet. Entscheidungsprozesse wurden mit Hilfe einer emotionalen Flanker Task und der Iowa Gambling Task untersucht. Ergebnisse: Bei Patienten mit Panikstörung zeigte sich eine negative Interaktion zwischen HRV und Interozeptivität, die darüber hinaus mit der Ablenkbarkeit durch emotionale Reize in der Flanker Task assoziiert war. Bei Patienten mit Somatoformen Störungen traten diese Zusammenhänge nicht auf. Patienten mit Panikstörung zeigten eine signifikant niedrigere HRV im Vergleich mit Patienten mit Somatoformen Störungen. Diskussion: Die Ergebnisse legen nahe, dass Interozeptivität und Inhibitionskapazität jeweils allein nicht ausreichend sind, um die untersuchten klinischen Störungen spezifisch zu charakterisieren. Eine negative Interaktion beider Maße allerdings scheint spezifisch mit der Panikstörung assoziiert zu sein und spricht für eine präzise, aber dysfunktionale interozeptive Wahrnehmung bei verminderter Regulationskapazität, was sich in der Beeinflussung der Aufmerksamkeitsausrichtung durch emotionale Prozesse manifestiert. [less ▲]

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See detailInhibition in Action - Inhibitory Components in the Behavioral Activation System
Sütterlin, Stefan UL; Andersson, Stein; Vögele, Claus UL

in Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (2011), 1(3), 160-166

Over the past two decades, the neurobiological substrates of the reinforcement theory have been discussed in terms of a behavioral activation system (BAS) and a behavioral inhibition system (BIS). While ... [more ▼]

Over the past two decades, the neurobiological substrates of the reinforcement theory have been discussed in terms of a behavioral activation system (BAS) and a behavioral inhibition system (BIS). While the BAS has been conceptualized as both an activating system and an approach-related system, the empirical evidence for either approach remains inconclusive. In the current study we hypothesize that the inclusion of self-regula-tory capacity contributes to a better understanding of the BAS. In a sample of 29 volunteers motor response inhibition elicited by a stop-signal task and heart rate variability (HRV) as a proxy of self-regulatory capacity were related to BAS scores (BIS/BAS scales [1]). Results show significant positive associations between inhibitory capacity and the sensitivity of the behavioral activation system, suggesting markers of self-regu-lation as components of the BAS. [less ▲]

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See detailFood choice: reason, drive or learned behaviour?
Vögele, Claus UL

in Agro Food Industry Hi Tech (2010), 21(3), 2-3

Editorial

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See detailPsychological preparation and postoperative outcomes for adults undergoing surgery under general anaesthesia (Protocol)
Powell, Rachael; Bruce, Julie; Johnston, Marie et al

in Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Online) (2010), (8), 1-15

Objective: To review the effects of psychological preparation on postoperative outcomes in adults undergoing elective surgery under general anaesthetic.

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See detailNutritional profiles in a public health perspective: a critical review
Foltran, Francesca; Verduci, Elvira; Ghidina, Marco et al

in Journal of International Medical Research (The) (2010), 38(2), 318-385

Nutritional profiling is defined as ‘the science of categorizing foods according to their nutritional composition’ and it is useful for food labelling and regulation of health claims. The evidence for the ... [more ▼]

Nutritional profiling is defined as ‘the science of categorizing foods according to their nutritional composition’ and it is useful for food labelling and regulation of health claims. The evidence for the link between nutrients and health outcomes was reviewed. A reduced salt intake reduces blood pressure, but only a few randomized controlled trials have verified the effect of salt on overall and cardiovascular mortality. Evidence linking a reduced fat intake with cardiovascular mortality and obesity is generally nonsignificant. Studies that have examined the relationship between obesity and diet have produced contrasting results. A simulation exercise that demonstrated that the impact of a reduced salt and fat intake on overall mortality would be negligible in the European population was carried out. Consideration of the literature and the results of this simulation exercise suggest that the introduction of nutritional profiles in Europe would be expected to have a very limited impact on health outcomes. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of peer influence on dietary intake and physical activity in school children
Finnerty, Tara; Reeves, Sue; Dabinett, Jaqueline et al

in Public Health Nutrition (2010), 13(3), 376-383

Objective: To investigate the dietary intake and physical activity of boys and girls aged 9–13 years, and the influence of peers on these behaviours. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Nine primary ... [more ▼]

Objective: To investigate the dietary intake and physical activity of boys and girls aged 9–13 years, and the influence of peers on these behaviours. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Nine primary and secondary schools in south-west London. Subjects: A total of 315 children wore sealed pedometers, provided self-report measures of dietary intake and answered a questionnaire relating to peer influence. Anthropometric measures of height and weight were also obtained. Results: Obese children had the lowest reported energy intakes and the lowest step counts per day. Boys took significantly more steps per day than girls, however girls were closer to achieving their recommended cut-offs for physical activity. Girls had lower energy intakes per day and lower BMI Z-scores than boys, however both genders, across all age groups, had higher than recommended intakes of saturated fat. There were significant associations between peer influence and physical activity levels but not between peer influence and dietary intake. Conclusions: Low energy intake and physical activity levels but high saturated fat intakes among boys and girls across all age groups highlight the importance of promoting both physical activity and healthy food choices. The finding that peers have a significant effect on physical activity levels but not on dietary intake offers an important approach for the design of health promotion interventions and obesity prevention programmes. Such designs may be particularly beneficial for obese youth, since the low physical activity levels found could be a major contributing factor to the maintenance of the condition. [less ▲]

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See detailMood, emotions and eating disorders
Vögele, Claus UL; Gibson, E. Leigh

in Agras, W. S. (Ed.) Oxford Handbook of Eating Disorders. (2010)

Mood and emotions are intrinsically involved with eating. The question is in what ways do these normal emotional relations with food contribute to, or shed light on, the development of abnormal relations ... [more ▼]

Mood and emotions are intrinsically involved with eating. The question is in what ways do these normal emotional relations with food contribute to, or shed light on, the development of abnormal relations with food that eventually become clinical eating disorders (EDs). This chapter discusses basic mechanisms, findings, and models that help our understanding of the interactions between eating and emotions, in both clinical and nonclinical populations. The finding that comorbidity with mood and anxiety disorders is the norm among patients with EDs suggests that EDs may not necessarily be restricted to domains of eating behavior and body image but may also be associated with significant difficulties in affective functioning. This chapter reviews the evidence relating to the notion that EDs are disturbances of mood regulation, in which regulatory strategies specifi cally related to eating and the body are used to diminish negative affect associated with food, body image, or stress. [less ▲]

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See detailCognitive mediation of clinical improvement after intensive exposure-based therapy of agoraphobia and social phobia
Vögele, Claus UL; Ehlers, Anke; Meyer, Andrea H. et al

in Depression and Anxiety (2010), (27), 294-301

Background: The present study investigated cognitive mediation of clinical improvement in patients with agoraphobia (N5427) or social phobia (N598) receiving high-density exposure therapy in a ... [more ▼]

Background: The present study investigated cognitive mediation of clinical improvement in patients with agoraphobia (N5427) or social phobia (N598) receiving high-density exposure therapy in a naturalistic clinical treatment setting. Methods: Patients were assessed before therapy, 6 weeks after the end of therapy, and 1 year thereafter, using a self-report assessment battery. Lower level mediation analyses provided support for the notion that cognitive changes partially mediate clinical improvement after exposure therapy. Results: Changes in cognitions relating to physical catastrophes mediated treatment outcome only for patients with agoraphobia, whereas changes in cognitions about loss of control mediated outcome for both agoraphobia and social phobia patients. Changes in relationship satisfaction did not mediate symptomatic improvement. Conclusions: The results extend previous findings by demonstrating mediation in an unselected clinical sample and by providing evidence for the specificity of mediation effects. They further support the importance of cognitive changes in cognitive–behavior therapy. Depression and Anxiety 27:294–301, 2010. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysical activity and dietary intake of children aged 9-11 years and the influence of peers on these behaviours: a one-year follow-up.
Coppinger, Tara; Jeanes, Yvonne; Dabinett, Jacqueline et al

in European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2010), 64(8), 776-781

Background: This study investigated physical activity and dietary intake of children aged 9–11 years, and the influence of peers on these behaviours over a 2-year period. Methods: A total of 106 (64 girls ... [more ▼]

Background: This study investigated physical activity and dietary intake of children aged 9–11 years, and the influence of peers on these behaviours over a 2-year period. Methods: A total of 106 (64 girls; 42 boys) children were investigated annually, over 2 years. Measures included physical activity (sealed pedometer), self-report measures of dietary intake and physical activity, and a peer influence questionnaire. Anthropometric measures of height and weight were also obtained. Results: The findings reveal insufficient energy intakes, physical activity levels and fruit and vegetable consumption but high intakes of saturated fat and sodium, over time, in both boys and girls. Both male calcium and female iron intakes were also of concern. Throughout the survey, peers were found to influence physical activity behaviour but not dietary intake. Conclusions: The fact that youth consistently failed to meet established nutrition and physical activity recommendations highlights the importance of promoting physical activity and healthy eating to children younger than 9 years of age. The finding that peers significantly influence physical activity behaviour over time should be considered when designing new physical activity interventions aimed at young people. [less ▲]

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See detailCardiac autonomic regulation and anger coping in adolescents
Vögele, Claus UL; Sorg, Sonja UL; Studtmann, Markus et al

in Biological Psychology (2010), (85), 465-471

The current study investigated spontaneous anger coping, cardiac autonomic regulation and phasic heart rate responses to anger provocation. Forty-five adolescents (27 female, mean age 14.7 years) attended ... [more ▼]

The current study investigated spontaneous anger coping, cardiac autonomic regulation and phasic heart rate responses to anger provocation. Forty-five adolescents (27 female, mean age 14.7 years) attended the single experimental session, which included monitoring of continuous heart rate and blood pressure responses to anger provocation (receiving an unfair offer) using a modified version of the Ultimatum Game (UG). Vagal activation was operationalized as high frequency component of heart rate variability during rest periods, and spontaneous baroreflex-sensitivity (SBR) during the UG. Adolescents employing cognitive reappraisal showed higher vagal activity under resting conditions and attenuated heart rate deceleration after receiving the unfair offer compared with participants who tended to ruminate about their anger and experienced injustice. Results from SBR suggested vagal withdrawal in anger ruminators during contemplation of the unfair offer. These results provide further support for the specificity and sensitivity of vagal responses to higher cortical functions such as emotion regulation. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuropsychiatric Complications of Efavirenz Therapy: Suggestions for a New Research Paradigm
Sütterlin, Stefan UL; Vögele, Claus UL; Gauggel, Siegfried

in Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences (2010), 22

This review gives an up-to-date account of the current state of research on neuropsychiatric complications associated with efavirenz therapy and critiques the methods used in previous studies. The authors ... [more ▼]

This review gives an up-to-date account of the current state of research on neuropsychiatric complications associated with efavirenz therapy and critiques the methods used in previous studies. The authors suggest an extension of current research strategies using psychophysiological concepts and including behavioral regulation models. From a practical perspective, these may contribute to better screening methods for the identification of those at risk for neuropsychiatric complications and the improvement of neuropsychiatric monitoring during efavirenz treatment. From a theoretical viewpoint, the suggested research paradigms may help to move beyond the current state of descriptive approaches and thus improve our limited understanding of underlying mechanisms. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychische Störungen bei HIV-Infektion und Aids: Klinisch-psychologische Diagnostik und Intervention
Vögele, Claus UL

in Psychotherapeut (2010), 55(3), 194-202

Noch nie zuvor waren so viele Menschen mit dem „human immunodeficiency virus“ (HIV) infiziert wie heute. Mehr als 39 Mio. Menschen leben mit der HIV-Infektion. Durch die Fortschritte der medizinischen ... [more ▼]

Noch nie zuvor waren so viele Menschen mit dem „human immunodeficiency virus“ (HIV) infiziert wie heute. Mehr als 39 Mio. Menschen leben mit der HIV-Infektion. Durch die Fortschritte der medizinischen Behandlung leben die Betroffenen heute sehr viel länger als vor der Einführung der modernen Kombinationstherapie („highly active anti-retroviral therapy“, HAART; s. Abschn. „Medizinische Behandlung“). Dadurch ist die HIV-Infektion/Aids zu einer chronischen Erkrankung geworden, die vom betroffenen Patienten ein hohes Maß an Anpassungsleistungen verlangt. Sie ist nicht heilbar und in unserer Gesellschaft immer noch stigmatisiert. Psychische Störungen sind häufig, werden aber oft nicht erkannt oder behandelt. Dabei könnten psychologische Interventionen entscheidend zur Verbesserung der Lebensqualität und Behandlungsadhärenz, zur Behandlung psychischer Begleiterkrankungen und zur Stärkung des Immunsystems beitragen. [less ▲]

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See detailDietary restriction, cardiac autonomic regulation and stress reactivity in bulimic women
Vögele, Claus UL; Hilbert, Anja; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

in Physiology and Behavior (2009), 98

Recent !ndings suggest sympathetic inhibition during dietary restriction as opposed to increased sympathetic activity during re-feeding. The present study investigated cardiac autonomic regulation and ... [more ▼]

Recent !ndings suggest sympathetic inhibition during dietary restriction as opposed to increased sympathetic activity during re-feeding. The present study investigated cardiac autonomic regulation and stress reactivity in relation to biochemical markers of dietary restriction status in women diagnosed with bulimia nervosa. We predicted that bulimic individuals (BN) with a biochemical pro!le indicating dietary restriction exhibit reduced cardiac sympathetic and/or increased vagal activity. We also hypothesized, that BN with a biochemical pro!le within a normal range (i.e. currently not dieting or malnourished) would show heart rate variability responses (HRV) and reactivity to mental stress indicating increased sympathetic activation compared with non-eating disordered controls. Seventeen female volunteers diagnosed with bulimia nervosa were categorized according to their serum pro!le (glucose, pre-albumin, IGF-1, TSH, leptin) into currently fasting versus non-fasting and compared with 16 non-eating disordered controls matched for age and BMI. Spectral components of HRV were calculated on heart rate data from resting and mental stress periods (standardized achievement challenge) using autoregressive analysis. Compared to non-fasting BN and controls, fasting BN showed increased vagal and decreased sympathetic modulation during both resting and recovery periods. Cardiac autonomic regulation was not impaired in response to mental challenge. No differences could be found between non-fasting BN and controls. The results con!rm the notion of cardiac sympathetic inhibition and vagal dominance during dietary restriction and suggest the speci!city of starvation related biochemical changes for cardiac autonomic control. The results are discussed in terms of the higher incidence in cardiac complications in these patients. [less ▲]

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See detailPreference for attractiveness and thinness in a partner: Influence of internalization of the thin ideal and shape/weight dissatisfaction in heterosexual women, heterosexual men, lesbians, and gay men
Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Schäfer, Corinna et al

in Body Image (2009), 6

This study assesses whether characteristics of one’s own body image influences preferences of attractiveness in a partner. The role of gender and sexual orientation is also considered. Heterosexual women ... [more ▼]

This study assesses whether characteristics of one’s own body image influences preferences of attractiveness in a partner. The role of gender and sexual orientation is also considered. Heterosexual women (n = 67), lesbian women (n = 73), heterosexual men (n = 61) and gay men (n = 82) participated in an internet survey assessing attitudes towards the body and preferences of attractiveness in a partner. Men in particular were found to prefer attractive partners, regardless of sexual orientation. Weight/shape dissatisfaction was found to be a negative predictor for heterosexual men and women. For gay men, preferences were better explained by internalization and weight/shape dissatisfaction. No such associations were found in the lesbian group. Levels of weight/shape dissatisfaction and internalization of socio-cultural slenderness ideals influence expectations of thinness and attractiveness in a partner with this effect being modified by gender and sexual orientation. [less ▲]

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See detailSympathetic activity relates to adenosine A2A receptor gene variation in blood-injury phobia
Hohoff, Christa; Domschke, Katharina; Schwarte, Kathrin et al

in Journal of Neural Transmission (2009), 116

Variation in the candidate genes adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R), catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT), and norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been suggested to influence vulnerability to panic ... [more ▼]

Variation in the candidate genes adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R), catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT), and norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been suggested to influence vulnerability to panic disorder. We therefore investigated patients with another anxiety disorder with an even higher heritability, the blood-injury phobia, for association of these variants and used sympathetic measures during venipuncture, which serve as a naturalistic trigger of anxiety and autonomic hyperarousal, as an intermediate phenotype of anxiety. Patients homozygous for the A(2A)R 1976T allele as compared to patients carrying at least one 1976C allele exhibited a significantly increased respiratory rate with a trend towards elevated measures of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and respiratory minute volume. None of the sympathetic measures were influenced by the COMT or NET polymorphisms.This study provides preliminary data suggesting an influence of the A(2A)R 1976C/T polymorphism on sympathetic psychophysiological indicators of anxiety-related arousal in blood-injury phobia and thereby further supports a role of the A(2A)R gene in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. [less ▲]

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