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See detailReduced early visual processing of own body images in anorexia nervosa: An event-related potentials study
Lutz, Annika UL; Herbert, Cornelia; Schulz, André UL et al

Poster (2016)

Introduction. Although body image distortion in anorexia nervosa (AN) has been extensively studied over the past decades, its underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Neuro-imaging studies have ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Although body image distortion in anorexia nervosa (AN) has been extensively studied over the past decades, its underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Neuro-imaging studies have identified functional and structural alterations in brain areas involved in visual body perception, but the time course of visual body processing in AN remains mostly unexplored. The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to investigate single processing steps along the time course, particularly the visual processing of physical body image characteristics (featural processing, P1) and the recognition of a body as such (configural processing, N1). Methods. Twenty in-patients with AN, and 20 healthy women viewed photographs of themselves, of another woman’s body and of their own and another woman’s standardized object (cup) with concurrent EEG recording. Results. Body images elicited an accentuation of the P1 component (105-160 ms), which was absent for the comparison between own-body and own-cup images in the AN group. Results regarding the N1 component suggest alterations in object processing in AN. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate that individuals with AN show reduced featural processing of their own body image, a process which, due to its position early in the visual processing stream, is unlikely to involve higher cognitive stimulus processing. This suggests a possible role of previously undetected pre-conscious mechanisms in body image disturbance. [less ▲]

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See detailMaking sense of what you sense: Disentangling interoceptive awareness, sensibility and accuracy
Forkmann, Thomas; Scherer, Anne; Meessen, Judith et al

in International Journal of Psychophysiology (2016), 109(1), 71-80

Garfinkel and Critchley (2013) recently proposed a three level model of interoception. Only few studies, however, have empirically tested this theoretical model thus far. The present study aimed at ... [more ▼]

Garfinkel and Critchley (2013) recently proposed a three level model of interoception. Only few studies, however, have empirically tested this theoretical model thus far. The present study aimed at investigating (1) the central assumptions of this model, i.e. that Accuracy, Sensibility and Awareness are distinguishable facets of interoception and that Interoceptive Accuracy is the basic level of interoception, and (2) whether cardiovascular activation (as indexed by heart rate) is differentially related to the three facets of interoception. Analyses were conducted on a total sample of N=159 healthy participants (118 female [74.2%]; mean age = 23.9 years, SD = 3.3, range = 19-45) who performed either the heartbeat tracking task, the heartbeat discrimination task or both. The results suggest that Accuracy, Sensibility and Awareness are empirically distinct facets of interoception, showing no correlation when based on heartbeat tracking, but moderate correlations when based on heartbeat discrimination. The assumption that Interoceptive Accuracy is the basic level of interoception could only be partially confirmed. Instead, we conclude that the level of objective physiological states should be considered as the most basic level of interoceptive signal processing. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly life adversity and rejection sensitivity
Schaan, Violetta UL; Vögele, Claus UL

in Early life adversity and rejection sensitivity (2016)

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See detailA systematic review on heart rate variability in Bulimia Nervosa
Peschel, Stephanie K.V.; Feeling, Nicole R.; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews (2016), 63

Eating disorders are associated with alterations of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Heart rate variability (HRV) provides a readily available index of ANS function. While ANS dysfunction indexed by ... [more ▼]

Eating disorders are associated with alterations of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Heart rate variability (HRV) provides a readily available index of ANS function. While ANS dysfunction indexed by HRV in Anorexia Nervosa has been addressed in previous reviews, here we aimed to review the current evidence on HRV in Bulimia Nervosa (BN). A systematic literature search in Web of Science, PsycInfo, Scopus, and PubMed identified 17 studies reporting HRV in patients with BN. Studies described (i) differences in resting state HRV in patients with BN compared to controls, (ii) alterations in the stress response in BN indexed by HRV, and (iii) treatment effects on HRV in patients with BN. Despite a number of conflicting results, we conclude that BN is characterized by increased resting state vagally-mediated HRV and an impaired stress-response. Intervention-studies suggest that altered ANS-activity in BN is at least partially reversible. Future studies on the complex relation between BN and HRV should investigate the effect of comorbid disorders, subtypes of BN, and mechanisms affecting treatment outcome. [less ▲]

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See detailGastrische Modulation der Schreckreaktion und gastrisch-evozierte Potenziale: zwei neue psychophysiologische Indikatoren für Interozeption des gastrointestinalen Systems
Schulz, André UL; Schaan, L.; Van Dyck, Zoé UL et al

in Kathmann, N. (Ed.) 42. Tagung Psychologie und Gehirn Abstractband (2016)

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See detailGerman version of the Intuitive Eating Scale: Psychometric evaluation and application to an eating disordered population
Van Dyck, Zoé UL; Herbert, Beate M; Happ, Christian et al

in Appetite (2016), 105

Intuitive eating has been described to represent an adaptive eating behaviour that is characterised by eating in response to physiological hunger and satiety cues, rather than situational and emotional ... [more ▼]

Intuitive eating has been described to represent an adaptive eating behaviour that is characterised by eating in response to physiological hunger and satiety cues, rather than situational and emotional stimuli. The Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) has been developed to measure such attitudes and behaviours on four subscales: unconditional permission to eat (UPE), eating for physical rather than emotional reasons (EPR), reliance on internal hunger and satiety cues (RHSC), and body-food choice congruence (B-FCC). The present study aimed at validating the psychometric properties of the German translation of the IES-2 in a large German-speaking sample. A second objective was to assess levels of intuitive eating in participants with an eating disorder diagnosis (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge eating disorder). The proposed factor structure of the IES-2 could be confirmed for the German translation of the questionnaire. The total score and most subscale scores were negatively related to eating disorder symptomatology, problems in appetite and emotional awareness, body dissatisfaction, and self-objectification. Women with eating disorders had significantly lower values on all IES-2 subscale scores and the total score than women without an eating disorder diagnosis. Women with a binge eating disorder (BED) diagnosis had higher scores on the UPE subscale compared to participants with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), and those diagnosed with AN had higher scores on the EPR subscale than individuals with BN or BED. We conclude that the German IES-2 constitutes a useful self-report instrument for the assessment of intuitive eating in German-speaking samples. Further studies are warranted to evaluate psychometric properties of the IES-2 in different samples, and to investigate its application in a clinical setting. [less ▲]

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See detailCognitive, emotional and psychosocial functioning of girls treated with pharmacological puberty blockage for idiopathic central precocious puberty
Wojniusz, S; Callens, N; Sütterlin, S et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (2016), 7

Central precocious puberty (CPP) develops due to premature activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, resulting in early pubertal changes and rapid bone maturation. CPP is associated ... [more ▼]

Central precocious puberty (CPP) develops due to premature activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, resulting in early pubertal changes and rapid bone maturation. CPP is associated with lower adult height and increased risk for development of psychological problems. Standard treatment of CPP is based on postponement of pubertal development by blockade of the HPG axis with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) leading to abolition of gonadal sex hormones synthesis. Whereas the hormonal and auxological effects of GnRHa are well researched, there is a lack of knowledge whether GnRHa treatment influences psychological functioning of treated children, despite the fact that prevention of psychological problems is used as one of the main reasons for treatment initiation. In the present study we seek to address this issue by exploring differences in cognitive function, behavior, emotional reactivity, and psychosocial problems between GnRHa treated CPP girls and age-matched controls. Fifteen girls with idiopathic CPP; median age 10.4 years, treated with slow-release GnRHa (triptorelin acetate – Decapeptyl SR ® 11.25) and 15 age-matched controls, were assessed with a comprehensive test battery consisting of paper and pencil tests, computerized tasks, behavioral paradigms, heart rate variability, and questionnaires filled in by the children’s parents. Both groups showed very similar scores with regard to cognitive performance, behavioral and psychosocial problems. Compared to controls, treated girls displayed significantly higher emotional reactivity (p = 0.016; Cohen’s d = 1.04) on one of the two emotional reactivity task conditions. Unexpectedly, the CPP group showed significantly lower resting heart rates than the controls (p = 0.004; Cohen’s d = 1.03); lower heart rate was associated with longer treatment duration (r = - 0.582, p = 0.037). The results suggest that GnRHa treated CPP girls do not differ in their cognitive or psychosocial functioning from age matched controls. However, they might process emotional stimuli differently. The unexpected finding of lower heart rate that was associated with longer duration of the treatment should be further explored by methods appropriate for assessment of cardiac health. [less ▲]

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See detailAttachment Status Affects Heart Rate Responses to Experimental Ostracism in Inpatients with Depression
De Rubeis, Jannika; Sütterlin, Stefan; Lange, Diane et al

in PLoS ONE (2016), 11(3), 0150375

Depression is assumed to be both a risk factor for rejection and a result of it, and as such constitutes an important factor in rejection research. Attachment theory has been applied to understand ... [more ▼]

Depression is assumed to be both a risk factor for rejection and a result of it, and as such constitutes an important factor in rejection research. Attachment theory has been applied to understand psychological disorders, such as depression, and can explain individual differences in responses to rejection. Research on autonomic nervous system activity to rejection experiences has been contradictory, with opposing strings of argumentation (activating vs. numbing). We investigated autonomic nervous system-mediated peripheral physiological responses (heart rate) to experimentally manipulated ostracism (Cyberball) in 97 depressed patients with organized (n = 52) and disorganized attachment status (n= 45). Controlling for baseline mean heart rate levels, depressed patients with disorganized attachment status responded to ostracism with significantly higher increases in heart rate than depressed patients with organized attachment status (p=.029; ηp²=.051). These results suggest that attachment status may be a useful indicator of autonomic responses to perceived social threat, which in turn may affect the therapeutic process and the patient-therapist relationship. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes anyone still understand me? Psychotherapy and multilingualism.
Karp, Mélanie; Vögele, Claus UL

in Verhaltenstherapie (2016)

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See detailMit Ärger konstruktiv umgehen
Steffgen, Georges UL; de Boer, Claudia; Vögele, Claus UL

Book published by Hogrefe (2016)

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See detailHerz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen
Vögele, Claus UL

in Ehlert, Ulrike (Ed.) Verhaltensmedizin (2016)

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See detailGoals in Nutrition Science 2015–2020
Allison, David B.; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Burlingname, Barbara et al

in Frontiers in Nutrition (2015), 2(26),

With the definition of goals in Nutrition Science, we are taking a brave step and a leap of faith with regard to predicting the scope and direction of nutrition science over the next 5 years. The content ... [more ▼]

With the definition of goals in Nutrition Science, we are taking a brave step and a leap of faith with regard to predicting the scope and direction of nutrition science over the next 5 years. The content of this editorial has been discussed, refined, and evaluated with great care by the Frontiers in Nutrition editorial board. We feel the topics described represent the key opportunities, but also the biggest challenges in our field. We took a clean-slate, bottom-up approach to identify and address these topics and present them in eight categories. For each category, the authors listed take responsibility, and deliberately therefore this document is a collection of thoughts from active minds, rather than a complete integration or consensus. At Frontiers in Nutrition, we are excited to develop and share a platform for this discussion. Healthy Nutrition for all – an ambition too important to be handled by detached interest groups. [less ▲]

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See detailInteroception and Stress
Schulz, André UL; Vögele, Claus UL

in Frontiers in Psychology (2015), 6(1), 993

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See detailZentralnervöse Verarbeitung von Körpersignalen bei Anorexia nervosa
Lutz, Annika UL; Schulz, André UL; Voderholzer, Ulrich et al

Scientific Conference (2015, April)

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See detailWhat is the Value Given by Consumers to Nutritional Label Information? Results from a Large Investigation in Europe
Gregori, Dario; Ballali, Simonetta; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Journal of the American College of Nutrition (2015), Epub ahead of print

Rational. Nutrition labels on pre-packaged foods have been widely advocated as a medium to foster healthier eating habits in the general population. Objective. The study aimed at understanding how people ... [more ▼]

Rational. Nutrition labels on pre-packaged foods have been widely advocated as a medium to foster healthier eating habits in the general population. Objective. The study aimed at understanding how people value nutritional information on food labels, in particular front-of-pack labelling. Methods. A phone-assisted survey on 7550 consumers in 16 European countries was conducted. People were asked about their opinion on nutritional information provided at different levels, from the media to public institutions, and their commitment to healthy behavior. The value of pack labelling was estimated using a willingness-to-pay (WTP) elicitation technique. Results. Older age groups (>45 years old), members of a larger family, low income or low education level people and those who perceived themselves to be obese, valued front-of-pack nutritional labelling positively. WTP estimates across all countries provided an average accepted added price of 3.46€, additionally to the overall yearly food expenditure (95% C.I.: 3.33-3.68). Conclusions. Overall, perceived value of labelling is small. However, factors affecting the value for consumer of nutritional labelling appear to be strictly linked to the socio-economic and health status of the respondents. [less ▲]

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See detailBehavioral Medicine
Vögele, Claus UL

in Wright, James D. (Ed.) International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences (2015)

Behavioral Medicine is the interdisciplinary field of study of behavior in health and disease. Based on often-experimental investigations of behavior, behavioral medicine contributes to a better ... [more ▼]

Behavioral Medicine is the interdisciplinary field of study of behavior in health and disease. Based on often-experimental investigations of behavior, behavioral medicine contributes to a better understanding of etiological factors and mechanisms, but also to clinical applications aimed at systematically improving health in clinical and at-risk populations. As the literature summarized in this chapter illustrates, behavioral medicine has shown tremendous progress in achieving these goals since its inception in 1977. Nevertheless, the successful translation of research results into clinical practice remains a challenge for the future. [less ▲]

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See detailPersonalized Medicine
Phillips, Robert; Vögele, Claus UL

in Wright, James D. (Ed.) International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences (2015)

The rapid advances in medical science over the past two decades have already changed the way medicine is practiced, but the acceleration of advances suggests that health care systems worldwide are facing ... [more ▼]

The rapid advances in medical science over the past two decades have already changed the way medicine is practiced, but the acceleration of advances suggests that health care systems worldwide are facing a tsunami of new advances in understanding and in technology that will require radical reorganization of the health care system. The improved possibility of personalizing health care is one of the major drivers of change. Unfortunately, health care systems respond very slowly to innovation, and radical changes are almost impossible. In this article, we outline various changes that are expected to happen in the future in relation to personalized medicine, and discuss why behavioral scientists must participate in the reshaping of health care systems and the successful delivery of personalized care at the individual level. [less ▲]

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See detailAltered patterns of heartbeat-evoked potentials in depersonalization/derealization disorder: neurophysiological evidence for impaired cortical representation of bodily signals
Schulz, André UL; Köster, S.; Beutel, M. E. et al

in Psychosomatic Medicine (2015), 77(5), 506-516

OBJECTIVE: Core features of depersonalization-/derealization disorder (DPD) are emotional numbing and feelings of disembodiment. While there are several neurophysiological findings supporting subjective ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Core features of depersonalization-/derealization disorder (DPD) are emotional numbing and feelings of disembodiment. While there are several neurophysiological findings supporting subjective emotional numbing, the psychobiology of disembodiment remains unclear. METHODS: Heartbeat-evoked potentials (HEPs), which are considered psychophysiological indicators for the cortical representation of afferent signals originating from the cardiovascular system, were assessed in 23 patients with DPD and 24 healthy control individuals during rest and while performing a heartbeat perception task. RESULTS: Absolute HEP amplitudes did not differ between groups. Nevertheless, healthy individuals showed higher HEPs during the heartbeat perception task than during rest, while no such effect was found in DPD patients (p = .031). DPD patients had higher total levels of salivary alpha-amylase than healthy individuals (9626.6±8200.0 vs. 5344.3±3745.8 kUmin/l; p = .029), but there were no group differences in cardiovascular measures (heart rate: 76.2±10.1 vs. 74.3 ±7.5 bpm, p = .60; nLF HRV: .63±.15 vs. .56 ±.15 n.u., p = .099; LF/HF ratio: 249.3±242.7 vs. 164.8 ±108.8, p = .10), salivary cortisol (57.5±46.7 vs. 55.1±43.6 nmolmin/l, p = .86) or cortisone levels (593.2±260.3 vs. 543.8±257.1 nmolmin/l, p = .52). CONCLUSION: These results suggest altered cortical representation of afferent signals originating from the cardiovascular system in DPD patients, which may be associated with higher sympathetic tone. These findings may reflect difficulties of DPD patients to attend to their actual bodily experiences. [less ▲]

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See detailInterozeptive Sensitivität bei Bulimia Nervosa und Binge-Eating-Störung
Van Dyck, Zoé UL; Schulz, André UL; Blechert, J. et al

in Kaiser, J.; Fiebach, C. (Eds.) 41. Tagung Psychologie und Gehirn - Abstracts der Beiträge (2015)

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See detailInteroception and symptom reporting: Disentangling accuracy and bias.
Petersen, Sibylle UL; Van Staeyen, Ken; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (2015)

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