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See detailKurzzeitige Nahrungsdeprivation erhöht Herzschlag-evozierte Potenziale (HEPs) als Indikatoren für kortikale Verarbeitung kardial-interozeptiver Prozesse
Schulz, André UL; Ferreira de Sá, Diana S.; Strelzyk, Florian et al

in Trierer Psychologische Berichte (2013), 38(1), 52-53

Interozeption – die Wahrnehmung von Körpervorgängen – spielt bei der Regulation des Essverhaltens möglicherweise eine entscheidende Rolle. Nahrungsdeprivation hat eine Reihe von metabolischen und ... [more ▼]

Interozeption – die Wahrnehmung von Körpervorgängen – spielt bei der Regulation des Essverhaltens möglicherweise eine entscheidende Rolle. Nahrungsdeprivation hat eine Reihe von metabolischen und endokrinologischen Konsequenzen. Bei kurzzeitiger Nahrungsdeprivation zeigt sich eine Erhöhung des sympathischen Tonus, welche dafür verantwortlich sein könnte, dass sich die Interozeptionsgenauigkeit gegenüber kardialer Stimuli gleichzeitig erhöht. Die physiologischen Grundlagen von Interozeption sind die Übermittlung von viszeral-afferenten neuronalen Signalen, während die Wahrnehmung dieser Signale die Lenkung der Aufmerksamkeit auf diese Signale erfordert. Bisherige Ergebnisse gehen auf Leistungen in Herzschlagdetektionsaufgaben zurück. Obwohl diese Methoden mehrfach validiert wurden, sind sie wahrscheinlich ungeeignet dazu, die viszeral-afferente Signalübermittlung und Aufmerksamkeitslenkung auf diese Signale voneinander zu trennen. Daher hatte die vorliegende Studienreihe zum Ziel, den Einfluss von kurzzeitiger Nahrungsdeprivation auf Herzschlag-evozierte Potenziale (HEPs) in Ruhebedingung zu untersuchen. Die HEPs gelten als psychophysiologischer Indikator für die kortikale Verarbeitung kardial-interozeptiver Prozesse. Bislang ist unbekannt, ob metabolische und endokrinologische Prozesse HEPs modulieren können. In einer ersten Studie wurden 16 gesunden Männern (Alter: 23,8 [2,1] Jahre) intravenös sowohl das Stresshormon Cortisol, als auch eine Placebo-Substanz verabreicht. Es zeigte sich, dass Cortisol bei offenen Augen kurzfristig zu einer höheren HEP-Amplitude führte, als bei geschlossenen Augen (p = .03). Daraus kann man ableiten, dass endokrinologische Prozesse das Potenzial haben, die HEP-Amplitude zu modulieren. In der folgenden Studie wurden 16 gesunde Frauen (Alter: 22,6 [1,9] Jahre) sowohl nach standardisierter Nahrungsaufnahme, als auch nach 18-stündiger Nahrungsdeprivation getestet. Es zeigte sich eine Erhöhung der HEP-Amplitude nach Nahrungsdeprivation (p = .02). Gleichzeitig konnten keine Veränderungen der Herzrate, noch der Herzratenvariabilität beobachtet werden. Unsere Ergebnisse legen nahe, dass Nahrungsdeprivation die kortikale Verarbeitung afferenter Signale aus dem kardiovaskulären System intensiviert, was nicht durch eine höhere sympathische Aktivität erklärt werden kann. Mögliche physiologische Signalwege und Implikationen für die Ätiologie von Essstörungen werden diskutiert. [less ▲]

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See detailVerhaltensinstruktionen
Vögele, Claus UL

in Wirtz, Markus (Ed.) Dorsch – Lexikon der Psychologie (2013)

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See detailStress- und Immunreaktion, präoperative.
Vögele, Claus UL

in Wirtz, Markus (Ed.) Dorsch – Lexikon der Psychologie (2013)

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See detailOperationsvorbereitung, psychologische.
Vögele, Claus UL

in Wirtz, Markus (Ed.) Dorsch – Lexikon der Psychologie (2013)

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See detailStress und Interozeption: Die Rolle von Aufmerksamkeit und physiologischen Stressindikatoren
Schulz, André UL; Vögele, Claus UL; Schächinger, H.

in Vögele, Claus (Ed.) 11. Kongress der Fachgruppe Gesundheitspsychologie - Selbstregulation und Gesundheit (2013)

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See detailEating healthily: a task for health education?
Vögele, Claus UL

in Agro Food Industry Hi Tech (2013), 23(6), 3-3

Editorial

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See detailThe negative affect repair questionnaire: factor analysis and psychometric evaluation in three samples
Scherer, Anne; Eberle, Nicole; Boecker, Maren et al

in BMC Psychiatry (2013), 13(1), 16

Negative affect and difficulties in its regulation have been connected to several adverse psychological consequences. While several questionnaires exist, it would be important to have a theory-based ... [more ▼]

Negative affect and difficulties in its regulation have been connected to several adverse psychological consequences. While several questionnaires exist, it would be important to have a theory-based measure that includes clinically relevant items and shows good psychometric properties in healthy and patient samples. This study aims at developing such a questionnaire, combining the two Gross [1] scales Reappraisal and Suppression with an additional response-focused scale called Externalizing Behavioral Strategies covering clinically relevant items. The samples consisted of 684 students (mean age = 23.3, SD = 3.5; 53.6% female) and 369 persons with mixed mental disorders (mean age = 36.0 SD = 14.6; 71.2% female). Items for the questionnaire were derived from existing questionnaires and additional items were formulated based on suggestions by clinical experts. All items start with ―When I don’t feel well, in order to feel better...‖. Participants rated how frequently they used each strategy on a 5-point Likert scale. Confirmatory Factor Analyses were conducted to verify the factor structure in two separate student samples and a clinical sample. Group comparisons and correlations with other questionnaires were calculated to ensure validity. After modification, the CFA showed good model fit in all three samples. Reliability scores (Cronbach’s α) for the three NARQ scales ranged between .71 and .80. Comparisons between students and persons with mental disorders showed the postulated relationships, as did comparisons between male and female students and persons with or without Borderline Personality Disorder. Correlations with other questionnaires suggest the NARQ’s construct validity. The results indicate that the NARQ is a psychometrically sound and reliable measure with practical use for therapy planning and tracking of treatment outcome across time. We advocate the integration of the new response-focused strategy in the Gross’s model of emotion regulation. [less ▲]

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See detailRisk for eating disorders modulates startle-responses to body words
Herbert, Cornelia; Kübler, Andrea; Vögele, Claus UL

in PLoS ONE (2013), 8(1), 53667

Body image disturbances are core symptoms of eating disorders (EDs). Recent evidence suggests that changes in body image may occur prior to ED onset and are not restricted to in-vivo exposure (e.g. mirror ... [more ▼]

Body image disturbances are core symptoms of eating disorders (EDs). Recent evidence suggests that changes in body image may occur prior to ED onset and are not restricted to in-vivo exposure (e.g. mirror image), but also evident during presentation of abstract cues such as body shape and weight related words. In the present study startle modulation, heart rate and subjective evaluations were examined during reading of body words and neutral words in 41 student female volunteers screened for risk of EDs. The aim was to determine if responses to body words are attributable to a general negativity bias regardless of ED risk or if activated, ED relevant negative body schemas facilitate priming of defensive responses. Heart rate and word ratings differed between body words and neutral words in the whole female sample, supporting a general processing bias for body weight and shape related concepts in young women regardless of ED risk. Startle modulation was specifically related to eating disorder symptoms as was indicated by significant positive correlations with self-reported body dissatisfaction. These results emphasize the relevance of examining body schema representations as a function of ED risk across different levels of responding. Peripheral-physiological measures such as the startle reflex could possibly be used as predictors of females’ risk for developing EDs in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailWas ist Psychotherapie?
Vögele, Claus UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

Article for general public (2012)

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See detailDoes disgust increase parasympathetic activation in individuals with a history of fainting? A psychophysiological analysis of disgust stimuli with and without blood-injection- injury association.
Vossbeck-Elsebusch, Anne N.; Vögele, Claus UL; Gerlach, Alexander L.

in Journal of Anxiety Disorders (2012), 26(8)

People with blood-injection-injury fear can faint when being confronted with blood, injections or injuries. Page (1994) holds that people with blood-injury phobia faint, because they are disgust sensitive ... [more ▼]

People with blood-injection-injury fear can faint when being confronted with blood, injections or injuries. Page (1994) holds that people with blood-injury phobia faint, because they are disgust sensitive and disgust facilitates fainting by eliciting parasympathetic activity. We tested the following two hypotheses: (1) Disgusting pictures elicit more disgust in blood-injection-injury anxious people with a history of fainting than they do in controls. (2) Disgust causes parasympathetic activation. Subjects were 24 participants with high blood-injection-injury fear and a history of fainting in anxiety relevant situations and 24 subjects with average blood-injection-injury fear and no fainting history. We analyzed self-reported feelings of disgust, anxiety and faintness and reactions in heart rate, skin conductance, blood pressure and respiratory sinus arrhythmia during the confrontation with disgusting pictures with and without blood content.We did not find any evidence that the blood-injection-injury anxious subjects were more disgust sensitive than the control subjects and we also did not find any evidence that disgust elicits parasympathetic activation. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of resting heart rate variability on performance in the P300 brain-computer interface
Kaufmann, Tobias; Vögele, Claus UL; Sütterlin, Stefan UL et al

in International Journal of Psychophysiology (2012), 83(3), 336-341

Objective: Brain computer interfaces (BCI) can serve as a communication system for people with severe impairment in speech and motor function due to neurodegenerative disease or injury. Reasons for inter ... [more ▼]

Objective: Brain computer interfaces (BCI) can serve as a communication system for people with severe impairment in speech and motor function due to neurodegenerative disease or injury. Reasons for inter-individual differences in capability of BCI usage are not yet fully understood. Paradigms making use of the P300 event-related potential are widely used. Success in a P300 based BCI requires the capability to focus attention and inhibit interference by distracting irrelevant stimuli. Such inhibitory control has been closely linked to peripheral physiological parameters, such as heart rate variability (HRV). The present study investigated the association between resting HRV and performance in the P300-BCI. Methods: Heart rate was recorded from 34 healthy participants under resting conditions, and subsequently a P300-BCI task was performed. Results: Frequency domain measures of HRV were significantly associated with BCI-performance, in that higher vagal activation was related to better BCI-performance. Conclusions: Resting HRV accounted for almost 26% of the variance of BCI performance and may, therefore, serve as a predictor for the capacity to control a P300 oddball based BCI. Significance: This is the first study to demonstrate resting vagal-cardiac activation to predict capability of P300-BCI usage. [less ▲]

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See detail30. Symposium Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie, Abstractband
Vögele, Claus UL

Book published by University of Luxembourg (2012)

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See detailRumination and age: some things get better
Sütterlin, Stefan UL; Paap, Muirne C. S.; Babic, Stana et al

in Journal of Aging Research (2012), 267327

Rumination has been defined as a mode of responding to distress that involves passively focusing one’s attention on symptoms of distress without taking action. This dysfunctional response style ... [more ▼]

Rumination has been defined as a mode of responding to distress that involves passively focusing one’s attention on symptoms of distress without taking action. This dysfunctional response style intensifies depressed mood, impairs interpersonal problem solving and leads to more pessimistic future perspectives and less social support. As most of these results were obtained from younger people, it remains unclear how age affects ruminative thinking. Three hundred members of the general public ranging in age from 15 to 87 years were asked about their ruminative styles using the Response Styles Questionnaire (RSQ), depression and satisfaction with life. A Mokken Scale analysis confirmed the two-factor structure of the RSQ with brooding and reflective pondering as sub-components of rumination. Older participants (63 years and older) reported less ruminative thinking than other age groups. Life satisfaction was associated with brooding and highest for the earlier and latest life stages investigated in this study. [less ▲]

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See detailHeart rate variability biofeedback reduces food cravings in high food cravers
Meule, Adrian; Freund, Rebecca; Skirde, Ann Kathrin et al

in Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback (2012), 37(4), 241-251

Heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback has been reported to increase HRV while decreasing symptoms in patients with mental disorders. In addition, associations between low HRV and lowered self ... [more ▼]

Heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback has been reported to increase HRV while decreasing symptoms in patients with mental disorders. In addition, associations between low HRV and lowered self-regulation were found in non-clinical samples, e.g., in individuals with strong chocolate cravings or unsuccessful dieting. The current study aimed at decreasing food cravings with HRV-biofeedback in individuals frequently experiencing such cravings. Participants (N = 56) with strong or low food cravings associated with a lack of control over eating were selected from the local community. Half of the participants with strong cravings (craving-biofeedback; n = 14) performed 12 sessions of HRV-biofeedback while the other half (craving-control; n = 14) and a group with low cravings (non-craving-control; n = 28) received no intervention. Subjective food cravings related to a lack of control over eating decreased from pre- to post-measurement in the craving-biofeedback group, but remained constant in the control groups. Moreover, only the craving-biofeedback group showed a decrease in eating and weight concerns. Although HRV-biofeedback was successful in reducing food cravings, this change was not accompanied by an increase in HRV. Instead, HRV decreased in the craving-control group. This study provides preliminary evidence that HRV-biofeedback could be beneficial for attenuating dysfunctional eating behavior although specific mechanisms remain to be elucidated. [less ▲]

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See detailDeutsche Übersetzung und Validierung der Yale Food Addiction Scale - German translation and validation of the Yale Food Addiction Scale
Meule, Adrian; Vögele, Claus UL; Kübler, Andrea

in Diagnostica (2012), 58

Manche Menschen bezeichnen sich als süchtig nach bestimmten Nahrungsmitteln wie Schokolade. Des Weiteren wurden auf Verhaltens- und neurobiologischer Ebene Überschneidungen zwischen Substanzabhängigkeiten ... [more ▼]

Manche Menschen bezeichnen sich als süchtig nach bestimmten Nahrungsmitteln wie Schokolade. Des Weiteren wurden auf Verhaltens- und neurobiologischer Ebene Überschneidungen zwischen Substanzabhängigkeiten und exzessivem Essen wie es bei Bulimia nervosa (BN), Binge Eating Störung (BES) oder Adipositas auftritt, gefunden (Davis & Carter, 2009). Bisher mangelte es im deutschen Sprachraum jedoch an einem Messinstrument, das spezifisch das Konstrukt Esssucht erfasst. Um diese Lücke zu schließen, stellt die vorliegende Arbeit die deutsche Version der Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) von Gearhardt, Corbin & Brownell (2009) vor. Diese Skala ermöglicht es, Menschen mit ausgeprägten Symptomen einer Abhängigkeit von bestimmten Nahrungsmitteln zu identifizieren. Die Diagnosestellung orientiert sich hierbei an den DSM-IV-Kriterien für Substanzabhängigkeit. Die Reliabilität und Validität dieses Fragebogens wurde an einer Stichprobe von überwiegend Studierenden (N = 752) in einer Onlinebefragung getestet. Die einfaktorielle Struktur der YFAS konnte bestätigt werden, bei einer zufriedenstellenden internen Konsistenz (Cronbach's α = .81). Konvergente Validität zeigte sich in mittleren bis hohen Korrelationen mit anderen Maßen problematischen Essverhaltens, während sich die YFAS hinsichtlich der diskriminanten Validität von anderen, aber dennoch verwandten Konstrukten, wie Alkoholabhängigkeit und Impulsivität, unterschied. Weiterhin zeigte sich die YFAS als signifikanter Prädiktor für die Häufigkeit von Essanfällen. Die YFAS scheint somit ein brauchbares Instrument für die Erfassung essensbezogener Verhaltensweisen darzustellen, die einen suchthaften Charakter aufweisen. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh-calorie food-cues impair working memory performance in high and low food cravers.
Meule, Adrian; Skirde, Ann Kathrin; Freund, Rebecca et al

in Appetite (2012), 59

The experience of food craving can lead to cognitive impairments. Experimentally induced chocolate craving exhausts cognitive resources and, therefore, impacts working memory, particularly in trait ... [more ▼]

The experience of food craving can lead to cognitive impairments. Experimentally induced chocolate craving exhausts cognitive resources and, therefore, impacts working memory, particularly in trait chocolate cravers. In the current study, we investigated the effects of exposure to food-cues on working memory task performance in a group with frequent and intense (high cravers, n = 28) and less pronounced food cravings (low cravers, n = 28). Participants performed an n-back task that contained either pictures of high-calorie sweets, high-calorie savory foods, or neutral objects. Current subjective food craving was assessed before and after the task. All participants showed slower reaction times and made more omission errors in response to food-cues, particularly savory foods. There were no differences in task performance between groups. State cravings did not differ between groups before the task, but increased more in high cravers compared to low cravers during the task. Results support findings about food cravings impairing visuo-spatial working memory performance independent of trait cravings. They further show that this influence is not restricted to chocolate, but also applies to high-calorie savory foods. Limiting working memory capacity may be especially crucial in persons who are more prone to high-calorie food-cues and experience such cravings habitually. [less ▲]

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See detailA narrative review of psychological and educational strategies applied to young children's eating behaviours aimed at reducing obesity risk
Gibson, E. Leigh; Wildgruber, Andreas; Kreichauf, Susanne et al

in Obesity Reviews (2012), 13(Suppl 1), 85-95

Strategies to reduce risk of obesity by influencing preschool children’s eating behaviour are reviewed. The studies are placed in the context of relevant psychological processes, including inherited and ... [more ▼]

Strategies to reduce risk of obesity by influencing preschool children’s eating behaviour are reviewed. The studies are placed in the context of relevant psychological processes, including inherited and acquired preferences, and behavioural traits, such as food neophobia, ‘enjoyment of food’ and ‘satiety responsiveness’. These are important influences on how children respond to feeding practices, as well as predictors of obesity risk. Nevertheless, in young children, food environment and experience are especially important for establishing eating habits and food preferences. Providing information to parents, or to children, on healthy feeding is insufficient. Acceptance of healthy foods can be encouraged by 5-10 repeated tastes. Recent evidence suggests rewarding healthy eating can be successful, even for verbal praise alone, but that palatable foods should not be used as rewards for eating. Intake of healthier foods can be promoted by increasing portion size, especially in the beginning of the meal. Parental strategies of pressuring to eat and restriction do not appear to be causally linked to obesity, but are instead primarily responses to children’s eating tendencies and weight. Moderate rather than frequent restriction may improve healthy eating in children. Actively positive social modelling by adults and peers can be effective in encouraging healthier eating. [less ▲]

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See detailA systematic review to identify behavioural models underpinning school-based interventions in pre-primary and primary settings for the prevention of obesity in children aged 4-6 years.
Nixon, Catherine A.; Moore, Helen J.; Douthwaite, Wayne et al

in Obesity Reviews (2012), 13(Suppl 1), 106-117

The aim of this comprehensive systematic review was to identify the most important behavioural models underpinning school-based interventions aimed at preventing or counteracting obesity in 4-6 year olds ... [more ▼]

The aim of this comprehensive systematic review was to identify the most important behavioural models underpinning school-based interventions aimed at preventing or counteracting obesity in 4-6 year olds. Searching was conducted in April 2010, with relevant literature included in the review from 1995 up to and including the search date on MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and The Cochrane Library. Epidemiological studies relevant to the research question with controlled assignment of participants were included in the review, if they had follow up periods of six months or longer. Outcomes included markers of weight gain; markers of body composition; physical activity behaviour changes and dietary behaviour changes. A total of twelve individual studies were included in review. The most commonly used model was Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)/Social Learning Theory (SLT) either as a single model or in combination with other behavioural models. Studies that used SCT/SLT in the development of the intervention had significant favourable changes in one, or more, outcome measures. Those interventions that combine (a) high levels of parental involvement and interactive school-based learning and (b) that target physical activity plus dietary change, require further consideration in the development of useful interventions for children aged 4-6 years old. [less ▲]

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See detailCritical narrative review to identify educational strategies promoting physical activity in preschool.
Kreichauf, S.; Wildgruber, A.; Krombholz, H. et al

in Obesity Reviews (2012), 13(Suppl 1), 96-105

The aim of this narrative review is critically to evaluate educational strategies promoting physical activity that are used in the preschool setting in the context of obesity prevention programmes ... [more ▼]

The aim of this narrative review is critically to evaluate educational strategies promoting physical activity that are used in the preschool setting in the context of obesity prevention programmes. Literature search was conducted between April and August 2010 in English and German databases (PubMED, PsychINFO, PSYNDEX, ERIC, FIS Bildung). Outcomes considered were time and intensity of physical activity, motor skills or measures of body composition. A total of 19 studies were included. Ten studies added physical activity lessons into their curriculum, one study provided more time for free play, eight studies focused on the social and play environment. Studies reporting positive outcomes implemented physical activity sessions that lasted at least 30 min d(-1). Several studies showed that children are most active in the first 10-15 min. The existence or installation of playground markings or fixed play equipment had no effect, whereas the presence or addition of portable play equipment was positively correlated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Teacher training may be a key element for successful interventions. To overcome time constraints, a suggested solution is to integrate physical activity into daily routines and other areas of the preschool curriculum. [less ▲]

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