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See detailWomen with elevated food addiction symptoms show accelerated reactions, but no impaired inhibitory control, in response to pictures of high-calorie food-cues.
Meule, Adrian; Lutz, Annika UL; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Eating Behaviors (2012), 13(4), 423-428

Addictive behaviors are accompanied by a lack of inhibitory control, specifically when individuals are confronted with substance-related cues. Thus, we expected women with symptoms of food addiction to be ... [more ▼]

Addictive behaviors are accompanied by a lack of inhibitory control, specifically when individuals are confronted with substance-related cues. Thus, we expected women with symptoms of food addiction to be impaired in inhibitory control, when confronted with palatable, high-calorie food-cues. Female college students (N = 50) where divided in low and high food addiction groups based on the symptom count of the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Participants performed a Go/No-Go-task with high-calorie food-cues or neutral pictures presented behind the targets. Self-reported impulsivity was also assessed. The high food addiction group had faster reaction times in response to food-cues as compared to neutral cues and reported higher attentional impulsivity than the low food addiction group. Commission and omission errors did not differ between groups or picture types. Hence, women with food addiction symptoms reported higher attentional impulsivity and reacted faster in response to food-cues, although neither increased self-reported motor impulsivity nor impaired behavioral inhibition were found. Food addiction symptoms seem to be related to attentional aspects of impulsivity but not other facets of impulsivity. [less ▲]

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See detailOf larks and hearts – morningness/eveningness, heart rate variability and cardiovascular stress response at different times of the day
Roeser, Karolin; Obergfell, Friederike; Meule, Adrian et al

in Physiology and Behavior (2012), 106 (2)

Inter-individual differences in the circadian period of physical and mental functions can be described on the dimension of morningness/eveningness. Previous findings support the assumption that ... [more ▼]

Inter-individual differences in the circadian period of physical and mental functions can be described on the dimension of morningness/eveningness. Previous findings support the assumption that eveningness is related to greater impulsivity and susceptibility to stress than morningness. Heart rate variability (HRV) serves as a physiological correlate of self- and emotional regulation and has not yet been investigated in relation to chronotypes. The study explores differences in HRV and other cardiovascular measures in morning- and evening-types at rest and under stress at different times of day (8-11 a.m. or 4-7 p.m.). Students (N = 471) were screened for chronotype and n = 55 females (27 morning- and 28 evening-types) were recruited for testing. These participants performed a mental arithmetic task while heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were recorded. Spectral components and a time-domain measure of HRV were calculated on HR data from resting and mental stress periods. Evening-types had significantly higher HR and systolic BP, but lower HRV than morning-types both at baseline and during stress. Stress induced in the evening had a significantly stronger impact on absolute and baseline corrected physiological measures in both chronotypes. The interaction of chronotype and testing time did not reach the level of significance for any of the dependent variables. The enhanced physiological arousal in evening-types might contribute to increased vulnerability to psychological distress. Hence, previous behavioral findings are supported by the physiological data of this study. [less ▲]

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See detailHands-off the cookie-jar: Success and failure in the self-regulation of eating behaviour
Lutz, Annika UL; Vögele, Claus UL

in Psychology & Health (2012), 27(sup1), 20-20

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See detailRestrained eating is related to accelerated reaction to high caloric foods and cardiac autonomic dysregulation.
Meule, Adrian; Vögele, Claus UL; Kübler, Andrea

in Appetite (2012), 58

Cognitive bias to food-cues and cardiac autonomic dysregulation have both been related to disordered eating behavior in previous research. The present study investigated two possible measures of self ... [more ▼]

Cognitive bias to food-cues and cardiac autonomic dysregulation have both been related to disordered eating behavior in previous research. The present study investigated two possible measures of self-regulatory ability in restrained eaters: resistance to distractor interference and cardiac-vagal control. Young women (N = 47) performed a flanker task involving high caloric food-cues or neutral pictures. Vagal-cardiac activity was calculated from baseline heart rate recordings at rest. Restrained eaters did not differ from unrestrained eaters in resistance to distractor interference. However, restrained eaters showed shorter reaction times to high-calorie food-cues as compared to neutral pictures than unrestrained eaters. This attentional bias was further related to low dieting success. Moreover, restrained eating was associated with low parasympathetic activation and sympathovagal imbalance, independent of current body mass. Both attentional bias and cardiac autonomic dysregulation were related to self-reported weight fluctuations. Results are discussed in terms of possible adverse consequences of weight cycling in young women and low self-regulatory ability in restrained eaters. [less ▲]

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See detailWho’s that girl? Körperbild, Selbsterkennung und Selbstkonzept bei jungen Frauen mit und ohne Essstörungsrisiko
Lutz, Annika UL; Herbert, Cornelia; Vögele, Claus UL

in Abstract book of 30. Symposium Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie der DGPS Fachgruppe Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie (2012)

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See detailPerseverative thinking in depression and anxiety
Sorg, Sonja UL; Vögele, Claus UL; Furka, Nadine et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (2012), 3

The current study investigated the impact of worry and brooding as moderators of the tripartite model of depression and anxiety (TMDA). We hypothesized that both types of perseverative thinking would ... [more ▼]

The current study investigated the impact of worry and brooding as moderators of the tripartite model of depression and anxiety (TMDA). We hypothesized that both types of perseverative thinking would moderate the association between negative affectivity (NA) and both anxiety and depression. Complete data sets for this questionnaire survey were obtained from 537 students. Participants’ age ranged from 16 to 49 years with a mean age of 21.1 years (SD = 3.6). Overall, results from path analyses supported the assumptions of the TMDA, in that negative affectivity was a non-specific predictor for both depression and anxiety whilst lack of positive affectivity was related to depression only. Unexpectedly, perseverative thinking had an effect on the dependency of negative and positive affectivity. Worry was a significant moderator for the path NA – anxiety. All other hypothesized associations were only marginally significant. Alternative pathways as well as methodological implications regarding similarities and differences of the two types of perseverative thinking are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence-based recommendations for the development of obesity prevention programs targeted at preschool children
Summerbell, Carolyn; Moore, Helen; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Obesity Reviews (2012), 13(Suppl 1), 129-132

As previously discussed in other papers in this Supplement of Obesity Reviews, the Toybox intervention was developed using an evidence-based approach, and refined through pilot testing. As part of that ... [more ▼]

As previously discussed in other papers in this Supplement of Obesity Reviews, the Toybox intervention was developed using an evidence-based approach, and refined through pilot testing. As part of that evidence base, two pieces of work were carried out. First, a series of narrative reviews of educational strategies and psychological approaches explaining young children’s acquisition and formation of energy-balance related behaviours, and facilitating their management (Gibson et al1; Vögele et al2; Kreichauf et al3, all published in this supplement). Second, a systematic review to identify behavioural models underpinning school-based interventions in pre-school and school settings for the prevention of obesity in children aged 4-6 years (Nixon et al4; published in this supplement). The aim of this short paper is to summarise and translate the findings from these two reviews into practical evidence-based recommendations for researchers and policy makers to consider when developing and implementing interventions for the prevention of overweight and obesity in young (aged 4-6) children. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-reported dieting success is associated with cardiac autonomic regulation in current dieters
Meule, Adrian; Lutz, Annika UL; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Appetite (2012), 59(2)

Restrained eating, eating disorders and obesity have been associated with cardiac autonomic dysregulation. The current study investigated cardiac autonomic regulation in current dieters. Female students ... [more ▼]

Restrained eating, eating disorders and obesity have been associated with cardiac autonomic dysregulation. The current study investigated cardiac autonomic regulation in current dieters. Female students (N = 50) indicated if they were currently trying to control their weight and completed the Perceived Self-Regulatory Success in Dieting Scale (PSRS). Heart beat intervals were recorded during two 10 min relaxation periods from which parameters of vagal-cardiac control (high frequency power in normalized units, HF n.u.) and sympathovagal balance (ratio of low and high frequency power, LF/HF) were calculated. In current dieters, self-reported dieting success was positively associated with HF and negatively associated with LF/HF. These associations were independent of current body-mass and food deprivation (i.e. hours since the last meal). We conclude that vagal-cardiac control reflects self-regulatory strength, rather than nutritional status, in current dieters. [less ▲]

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See detailFood cravings discriminate differentially between successful and unsuccessful dieters and non-dieters: Validation of the Food Cravings Questionnaires in German
Meule, Adrian; Lutz, Annika UL; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Appetite (2012), 1(58), 88-97

Food cravings have been strongly associated with triggering food consumption. However, definitions and measurements of food cravings are heterogeneous. Therefore, Cepeda-Benito and colleagues (2000) have ... [more ▼]

Food cravings have been strongly associated with triggering food consumption. However, definitions and measurements of food cravings are heterogeneous. Therefore, Cepeda-Benito and colleagues (2000) have suggested the Food Cravings Questionnaires (FCQs) to measure food cravings as a multidimensional con- struct at trait- and state-level. In the current study, we validated a German version of the FCQs in an online study (N = 616). The factor structure of the state and trait versions could partially be replicated, but yielded fewer than the originally proposed factors. Internal consistencies of both versions were very good (Cronbach’s a > .90), whereas retest reliability of the state version was expectedly lower than that of the trait version. Construct validity of the trait version (FCQ-T) was demonstrated by high correlations with related eating behavior questionnaires and low correlations with questionnaires unrelated to eating. Most importantly, FCQ-T-subscales were able to discriminate between successful and unsuccessful diet- ers and non-dieters. Validity of the state version was supported by positive relations with food depriva- tion and current negative affect. Taken together, the German version of the FCQs has good psychometric properties. Moreover, this study provided first evidence that distinct dimensions of food cravings are differentially related to success and failure in dieting. [less ▲]

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See detailCardiac threat appraisal and depression after first myocardial infarction
Vögele, Claus UL; Christ, Oliver; Spaderna, Heike

in Frontiers in Psychology (2012), 3:365

The present study investigated cardiac threat appraisal and its association with depression after first myocardial infarction (MI). A semi-structured interview allowing for DSM-IV-Axis I diagnoses was ... [more ▼]

The present study investigated cardiac threat appraisal and its association with depression after first myocardial infarction (MI). A semi-structured interview allowing for DSM-IV-Axis I diagnoses was administered to 36 patients after first MI. Patients completed self-reports 5 to 15 days after the MI (time 1), 6 to 8 weeks later (time 2) and again 6 months later (time 3). Assessments at time 1 included indices of cardiac threat appraisal, locus of control, coping, and depression while at time 2 and time 3 only measures of depression were obtained. Cardiac threat appraisal was significantly correlated with depression at time 1, but was unrelated to depression scores at time 2 and time 3. Furthermore, there was a significant inverse association between cardiac threat appraisal and the subscales “search for affiliation” and "threat minimization" of the coping questionnaire. Additionally, “search for affiliation” correlated negatively with depression scores at time 1 and time 3, and "threat minimization" negatively with depression scores at time 1 and time 2. These results suggest a significant association between cardiac threat appraisal and depressive symptoms shortly after MI. Practical implications for treatment are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailFrames, decisions, and cardiac-autonomic control
Sütterlin, Stefan UL; Herbert, Cornelia; Schmitt, Michael et al

in Social Neuroscience (2011), 6(2), 169-177

The “framing effect” (FE) describes the phenomenon whereby human choices are susceptible to the way they are presented rather than objective information. The present study extends common decision-making ... [more ▼]

The “framing effect” (FE) describes the phenomenon whereby human choices are susceptible to the way they are presented rather than objective information. The present study extends common decision-making paradigms with frame variation by including inhibitory control, operationalized as vagally mediated heart rate variability (HRV) at rest and motor response inhibition during a stop-signal task (SST). We hypothesized that inhibitory control is inversely associated with susceptibility to framing effects. Forty adult volunteers performed a risky-choice framing task in which identical information about wins and losses was presented using loss or gain frames. As predicted, there was an inverse association between HRV and framing effects, accounting for 23% of the variance in framing effects. Inhibitory control as indexed by performance in the SST was not associated with framing effects. These results are discussed in terms of the role of inhibitory processes (as indicated by vagal activity) for decision-making processes. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhanced behavioral inhibition in restrained eaters
Meule, Adrian; Lukito, Steve; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Eating Behaviors (2011), 12(2), 152-155

Impulsivity has been found to play a decisive role in both addiction and disordered eating. Behavioral and self-report measures show impulsive tendencies to even occur in non-clinical samples, e.g ... [more ▼]

Impulsivity has been found to play a decisive role in both addiction and disordered eating. Behavioral and self-report measures show impulsive tendencies to even occur in non-clinical samples, e.g. restrained eaters. Within this group, these traits interact with high reactivity to food-related cues leading to overeating. The aim of the present study was to investigate if restrained eaters show this behavioral disinhibition specifically in response to food-cues. Participants performed a Go/No-Go-task with stimuli encircled by pictures of high caloric foods or neutral objects. In contrast to our hypotheses, participants with medium-to-high restrained eating made less commission errors in response to both food and neutral pictures than unrestrained eaters. Additionally, participants' inhibitory performance in the high-restrained group were enhanced in the presence of food pictures. Results are in line with expanding evidence of counteractive-control mechanisms when restrained eaters are confronted with tempting food-related cues. [less ▲]

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See detailSelbstregulation und Inhibition von „Food Cravings“
Lutz, Annika UL; Meule, Adrian; Kübler, Andrea et al

in Vögele, Claus (Ed.) Von der Forschung zur Praxis 13. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Verhaltensmedizin und Verhaltensmodifikation – DGVM (2011)

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See detailThe allure of the cream gateau: Attentional and response bias towards high calorie foods
Lutz, Annika UL; Meule, Adrian; Kübler, Andrea et al

Scientific Conference (2011)

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See detailPsychophysiological responses to idiosyncratic stress in Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder.
Hilbert, Anja; Vögele, Claus UL; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna et al

in Physiology and Behavior (2011), 104

This study examined psychophysiological stress responses to idiosyncratically relevant stress in bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED), in relation to autonomic cardiac control and ... [more ▼]

This study examined psychophysiological stress responses to idiosyncratically relevant stress in bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED), in relation to autonomic cardiac control and nutritional status. A total of 81 women with BN, BED and healthy controls (HC) took part in an in sensu exposure to idiosyncratic stress. Psychological and peripheral physiological parameters were measured, and tonic heart rate variability, nutritional status, and types of stress were determined. In response to stress exposure, both eating disordered groups showed a stronger reactivity of sadness, and the BED group showed a stronger reactivity of insecurity than the HC group. Desire to binge was increased in the context of interpersonal stress. Stress exposure led to increased cardiovascular activity and reduced electrodermal activity that did not differ by group. The BN-specific symptomatology moderated the association between autonomic cardiac control and psychophysiological stress responses. The results suggest common and specific psychophysiological processes in symptom maintenance through life stress in BN and BED. [less ▲]

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See detailOvercoming selfishness: Reciprocity, inhibition, and cardiac autonomic control in the ultimatum game
Sütterlin, Stefan UL; Herbert, Cornelia; Schmitt, Michael et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (2011), 2(173), 1-16

The processes underlying decision-making in response to unfair offers in the ultimatum game (UG) have recently been discussed in light of models of reciprocity and fairness-related behavior. It has been ... [more ▼]

The processes underlying decision-making in response to unfair offers in the ultimatum game (UG) have recently been discussed in light of models of reciprocity and fairness-related behavior. It has been suggested that behavior following norm-oriented, internalized expectations of reciprocity requires overcoming economic self-interest. In this study we investigated both, behavioral and peripheral-physiological indicators of inhibitory capacity related to neuronal networks that are likely to be involved in the behavioral response to unfair offers. Both heart-rate variability as an index of inhibitory capacity, and performance in a motor response inhibition task predicted rejection of unfair offers in an ultimatum game, suggesting an important role of inhibitory processes in overcoming economic temptations and regulating behavior conforming to social norms of reciprocity and fairness. The role of parasympathetic activity as a physiological trait-marker predicting inter-individual differences in the rejection of unfair offers is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detail“What am I going to say here?” The experiences of doctors and nurses communicating with patients in a cancer unit.
Cleland, Jennifer A.; McLean, Margaret; Worrell, Marcia et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (2011), 2

This paper describes a study investigating the provider-patient communication perceptions, experiences, needs and strategies of doctors and nurses working together in a UK cancer setting. This was a ... [more ▼]

This paper describes a study investigating the provider-patient communication perceptions, experiences, needs and strategies of doctors and nurses working together in a UK cancer setting. This was a qualitative study using individual interviews and 32 focus group discussions. Interpretative Phenomenological analysis (IPA) was used to underpin data collection and analysis. Twenty-six staff participated in the project (18 nurses and 8 doctors). Both professional groups identified an inherent emotional strain in their daily interactions with patients. The strategies they adopted to reduce this strain fell into two main categories: 1) Handling or managing the patient to keep negative emotion at bay; and 2) Managing self to keep negative emotion at bay. These strategies allowed staff to maintain a sense of control in an emotionally-stressful environment. Most believed that their communication skills were sufficient. In conclusion, communicating with and caring for cancer patients causes considerable psycho-social burden for doctors and nurses. Managing this burden influences their communication with patients. Without recognition of the need for staff to protect their own emotional well-being, communication skills training programmes, emphasised in current UK cancer care guidelines, may have little impact on practice. [less ▲]

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See detailARTiiFACT: a tool for heart rate artifact processing and heart rate variability analysis
Kaufmann, Tobias; Sütterlin, Stefan UL; Schulz, Stefan M. et al

in Behavior Research Methods (2011), 43(4), 1161-1170

The importance of appropriate handling of artifacts in interbeat interval (IBI) data must not be underestimated. Even a single artifact may cause unreliable heart rate variability (HRV) results. Thus, a ... [more ▼]

The importance of appropriate handling of artifacts in interbeat interval (IBI) data must not be underestimated. Even a single artifact may cause unreliable heart rate variability (HRV) results. Thus, a robust artifact detection algorithm and the option for manual intervention by the researcher form key components for confident HRV analysis. Here, we present ARTiiFACT, a software tool for processing electrocardiogram and IBI data. Both automated and manual artifact detection and correction are available in a graphical user interface. In addition, ARTiiFACT includes time- and frequency-based HRV analyses and descriptive statistics, thus offering the basic tools for HRV analysis. Notably, all program steps can be executed separately and allow for data export, thus offering high flexibility and interoperability with a whole range of applications. [less ▲]

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