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See detailInteroception in anorexia nervosa: evidence at cortical and self-report levels
Lutz, Annika UL; Schulz, André UL; Voderholzer, Ulrich et al

in 45th Annual Congress of the European Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies (EABCT) (2015)

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See detailBody or cup? Alterations in featural and configural body image processing in anorexia nervosa
Lutz, Annika UL; Herbert, Cornelia; Schulz, André UL et al

in Psychophysiology (2015), 52(supplement 1), 123

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See detailZentralnervöse Verarbeitung von Körpersignalen bei Anorexia nervosa
Lutz, Annika UL; Schulz, André UL; Voderholzer, U. et al

in Kaiser, J.; Fiebach, C. (Eds.) 41. Tagung Psychologie und Gehirn - Abstracts der Beiträge (2015)

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See detailShort-term food deprivation increases amplitudes of heartbeat-evoked potentials
Schulz, André UL; Ferreira de Sá, D. S.; Dierolf, Angelika UL et al

in Psychophysiology (2015), 52(5), 695-703

Nutritional state, i.e. fasting or non-fasting, may affect the processing of interoceptive signals, but mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. We investigated 16 healthy women on two separate ... [more ▼]

Nutritional state, i.e. fasting or non-fasting, may affect the processing of interoceptive signals, but mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. We investigated 16 healthy women on two separate days: when satiated (standardized food intake) and after an 18 h food deprivation period. On both days, heartbeat-evoked potentials (HEPs) and cardiac and ANS activation indices (heart rate, nLF HRV) were assessed. The HEP is an EEG pattern that is considered an index of cortical representation of afferent cardiovascular signals. Average HEP activity (R-wave +455-595 ms) was enhanced during food deprivation compared to normal food intake. Cardiac activation did not differ between nutritional conditions. Our results indicate that short-term food deprivation amplifies an electrophysiological correlate of the cortical representation of visceral-afferent signals originating from the cardiovascular system. This effect could not be attributed to increased cardiac activation, as estimated by heart rate and nLF HRV, after food deprivation. [less ▲]

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See detailAltered patterns of heartbeat-evoked potentials in depersonalization/derealization disorder: neurophysiological evidence for impaired cortical representation of bodily signals
Schulz, André UL; Köster, S.; Beutel, M. E. et al

in Psychosomatic Medicine (2015), 77(5), 506-516

OBJECTIVE: Core features of depersonalization-/derealization disorder (DPD) are emotional numbing and feelings of disembodiment. While there are several neurophysiological findings supporting subjective ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Core features of depersonalization-/derealization disorder (DPD) are emotional numbing and feelings of disembodiment. While there are several neurophysiological findings supporting subjective emotional numbing, the psychobiology of disembodiment remains unclear. METHODS: Heartbeat-evoked potentials (HEPs), which are considered psychophysiological indicators for the cortical representation of afferent signals originating from the cardiovascular system, were assessed in 23 patients with DPD and 24 healthy control individuals during rest and while performing a heartbeat perception task. RESULTS: Absolute HEP amplitudes did not differ between groups. Nevertheless, healthy individuals showed higher HEPs during the heartbeat perception task than during rest, while no such effect was found in DPD patients (p = .031). DPD patients had higher total levels of salivary alpha-amylase than healthy individuals (9626.6±8200.0 vs. 5344.3±3745.8 kUmin/l; p = .029), but there were no group differences in cardiovascular measures (heart rate: 76.2±10.1 vs. 74.3 ±7.5 bpm, p = .60; nLF HRV: .63±.15 vs. .56 ±.15 n.u., p = .099; LF/HF ratio: 249.3±242.7 vs. 164.8 ±108.8, p = .10), salivary cortisol (57.5±46.7 vs. 55.1±43.6 nmolmin/l, p = .86) or cortisone levels (593.2±260.3 vs. 543.8±257.1 nmolmin/l, p = .52). CONCLUSION: These results suggest altered cortical representation of afferent signals originating from the cardiovascular system in DPD patients, which may be associated with higher sympathetic tone. These findings may reflect difficulties of DPD patients to attend to their actual bodily experiences. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysical activity and depression predict event-free survival in heart transplant candidates
Spaderna, Heike; Vögele, Claus UL; Barten, Markus J. et al

in Health Psychology (2014), 33(11), 1328-1336

Objective: This study prospectively evaluated the relationship of physical activity (PA), depression and anxiety to event-free survival during waiting-time for heart transplantation in ambulatory patients ... [more ▼]

Objective: This study prospectively evaluated the relationship of physical activity (PA), depression and anxiety to event-free survival during waiting-time for heart transplantation in ambulatory patients enrolled in the “Waiting for a New Heart Study”. Methods: Data from 227 ambulatory patients newly listed for heart transplantation was analyzed. Everyday PA (number of activities, caloric expenditure), depression, and anxiety at time of listing were assessed via questionnaires. Events were defined as death, high-urgency transplantation, delisting due to clinical deterioration, and mechanical circulatory support device implantation (MCSD). Associations of PA scores, depression and anxiety with event-free survival were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models. Covariates included age, sex, BMI, and objective indicators of disease severity. Results: After a median follow-up of 478 days (6-1849 days), 132 events occurred (46 deaths, 20 MCSDs, 54 high-urgency transplantations, 12 delistings). A higher number of activities was significantly associated with a reduced hazard ratio (HR) to experience an event (HR=.88, 95% CI .81-.96), while depression increased this risk (HR=1.64, 95% CI 1.16-2.32). Both effects remained significant in multivariate analyses (HR=.91, 95% CI .83-.99; HR=1.60, 95% CI 1.12-2.29, p-values<.02). No significant interactions between PA scores and emotions were observed and anxiety was unrelated to survival. Conclusion: Both everyday physical activity and the absence of depression prolonged event-free survival in ambulatory heart transplant candidates. These findings were independent of objective measures of disease severity. Patients waiting for cardiac transplantation may benefit from interventions focused on increasing their everyday physical activity and reducing depressive symptoms. [less ▲]

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See detailElicitation of Negative Emotions in Adolescents using Video Clips
Ouzzahra, Yacine UL; Vögele, Claus UL

Poster (2014, September 05)

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See detailPerseverative Cognition in Fibromyalgia
Rost, Silke UL; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri; Sütterlin, Stefan et al

Scientific Conference (2014, September 04)

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See detailDreaming and health (Chapter 37)
Vögele, Claus UL

in Tranquillo, Nicholas (Ed.) Dream consciousness: Allan Hobson's new approach to the brain and its mind (2014)

This book presents three lectures by Allan Hobson, entitled “The William James Lectures on Dream Consciousness”. The three lectures expose the new psychology, the new physiology and the new philosophy ... [more ▼]

This book presents three lectures by Allan Hobson, entitled “The William James Lectures on Dream Consciousness”. The three lectures expose the new psychology, the new physiology and the new philosophy that derive from and support the protoconsciousness hypothesis of dreaming. They review in detail many of the studies on sleep and dreaming conducted since the days of Sigmund Freud. Following the lectures are commentaries written by scholars whose expertise covers a wide range of scientific disciplines including, but not limited to, philosophy, psychology, neurology, neuropsychology, cognitive science, biology, and animal sciences. The commentaries each answer a specific question in relation to Hobson’s lectures and his premise that dreaming is an altered state of consciousness. Capitalizing on a vast amount of data, the lectures and commentaries provide undisputed evidence that sleep consists of a well-organized sequence of subtly orchestrated brain states that undoubtedly play a crucial function in the maintenance of normal brain functions. These functions include both basic homeostatic processes necessary to keep the organism alive as well as the highest cognitive functions including perception, decision making, learning and consciousness. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of affective instability on daily chronic pain outcomes
Rost, Silke UL; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri; Koval, Peter et al

Poster (2014, August 21)

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See detailThe influence of emotional instability on daily pain outcomes in chronic pain patients
Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri; Rost, Silke UL; Vögele, Claus UL et al

Poster (2014, May)

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See detailDie Bedeutung der Interozeption für eine gesunde Regulierung des Essverhaltens
Van Dyck, Zoé UL; Vögele, Claus UL

Scientific Conference (2014, March 17)

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See detailFood-cue affected motor response inhibition and self-reported dieting success: a pictorial affective shifting task
Meule, Adrian; Lutz, Annika UL; Krawietz, Vera et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (2014), 5(216),

Behavioral inhibition is one of the basic facets of executive functioning and is closely related to self-regulation. Impulsive reactions, i.e. low inhibitory control, have been associated with higher body ... [more ▼]

Behavioral inhibition is one of the basic facets of executive functioning and is closely related to self-regulation. Impulsive reactions, i.e. low inhibitory control, have been associated with higher body-mass-index (BMI), binge eating, and other problem behaviors (e.g. substance abuse, pathological gambling, etc.). Nevertheless, studies which investigated the direct influence of food-cues on behavioral inhibition have been fairly inconsistent. In the current studies, we investigated food-cue affected behavioral inhibition in young women. For this purpose, we used a go/no-go task with pictorial food and neutral stimuli in which stimulus-response mapping is reversed after every other block (affective shifting task). In study 1, hungry participants showed faster reaction times to and omitted fewer food than neutral targets. Low dieting success and higher BMI were associated with behavioral disinhibition in food relative to neutral blocks. In study 2, both hungry and satiated individuals were investigated. Satiation did not influence overall task performance, but modulated associations of task performance with dieting success and self-reported impulsivity. When satiated, increased food craving during the task was associated with low dieting success, possibly indicating a preload-disinhibition effect following food intake. Food-cues elicited automatic action and approach tendencies regardless of dieting success, self-reported impulsivity, or current hunger levels. Yet, associations between dieting success, impulsivity, and behavioral food-cue responses were modulated by hunger and satiation. Future research investigating clinical samples and including other salient non-food stimuli as control category is warranted. [less ▲]

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See detailKörperwahrnehmung bei Depersonalisations-/Derealisationsstörung: Übereinstimmungen und Diskrepanzen zwischen subjektiven Berichten, behavioralen und psychophysiologischen Indikatoren
Schulz, André UL; Köster, S.; Reuchlein, B. et al

in Zimmermann, T.; Heinrichs, N.; Hahlweg, K. (Eds.) Abstractband Tradition und Aufbruch - 32. Symposium der Fachgruppe Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie der DGPs (2014)

Patienten mit Derpersonalisations-/Derealisations-störung (DP/DR) berichten häufig von einer Di-tanzierung der Wahrnehmung des eigenen Körpers sowie Empfindungen, die möglicherweise eng mit ... [more ▼]

Patienten mit Derpersonalisations-/Derealisations-störung (DP/DR) berichten häufig von einer Di-tanzierung der Wahrnehmung des eigenen Körpers sowie Empfindungen, die möglicherweise eng mit Körperprozessen zusammenhängen, wie Emotionen. Es ist unklar, inwiefern diese subjektiven Berichte mit behavioralen Messwerten, wie z.B. die Genauigkeit in experimentellen Interozeptionsparadigmen, oder psychophysiologischen Indikatoren für Interozeption übereinstimmen. 23 Patienten mit DP/DR und 24 gesunde Kontrollprobanden absolvierten eine Herz-schlagzählaufgabe (Schandry-Paradigma) und eine Herzschlagdiskriminationsaufgabe (Whitehead-Para-digma). Weiter wurden Herzschlag-evozierte Hirnpo-tenziale (HEPs) mittels EEG und EKG während einer fünfminütigen Ruhephase und während des Schandry-Paradigmas gemessen. HEPs gelten als elektrophysi-ologischer Indikator für die kortikale Verarbeitung kardial-interozeptiver Prozesse. Die DP/DR-Patienten-gruppe unterschied sich erwartungsgemäß hinsichtlich ihrer DP/DR-Symptome (CDS; S-CDS), subjektiver Wahrnehmung von Körpersignalen (KEKS), Depres-sivität (BDI-II) und State-/Trait-Ängstlichkeit (STAI-S;-T) von der Kontrollgruppe. Es zeigten sich keine Unterschiede hinsichtlich der Genauigkeit in beiden Herzschlagdetektionstests zwischen den Gruppen. Die Kontrollgruppe zeigte höhere HEP-Amplituden während der Herzschlagzählaufgabe als während der Ruhe-phase, wie bereits mehrfach gezeigt. Im Gegensatz dazu zeigte sich dieser Unterschied in der DP/DR-Patientengruppe nicht (p = .03). Die selbstberichteten Defizite in der Wahrnehmung von Körpersignalen bei DP/DR decken sich nicht mit deren tatsächlicher Leistung in experimentellen Interozeptionsaufgaben. Dies könnte auf Probleme von DP/DR-Patienten hinweisen, Körpersignale in die Wahrnehmung des Selbst zu integrieren. Obwohl DP/DR-Patienten vergleichbare Genauigkeit in der Herzschlagdetektion zeigten, konnte jedoch keine Erhöhung der HEPs bei DP/DR während dieser Aufgabe gemessen werden, was auf eine dysfunktionale Repräsentation interozeptiver Signale auf kortikaler Ebene hinweist. Eine mögliche Erklärung könnte sein, dass bei DP/DR die Fokussierung der Aufmerksamkeit auf eigene Körpersignale schwerer fällt, da diese eine negative affektive Valenz haben. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of the food choice process using hand movements in binge eating disorder
Van Dyck, Zoé UL; Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Michael; Blechert, Jens et al

Scientific Conference (2014)

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See detailAdipositas im Kindes- und Jugendalter: Risikofaktoren, Prävention und Behandlung
Platte, Petra; Vögele, Claus UL; Meule, Adrian

in Verhaltenstherapie (2014), 24(3), 182-192

Longer lasting weight loss is only achieved in 10% of obese adults, who try to lose weight. Therefore, prevention programmes for children and adolescents should have highest priority. Proximal and distal ... [more ▼]

Longer lasting weight loss is only achieved in 10% of obese adults, who try to lose weight. Therefore, prevention programmes for children and adolescents should have highest priority. Proximal and distal risk factors for the development of obesity include high-energy intake, low physical activity, high genetic load, low socioeconomic status and migration background. Prevention and intervention programmes need to take psychosocial factors into account and offer a personalized therapy in the respective settings. Even though cognitive behaviour therapy is superior to lifestyle intervention alone, as weight loss during treatment is higher when cognitive behaviour therapy is offered, its long-term success is uncertain. The need to include the family environment into treatment programmes is illustrated by studies showing that treating parents alone has the same effect on children’s weight loss as treating both parents and their children. Fast food, sugar sweetened drinks, hours of watching television and computer use are often discussed in terms of their causative role for obesity. The role of government policies to regulate the availability of fast food or sugar sweetened drinks as a prevention strategy is disputed, with little current empirical evidence as to the efficacy or effectiveness of such an approach. Nevertheless, public health regulations are unlikely to achieve the desired results at a population level, if not supported by families, schools and communities as well as the industry, currently investing more in economic success than responsibility for society. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluating Food Front-of-Pack Labelling: a pan-European Survey on Consumers’ Attitudes Toward Food Labelling
Gregori, Dario; Ballali, Simonetta; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition (2014), 65(2), 177-186

Nutrition labels on pre-packaged foods have been widely used as a medium to foster healthier eating habits in the general population, to contribute to a reduction in the incidence and prevalence of diet ... [more ▼]

Nutrition labels on pre-packaged foods have been widely used as a medium to foster healthier eating habits in the general population, to contribute to a reduction in the incidence and prevalence of diet-related conditions. Yet, there is no convincing evidence that food labels are an effective means to achieve the desired effect at population level. Several factors have been suggested to account for this decoupling of efficacy, e.g. difficulties in understanding the information on food-labels. The present paper presents the results of a survey on Europeans’ understanding of nutritional labels and evaluation on the communication tools for their diffusion. A total of 7550 phone interviews were conducted in 16 European Countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Czech Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom and Hungary. Consumers were asked about their opinion on nutritional information provided at different levels and their commitment to healthy behaviour. [less ▲]

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See detailZusammenhänge zwischen Essverhalten und Interozeption: Der Einfluss von kurzzeitiger Nahrungsdeprivation auf die Herzschlagdetektion
Van Dyck, Zoé UL; Schulz, André UL; Vögele, Claus UL

in Verleger, R.; Krämer, U.; Beyer, F. (Eds.) et al Abstractband 40. Tagung "Psychologie und Gehirn" (2014)

Einleitung: Eine reduzierte interozeptive Wahrnehmung ist ein wichtiges Kernmerkmal von Essverhalten, das mit einem erhöhten Risiko für die Entwicklung von Essstörungen und Adipositas einhergeht. Die ... [more ▼]

Einleitung: Eine reduzierte interozeptive Wahrnehmung ist ein wichtiges Kernmerkmal von Essverhalten, das mit einem erhöhten Risiko für die Entwicklung von Essstörungen und Adipositas einhergeht. Die Wahrnehmung körperinterner Signale von Hunger und Sättigung ist beeinträchtigt und das Essverhalten ist von kognitiver Kontrolle, äußeren Reizen oder auch Affektzuständen gesteuert. Auf der anderen Seite wurde gezeigt, dass die experimentelle Manipulation von Essverhalten durch kurzzeitiges Fasten, die Genauigkeit der Wahrnehmung interozeptiver Signale erhöht. Ziel: Die vorliegende Studie hatte zum Ziel, den Ein-fluss von Nahrungsentzug auf die verschiedenen Dimen-sionen der Interozeption bei Individuen mit angemesse-nem und unangemessenem Essverhalten zu untersuchen. Methode: Insgesamt nahmen 46 gesunde Frauen an zwei unterschiedlichen Tagen an der Studie teil. In randomisierter Reihenfolge wurden sie nach 16-stündigem Fasten und nach einem standardisierten Frühstück getestet. Die Genauigkeit der Wahrnehmung interozeptiver Signale wurde mit Hilfe eines Herzschlagdetektionstests (Schandry) erfasst. Zusätzlich wurde die subjektive Einschätzung der interozeptiven Wahrnehmungsgenauigkeit, sowie intuitives und unangemessenes Essverhalten per Fragebogen erfasst. Ergebnisse: Die Genauigkeit im Herzschlagdetektions-test war nach kurzzeitigem Fasten erhöht. Außerdem konnte eine verringerte Herzfrequenz festgestellt werden. Emotionale Esser zeigten eine verringerte Herz-schlagdetekionsgenauigkeit und intuitives Essverhalten korrelierte positiv mit interozeptiver Genauigkeit. Es ließ sich kein Zusammenhang zwischen selbstberichteter interozeptiver Wahrnehmung und kardialer interozepti-ver Genauigkeit aufzeigen.Diskussion: Unsere Ergebnisse stehen im Einklang mit vorhergehenden Studien die zeigten, dass kurzzeitiges Fasten die Genauigkeit in Herzwahrnehmungsaufgaben erhöht. Allerdings scheint dieser Anstieg unabhängig zu sein von sympathischer Aktivierung. Unsere Ergebnisse legen nahe, dass durch Essverhalten die Wahrnehmung von Körpersignalen verändert werden kann. Dies impliziert weitere Untersuchungen dieses Zusammen-hangs bei Essstörungen. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrelates of food addiction in obese individuals seeking bariatric surgery
Meule, Adrian; Heckel, Daniela; Jurowich, Christian et al

in Clinical Obesity (2014), 4(4), 228236

Recent evidence suggests that palatable, high-calorie foods may have an addictive potential. Accordingly, obesity and overconsumption of such foods have been associated with addiction-like eating behavior ... [more ▼]

Recent evidence suggests that palatable, high-calorie foods may have an addictive potential. Accordingly, obesity and overconsumption of such foods have been associated with addiction-like eating behavior. The present study investigated whether individuals with obesity can be classified as food addicted and which factors would differentiate between food addicted and non-addicted individuals. We administered the German version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) and other questionnaires to obese individuals seeking bariatric surgery (N = 96). Results showed that 40% of the sample could be diagnosed as food addicted. Food addicted individuals reported more frequent food cravings, higher eating disorder psychopathology, and more depressive symptoms than the non-addicted group. Age, body mass, and gender distribution did not differ between groups. The food addiction group had higher attentional, but similar motor and non-planning impulsivity, and had lower scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) compared to the non-addicted group. Scores on the AUDIT were associated with impulsivity in the non-addicted group only. We conclude that the prevalence of food addiction is higher in candidates for bariatric surgery compared to the general population and obese individuals not seeking bariatric surgery. A diagnosis of food addiction is associated with higher eating pathology and depression. Moreover, only attentional impulsivity, but not other dimensions of impulsivity, is associated with addictive eating. Finally, food addiction and impulsivity interactively predicted alcohol use, suggesting a crucial role of psychological variables and eating style in determining alcohol consumption in pre-bariatric patients, independent of body mass. [less ▲]

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See detailStriking discrepancy of anomalous body experiences with normal interoceptive accuracy in depersonalization-derealization disorder
Michal, M.; Reuchlein, B.; Adler, J. et al

in PLoS ONE (2014), 9(2), 89823

BACKGROUND: Disembodiment is a core feature of depersonalization disorder (DPD). Given the narratives of DPD patients about their disembodiment and emotional numbing and neurobiological findings of an ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Disembodiment is a core feature of depersonalization disorder (DPD). Given the narratives of DPD patients about their disembodiment and emotional numbing and neurobiological findings of an inhibition of insular activity, DPD may be considered as a mental disorder with specific impairments of interoceptive awareness and body perception. METHODS: We investigated cardioceptive accuracy (CA) of DPD patients (n = 24) as compared to healthy controls (n = 26) with two different heartbeat detection tasks ("Schandry heartbeat counting task" and "Whitehead heartbeat discrimination task"). Self-rated clearness of body perception was measured by questionnaire. RESULTS: Contrary to our hypothesis, DPD patients performed similarly to healthy controls on the two different heartbeat detection tasks, and they had equal scores regarding their self-rated clearness of body perception. There was no correlation of the severity of "anomalous body experiences" and depersonalization with measures of interoceptive accuracy. Only among healthy controls CA in the Schandry task was positively correlated with self-rated clearness of body perception. Depersonalization was unrelated to severity of depression or anxiety, while depression and anxiety were highly correlated. Anxiety and depression did not modify the associations of depersonalization with interoceptive accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: Our main findings highlight a striking discrepancy of normal interoception with overwhelming experiences of disembodiment in DPD. This may reflect difficulties of DPD patients to integrate their visceral and bodily perceptions into a sense of their selves. This problem may be considered an important target for psychotherapeutic treatment approaches. [less ▲]

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