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See detailMethodische Herausforderungen bei der Erfassung der interozeptiven Genauigkeit im Vorschulalter
Opdensteinen, K.; Schaan, L.; Pohl, A. et al

in Kirschbaum, C. (Ed.) 45. Jahrestagung Psychologie und Gehirn - Abstractband (2019)

Im Vorschulalter entwickeln sich zentrale Fähigkeiten in Kognition, Sprache und Emotion. Dennoch ist wenig über das bewusste Erleben innerer Körperempfindungen bei Vorschulkindern bekannt, da es an ... [more ▼]

Im Vorschulalter entwickeln sich zentrale Fähigkeiten in Kognition, Sprache und Emotion. Dennoch ist wenig über das bewusste Erleben innerer Körperempfindungen bei Vorschulkindern bekannt, da es an altersangepassten Paradigmen zu Erfassung der interozeptiven Genauigkeit (IG) mangelt. Das Jumping Jack Paradigma (JJP) (Schaan et al., 2019) ist das erste explizite IG-Paradigma für Vorschulkinder, das eine Veränderung des Herzschlages durch eine körperliche Übung in die Erfassung integriert. Aufgrund methodischer Herausforderungen wurde das JJP modifiziert und an einer Stichprobe von 40 Kindern (22 Jungen, 4–6 Jahre) erprobt. Die Wahrnehmung des Herzschlags wurde zu sechs Zeitpunkten (3 Ratings in Ruhephasen und 3 nach Hampelmannsprüngen mit aufsteigender Sprungdauer je 15, 20 und 25s) auf einer 5-stufigen Ratingskala erfasst. Die Berechnung des IG-Wertes erfolgte durch Korrelationen zwischen der selbstberichteten und der objektiv-aufgezeichneten Herzrate. Die objektiv-gemessene Herzrate erhöhte sich in Abhängigkeit der Sprungdauer (F(2;78)=9.19, p<.001; pη²=0.19), während die selbstberichtete Herzrate nach dem zweiten Durchgang am höchsten eingeschätzt wurde (F(2;78)=9.37, p<.001; pη²=.19). Vorschulkinder variierten in ihrer IG (M=0.07, SD=0.37, Range:-0.74–0.88). Es zeigten sich keine signifikanten Unterschiede zwischen Mädchen und Jungen hinsichtlich der IG. Ältere Jungen zeigten eine höhere IG, verglichen mit jüngeren Jungen (χ²(2)=5.61, p=.05), während bei Mädchen kein Alterseffekt auftrat. Anhand des modifizierten JJP konnte gezeigt werden, dass einige Kinder bereits im Vorschulalter in der Lage sind, Veränderungen körpereigener Empfindungen wahrzunehmen. Die Induktion körperlichen Arousals scheint die Wahrnehmung des Herzschlages mit zunehmendem Alter vor allem bei Jungen zu erleichtern, da ältere Jungen sensitiver waren. Die Ergebnisse lassen vermuten, dass es im Vorschulalter Geschlechtsunterschiede bei der Körperwahrnehmung geben könnte. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of acute yohimbine administration on interoception in major depression and childhood adversity
Kuehl, L. K.; Deuter, C. E.; Breden, I.-H. et al

in Psychoneuroendocrinology (2019), 107(Supplement 1), 4

Acute stress, release of stress hormones and chronic stress can affect the processing of visceral-afferent neural signals at different brain levels, which are important for interoception. However, it ... [more ▼]

Acute stress, release of stress hormones and chronic stress can affect the processing of visceral-afferent neural signals at different brain levels, which are important for interoception. However, it remains unclear if these effects are due to activation of the sympatho-adreno-medullary (SAM) axis or hypothalamicpituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis. With this study, we aimed to investigate the selective effect of SAM axis activation on interoceptive accuracy. Central alpha2-adrenergic receptors represent a negative feedback mechanism of the SAM axis. For major depressive disorder (MDD) and adverse childhood experiences (ACE), alterations in the biological stress systems, including density and sensitivity of central alpha2-adrenergic receptors, have been shown. Healthy individuals without ACE (n = 46), healthy individuals with ACE (n = 23), patients with MDD and without ACE (n = 26) and patients with MDD with ACE (n = 22, all without antidepressant medication) were tested after oral administration of 10mg of yohimbine (alpha2-adrenergic receptors antagonist) and placebo administration in a repeated measures design. Interoceptive accuracy and sensibility were assessed in a heartbeat tracking task. Increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure after yohimbine administration in all groups confirmed successful activation of the SAM axis. Interoceptive accuracy decreased after yohimbine intake only in the healthy group with ACE, but remained unchanged in all other groups. This ‘group’בdrug’ interaction effect may be due to selective up-regulation of alpha2- adrenergic receptors after experience of childhood trauma, which reduces capacity for attention focus on heartbeats. Suppressed processing of physical sensations in stressful situations may represent an adaptive response in healthy individuals with childhood adversity. [less ▲]

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See detailHerzschlag-evozierte Potenziale bei Bulimia nervosa
Lutz, Annika UL; Van Dyck, Zoé UL; Schulz, André UL et al

Poster (2019)

Die ursprüngliche Annahme, dass Essstörungspatient/innen unter einem umfassenden Defizit der interozeptiven Wahrnehmung leiden, wird inzwischen differenzierter betrachtet. Unterschiedliche Befunde ergeben ... [more ▼]

Die ursprüngliche Annahme, dass Essstörungspatient/innen unter einem umfassenden Defizit der interozeptiven Wahrnehmung leiden, wird inzwischen differenzierter betrachtet. Unterschiedliche Befunde ergeben sich je nach betrachtetem Organsystem (Herz, Magen), Verarbeitungsebene (neuronal, Selbstbericht) und Diagnose. Die bisherige Befundlage ist jedoch unübersichtlich und widersprüchlich. Für Bulimia nervosa (BN) wurde sowohl reduzierte, als auch unveränderte Herzschlagwahrnehmung berichtet. Mit dem vorliegenden Beitrag steuern wir weitere Ergebnisse zur Herzschlagwahrnehmung bei und ergänzen diese um einen physiologischen Indikator der kortikalen Verarbeitung kardio-afferenter Signale (Herzschlag-evozierte Potenziale, HEPs). Es wurden 22 Frauen mit akuter oder teilremittierter BN (BMI 23,94±3,61; Alter 31,86±11,20) und 22 gesunde Frauen untersucht (BMI 24,24±3,37; Alter 31,00±10,15). Die Stichproben wurden nach Alter und BMI parallelisiert. Die Teilnehmerinnen führten eine Herzschlagwahrnehmungsaufgabe nach Schandry durch, während ein 64-Kanal-EEG aufgezeichnet wurde. HEPs wurden als mittlere EEG-Amplitude von 455ms bis 595ms nach der R-Zacke berechnet. Die Ergebnisse zeigen keine signifikanten Gruppenunterschiede in Herzschlagwahrnehmung, HEPs und Herzrate. Dies bestätigt vorherige Befunde einer intakten Herzschlagwahrnehmung bei BN. Zusätzlich können wir von einer intakten kortikalen Verarbeitung kardio-afferenter Reize ausgehen. Die Wahrnehmung des Herzschlags ist insbesondere für die Verarbeitung und Regulation von Emotionen relevant. Auf Basis der vorliegenden und früheren Befunde ist davon auszugehen, dass defizitäre Emotionsregulation bei BN nicht auf veränderte Herzschlagwahrnehmung zurückzuführen ist. [less ▲]

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See detailRespiration
Schulz, André UL

in Wirtz, M. A. (Ed.) Dorsch - Lexikon der Psychologie (2019)

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See detailInterozeption bei akutem Stress und Stress-assoziierten Erkrankungen
Schulz, André UL

in Schmidt, S. (Ed.) 14. Kongress der Fachgruppe Gesundheitspsychologie. Das richtige Maß ‒ Gesundheitspsychologie zwischen Individualisierung und Bevölkerungsbezug. (2019)

Hintergrund: Das Gehirn und periphere Körperorgane tauschen permanent Informationen aus. Interozeption erfordert die Aufmerksamkeitslenkung auf afferente Signale vom Körper zum Gehirn. Stress wiederum ... [more ▼]

Hintergrund: Das Gehirn und periphere Körperorgane tauschen permanent Informationen aus. Interozeption erfordert die Aufmerksamkeitslenkung auf afferente Signale vom Körper zum Gehirn. Stress wiederum beinhaltet efferente Signalübermittlung vom Gehirn an periphere Körperprozesse. Daher kann die Interaktion von Interozeption und Stress auch als bi-direktionale Signalübermittlung zwischen Gehirn und Körper angesehen werden. Die präsentierte Studienreihe besteht aus 10 Einzelstudien, die folgende Ziele verfolgt: (1.) Die bidirektionale Hirn-Körper-Kommunikation im Normalzustand bei Gesunden zu verstehen und (2.) die Bedeutung potenziell dysregulierter Hirn-Körper-Kommunikation bei Stress-assoziierten Krankheiten aufzudecken. Methode: Dabei werden verschiedene Ebenen interozeptiver Signalübermittlung, wie frühe Repräsentation im zentralen Nervensystem (ZNS), bewusste Wahrnehmung und Aufmerksamkeitslenkung auf Körperprozesse, sowie deren Interpretation untersucht. Die beiden physiologischen Stress-Achsen, die Hypothalamus- Hypophysen-Nebennierenrinden-Achse und die sympatho-adreno-medulläre (SAM-)Achse, stehen dabei im Mittelpunkt der Untersuchungen. Ergebnisse: Zunächst wird anhand von Studien mit Stresstests und pharmakologischen Designs aufgezeigt, dass eine Aktivierung der SAM-Achse sowohl das kardiovaskuläre System stimuliert, aber auch die Aufmerksamkeitslenkung beeinträchtigt. Cortisol wiederum verstärkt Hirn-Körper-Kommunikation vor allem auf Ebene der (kortikalen) ZNS-Repräsentation. Depersonalisierungsstörung, somatoforme Störungen, Depression, posttraumatische Belastungsstörung und Borderline-Persönlichkeitsstörung zeichnen sich alle durch ein hochspezifisches Pattern der Dysregulation hinsichtlich Interozeption und physiologischer Stressachsen aus, was die Heterogenität der Körpersymptome erklären könnte. Darüber hinaus zeigt sich, dass Hirn-Körper-Kommunikation auch den Verlauf kardiovaskulärer Erkrankungen vorhersagen kann. Diskussion: Die Ergebnisse sprechen für die Entwicklung von Präventionsansätzen, die Hirn-Körper-Kommunikation mit bestimmten Trainings zu stärken, um den psychischen und körperlichen Gesundheitsverlauf positiv beeinflussen zu können. [less ▲]

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See detailBaroreflex-Sensitivität
Schulz, André UL

in Wirtz, M. A. (Ed.) Dorsch - Lexikon der Psychologie (2019)

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See detailVisceral-afferent signals from the cardiovascular system, but not urinary urge, affect startle eye blink
Schulz, André UL; Schilling, Thomas M.; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Physiology and Behavior (2019), 199(1), 165-172

The aim of the current study was to investigate if startle methodology is suitable to reflect urinary urgency. Eighteen healthy men were tested on two separate days, each including an ingestion of fluid ... [more ▼]

The aim of the current study was to investigate if startle methodology is suitable to reflect urinary urgency. Eighteen healthy men were tested on two separate days, each including an ingestion of fluid until 80% of the subjective urge to micturate was reached. EMG responses to acoustic startle stimuli were assessed before and after micturition, as well as in the early and late cardiac cycle phases (230 vs. 530 ms after a cardiac R-wave). Sonographic assessment confirmed bladder-filling status. Emotional arousal, stress, urge and unpleasantness ratings, as well as mean blood pressure were higher before than after micturition. Startle eye blink responses were lower during the early than during the late cardiac cycle phase, but were not affected by bladder filling status. We conclude that startle methodology is suitable for the investigation of afferent signals from the cardiovascular system, but not to reflect urinary urgency. This result may be due to different neurophysiological mechanisms underlying afferent signals from the bladder compared to other visceral organs or interference with affective states or sympathetic activation associated with bladder filling. Notwithstanding, the present research protocol of fluid intake, sonographic assessment of the bladder, and subjective reports, can be applied to examine visceral-afferent signals from the bladder. [less ▲]

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See detailLate heartbeat-evoked potentials are associated with survival after cardiac arrest
Schulz, André UL; Stammet, P.; Dierolf, Angelika UL et al

in Resuscitation (2018), 126(1), 7-13

RATIONALE: Cardiac arrest (CA) is a serious condition characterized by high mortality rates, even after initial successful resuscitation, mainly due to neurological damage. Whether brain-heart ... [more ▼]

RATIONALE: Cardiac arrest (CA) is a serious condition characterized by high mortality rates, even after initial successful resuscitation, mainly due to neurological damage. Whether brain-heart communication is associated with outcome after CA is unknown. Heartbeat-evoked brain potentials (HEPs) represent neurophysiological indicators of brain-heart communication. The aim of this study was to address the association between HEPs and survival after CA. METHODS: HEPs were calculated from resting EEG/ECG in 55 CA patients 24 hours after resuscitation. All patients were treated with targeted temperature management and a standardized sedation protocol during assessment. We investigated the association between HEP amplitude (180- 320 ms, 455-595 ms, 860-1000 ms) and 6-month survival. RESULTS: Twenty-five of 55 patients (45%) were still alive at 6-month follow-up. Survivors showed a higher HEP amplitude at frontopolar and frontal electrodes in the late HEP interval than non-survivors. This effect remained significant after controlling for between-group differences in terms of age, Fentanyl dose, and time lag between resuscitation and EEG assessment. There were no group differences in heart rate or heart rate variability. CONCLUSION: Brain-heart communication, as reflected by HEPs, is associated with survival after CA. Future studies should address the brain-heart axis in CA. [less ▲]

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See detailA Latent State-Trait Analysis of Interoceptive Accuracy
Wittkamp, M.; Bertsch, K.; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Psychophysiology (2018), e0185802

Interoceptive accuracy (IAc), i.e. the ability to accurately perceive one’s own bodily signals, is widely assumed to be a trait, although experimental manipulations, such as stress, may affect IAc. We ... [more ▼]

Interoceptive accuracy (IAc), i.e. the ability to accurately perceive one’s own bodily signals, is widely assumed to be a trait, although experimental manipulations, such as stress, may affect IAc. We used structural equation modeling to estimate the reliability of IAc, and the proportions of individual differences in IAc, explained by a trait and occasion-specific effects of situation and person-situation interactions. We assessed IAc in 59 healthy participants (40 women, MAge = 23.4 years) on three consecutive measurement occasions, approx. one week apart, in a ‘rest’ and ‘poststress’ condition, using a heartbeat counting and a heartbeat discrimination task. The results show fair temporal stability (intraclass correlation coefficients ≥ 0.38) and good reliability (Mdn = .63; range .49-.83) for both methods. While around 40% of the variance of a single IAc measurement could be explained by a trait, approx. 27% were accounted for by occasion-specific effects of situation and person-situation interaction. These results suggest that IAc measures are relatively consistent and that situations and person-situation interactions impact IAc as measured at a certain point in time. An aggregation across at least two measurements is recommended when using IAc as a trait variable. [less ▲]

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See detailPost-learning cold pressor stress, after a heartbeat perception training, enhances interoceptive accuracy in high blood pressure responders
Breden, Ion-Hideo UL; Fischbach, Jean; Schenk, Lara UL et al

in Hennig, J.; Stark, R. (Eds.) Abstractband Psychologie und Gehirn 2018 (2018)

Interoceptive accuracy (IAc) plays an important role for generation of medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) and trainings to enhance IAc reduces the perceived symptom severity of MUS. Post-learning stress ... [more ▼]

Interoceptive accuracy (IAc) plays an important role for generation of medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) and trainings to enhance IAc reduces the perceived symptom severity of MUS. Post-learning stress may facilitate recognition learning. It is yet unknown, however, if acute stress, when evoked during the memory consolidation phase, could enhance the visceral learning in a heartbeat perception training (HBPT). The present study is the first to investigate the effects of a socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT) induced after a HBPT aimed at increasing IAc. The sample consisted of 48 healthy students (28 women). IAc was assessed at three different time points: (1) once as a baseline measure, (2) 30 minutes after the SECPT, and (3) the day after. Assessment of IAc was performed using the heartbeat perception task developed by Schandry (1981). The HBPT followed the baseline IAc assessment and was a replication of the paradigm developed by Schaefer et al. (2014). The SECPT followed immediately after the HBPT. Results showed that post-encoding stress significantly increased IAc between T1 and T3 for participants showing a high blood pressure (BP) response in the SECPT compared to the control group, whereas low BP responders did not show such an effect. This indicates that post-encoding stress enhances visceral memory consolidation in high BP responders compared to low BP responder and non-stressed control participants. Post-learning stress facilitation of visceral learning and memory may represent a mechanism underlying symptom generation, which should be addressed in studies on somatic symptom disorders in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailLate heartbeat-evoked potentials, indicators of cortical representation of interoceptive signal processing, are associated with survival after cardiac arrest
Schulz, André UL; Stammet, Pascal; Dierolf, Angelika UL et al

in Hennig, J.; Stark, R. (Eds.) Abstractband Psychologie und Gehirn 2018 (2018)

Rationale: Cardiac arrest (CA) is a serious condition characterized by high mortality rates, even after initial successful resuscitation, mainly due to neurological damage. Whether brain-heart ... [more ▼]

Rationale: Cardiac arrest (CA) is a serious condition characterized by high mortality rates, even after initial successful resuscitation, mainly due to neurological damage. Whether brain-heart communication is associated with outcome after CA is unknown. Heartbeat-evoked brain potentials (HEPs) represent neurophysiological indicators of brain-heart communication, as they reflect cortical representation of interoceptive signal processing. The aim of this study was to address the association between HEPs and survival after CA. Methods: HEPs were calculated from resting EEG/ECG in 55 CA patients 24 h after resuscitation. All patients were treated with targeted temperature management and a standardized sedation protocol during assessment. We investigated the association between HEP amplitude (180{320 ms, 455{595 ms, 860{1000 ms) and 6-month survival. Results: Twenty-five of 55 patients (45%) were still alive at 6-month follow-up. Survivors showed a higher HEP amplitude at frontopolar and frontal electrodes in the late HEP interval than non-survivors. This effect remained significant after controlling for between-group differences in terms of age, Fentanyl dose, and time lag between resuscitation and EEG assessment. There were no group differences in heart rate or heart rate variability. Conclusion: Brain-heart communication, as re ected by HEPs, is associated with survival after CA. Cardiovascular autonomic arousal may not be involved in mediating this effect. Adequate cortical representation of interoceptive signals may be essential to preserve cariovascular health and should be in the focus of prevention strategies. Future studies should address the brain-heart axis in CA. [less ▲]

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See detailRespiratory modulation of startle: effects on subjective intensity and psychomotor response times
Münch, Eva Elisabeth UL; Vögele, Claus UL; Van Diest, Ilse et al

in Hennig, J.; Stark, R. (Eds.) Abstractband Psychologie und Gehirn 2018 (2018)

Respiratory cycle time modulates reflexive startle eye blink responses to acoustic stimuli. Responsible for this effect seems to be the afferent input of slow adapting pulmonary stretch receptors. It ... [more ▼]

Respiratory cycle time modulates reflexive startle eye blink responses to acoustic stimuli. Responsible for this effect seems to be the afferent input of slow adapting pulmonary stretch receptors. It remains unclear, however, whether this respiratory modulation of startle (RMS) effect is also reflected in the modulation of higher cognitive, evaluative processing of the startle stimulus. Twenty-nine healthy volunteers received 80 acoustic startle stimuli (100 or 105 dB(A); 50 ms; binaural; instantaneous rise time), which were presented during peak and ongoing inspiration and expiration, while performing a paced breathing task at 0.25 Hz. Participants first responded to the startle probes by `as fast as possible' button pushes and then rated the perceived intensity of the acoustic stimuli. Psychomotor response time was divided into pre-motor (from stimulus onset to home button release; represents stimulus evaluation) and motor response time (from home button release to target button press). Intensity judgements were higher and evaluative response times accelerated during on-going expiration. No effect of respiratory cycle phase was found on eye blink responses and motor response time. We conclude, therefore, that respiratory cycle phase affects higher cognitive, attentional processing of acoustic startle stimuli. [less ▲]

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See detailRespiratory modulation of startle: effects on subjective intensity and psychomotor response times
Münch, Eva Elisabeth UL; Vögele, Claus UL; Van Diest, Ilse et al

in Abstractband Psychologie und Gehirn 2018 (2018)

Respiratory cycle time modulates reflexive startle eye blink responses to acoustic stimuli. Responsible for this effect seems to be the afferent input of slow adapting pulmonary stretch receptors. It ... [more ▼]

Respiratory cycle time modulates reflexive startle eye blink responses to acoustic stimuli. Responsible for this effect seems to be the afferent input of slow adapting pulmonary stretch receptors. It remains unclear, however, whether this respiratory modulation of startle (RMS) effect is also reflected in the modulation of higher cognitive, evaluative processing of the startle stimulus. Twenty-nine healthy volunteers received 80 acoustic startle stimuli (100 or 105 dB(A); 50 ms; binaural; instantaneous rise time), which were presented during peak and ongoing inspiration and expiration, while performing a paced breathing task at 0.25 Hz. Participants first responded to the startle probes by `as fast as possible' button pushes and then rated the perceived intensity of the acoustic stimuli. Psychomotor response time was divided into pre-motor (from stimulus onset to home button release; represents stimulus evaluation) and motor response time (from home button release to target button press). Intensity judgements were higher and evaluative response times accelerated during on-going expiration. No effect of respiratory cycle phase was found on eye blink responses and motor response time. We conclude, therefore, that respiratory cycle phase affects higher cognitive, attentional processing of acoustic startle stimuli. [less ▲]

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See detailSensing Your Body: Interoceptive Awareness and Medically Unexplained Symptoms
Flasinski, Tabea UL; Dierolf, Angelika UL; Voderholzer, Ulrich et al

in Abtracts of the 32nd Annual Conference of the European Health Psychology Society (2018)

According to contemporary theories of medically unexplained symptoms (MUS), alterations in interoception play a major role in symptom development and maintenance. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying ... [more ▼]

According to contemporary theories of medically unexplained symptoms (MUS), alterations in interoception play a major role in symptom development and maintenance. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remains unclear. To address this unresolved issue, we investigated whether individuals with varying degrees of MUS differ in different facets of interoceptive awareness as assessed with the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) questionnaire. In study 1, 486 individuals were screened with an online version of the Screening for Somatoform Disorders (SOMS-2). Individuals with a SOMS index below 5 (low reporter, n=32) and above 20 (high reporter, n=32) were invited to fill in the MAIA. High symptom reporter had lower scores on the Not-Distracting, Not-Worrying, and Trusting subscales, and higher scores on the Emotional Awareness subscale (Cohen´s d=.70–1.16). In study 2, individuals with DSM-IV somatoform disorder (SFD; n=25) were compared to individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD; n=24) and healthy controls (HC; n=25). The SFD and MDD groups had lower scores on the Not-Distracting, Attention Regulation, Self-Regulation, and Trusting subscales than HC. The MDD group had lower scores than the SFD and HC groups on the Body Listening subscale (partial eta-squared=.18-.26). No differences with regard to Noticing of bodily sensations were found. Groups with subclinical SFD, SFD and MDD do not differ from healthy individuals in terms of actual body perception, whereas cognitive facets of interoception, such as distraction or self-regulation are differentially affected. This highlights the necessity of including specifically targeted mindfulness-based interventions [less ▲]

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See detailPost-learning cold pressor stress, after a heartbeat perception training, enhances interoceptive accuracy in high blood pressure responders
Breden, Ion-Hideo UL; Fischbach, Jean; Schenk, Lara UL et al

in Abstractband Psychologie und Gehirn 2018 (2018)

Interoceptive accuracy (IAc) plays an important role for generation of medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) and trainings to enhance IAc reduces the perceived symptom severity of MUS. Post-learning stress ... [more ▼]

Interoceptive accuracy (IAc) plays an important role for generation of medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) and trainings to enhance IAc reduces the perceived symptom severity of MUS. Post-learning stress may facilitate recognition learning. It is yet unknown, however, if acute stress, when evoked during the memory consolidation phase, could enhance the visceral learning in a heartbeat perception training (HBPT). The present study is the first to investigate the effects of a socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT) induced after a HBPT aimed at increasing IAc. The sample consisted of 48 healthy students (28 women). IAc was assessed at three different time points: (1) once as a baseline measure, (2) 30 minutes after the SECPT, and (3) the day after. Assessment of IAc was performed using the heartbeat perception task developed by Schandry (1981). The HBPT followed the baseline IAc assessment and was a replication of the paradigm developed by Schaefer et al. (2014). The SECPT followed immediately after the HBPT. Results showed that post-encoding stress significantly increased IAc between T1 and T3 for participants showing a high blood pressure (BP) response in the SECPT compared to the control group, whereas low BP responders did not show such an effect. This indicates that post-encoding stress enhances visceral memory consolidation in high BP responders compared to low BP responder and non-stressed control participants. Post-learning stress facilitation of visceral learning and memory may represent a mechanism underlying symptom generation, which should be addressed in studies on somatic symptom disorders in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailLate heartbeat-evoked potentials, indicators of cortical representation of interoceptive signal processing, are associated with survival after cardiac arrest
Schulz, André UL; Stammet, Pascal; Dierolf, Angelika UL et al

in Abstractband Psychologie und Gehirn 2018 (2018)

Rationale: Cardiac arrest (CA) is a serious condition characterized by high mortality rates, even after initial successful resuscitation, mainly due to neurological damage. Whether brain-heart ... [more ▼]

Rationale: Cardiac arrest (CA) is a serious condition characterized by high mortality rates, even after initial successful resuscitation, mainly due to neurological damage. Whether brain-heart communication is associated with outcome after CA is unknown. Heartbeat-evoked brain potentials (HEPs) represent neurophysiological indicators of brain-heart communication, as they reflect cortical representation of interoceptive signal processing. The aim of this study was to address the association between HEPs and survival after CA. Methods: HEPs were calculated from resting EEG/ECG in 55 CA patients 24 h after resuscitation. All patients were treated with targeted temperature management and a standardized sedation protocol during assessment. We investigated the association between HEP amplitude (180{320 ms, 455{595 ms, 860{1000 ms) and 6-month survival. Results: Twenty-five of 55 patients (45%) were still alive at 6-month follow-up. Survivors showed a higher HEP amplitude at frontopolar and frontal electrodes in the late HEP interval than non-survivors. This effect remained significant after controlling for between-group differences in terms of age, Fentanyl dose, and time lag between resuscitation and EEG assessment. There were no group differences in heart rate or heart rate variability. Conclusion: Brain-heart communication, as reflected by HEPs, is associated with survival after CA. Cardiovascular autonomic arousal may not be involved in mediating this e ect. Adequate cortical representation of interoceptive signals may be essential to preserve cariovascular health and should be in the focus of prevention strategies. Future studies should address the brain-heart axis in CA. [less ▲]

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See detailImpaired filter function in patients with somatoform disorders and major depression, as reflected by auditory evoked potentials in an oddball and an active distraction paradigm
Hutmacher, Djenna UL; Dierolf, Angelika UL; Lutz, Annika UL et al

in Abstractband Psychologie und Gehirn 2018 (2018)

Introduction: In the in influential perception-filter model of somatoform disorders (SD), three stages of symptom perception are postulated: (1) bodily signals, which may be amplified by stress, (2) a ... [more ▼]

Introduction: In the in influential perception-filter model of somatoform disorders (SD), three stages of symptom perception are postulated: (1) bodily signals, which may be amplified by stress, (2) a filter system, which distinguishes between relevant and irrelevant stimuli, and (3) cortical perception of physical symptoms. As there is dearth of evidence so far supporting the relationship between (1) bodily signals and (2) filter processes in SD, this study investigated if filter processes are altered in SD and if stress may affect filter mechanisms. Methods: Twenty-four patients with SD, 24 with depression and 24 healthy control individuals were assessed. Event-related potentials (ERPs) with two different auditory distraction procedures were recorded over four blocks, one before and three after either a socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT) or a control procedure. We manipulated both the frequency of and the attentional focus on stimuli to reflect filter processes. Results: We found smaller P3b amplitudes (reflecting memory storage) in patients with depression and SD, as compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, both patient groups showed a smaller P3a amplitude (reflecting attention), when counting the infrequent tone ("Oddball task") and a smaller N1 amplitude when counting the frequent tone ("active distraction"). In patients with SD, the SECPT had a decreasing effect on P3a amplitudes. Conclusions: Both late filter processes, reflecting attention (P3a) and memory storage (P3b), may be impaired in SD and depression. As acute stress affected attention in SD patients only, the impact of bodily signals (1) on filter processes (2) may be specific for SD. [less ▲]

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See detailKardiale Modulation der Schreckreaktion bei hoher gegenüber niedriger Symptombelastung: afferente Signalübermittlung auf der Hirn-Körper-Achse beein usst frühe Stimulus-Verarbeitung bei hoher Symptombelastung
Dierolf, Angelika UL; Rost, Silke; Lutz, Annika UL et al

in Hennig, J.; Stark, R. (Eds.) Abstractband Psychologie und Gehirn 2018 (2018)

Somatische Belastungsstörungen (SBS) sind oftmals durch andauernde medizinisch- unerklärte Symptome gekennzeichnet, deren Entstehung größtenteils ungeklärt ist. Diese Studie hatte zum Ziel, die empirisch ... [more ▼]

Somatische Belastungsstörungen (SBS) sind oftmals durch andauernde medizinisch- unerklärte Symptome gekennzeichnet, deren Entstehung größtenteils ungeklärt ist. Diese Studie hatte zum Ziel, die empirisch bislang unbeantwortete Frage zu klären, ob Symptomentstehung auf veränderte Signalübermittlung auf der Hirn-Körper-Achse zurückzuführen ist. Zunächst wurden 486 Personen aus der Allgemeinbevölkerung anhand des SOMS-2 in Personen mit hoher Symptombelastung (HSB; unterstes Perzentil) und niedriger Symptombelastung (NSB; oberstes Perzentil) unterteilt. Personen mit HSB stellen eine besondere Risikogruppe für SBS dar. 28 HSB- und 31 NSB-Personen durchliefen ein Paradigma der kardialen Modulation der Schreckreaktion (CMS), ein Verfahren, das kardio-afferente Signalübermittlung prä-attentiv abbilden kann. Ihnen wurden je zehn akustische Schreckreize (105 dB) in sechs Zeitpunkten nach der kardialen R-Zacke (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 ms) präsentiert. Als Indikator für die Schreckreaktion wurden die N1- und P2-Amplitude der auditorisch-evozierten Potenziale über Cz gemessen, da der Effekt der Hirn-Körper-Signalübermittlung im Kortex abgebildet werden sollte. Es zeigten sich geringere N1-Amplituden auf die Schreckreize, die während der systolischen Phase (200, 300 ms) im Vergleich zur diastolischen Phase (0 ms) präsentiert wurden (p=.0002), was für das Vorliegen eines CMS-Effekts spricht. Die HSB-Gruppe zeigte höhere P2-Amplituden als die NSB-Gruppe. Es zeigte sich außerdem, dass der CMS-Effekt bezüglich der N1-Komponente in der HSB-Gruppe geringer ist (p=.035), jedoch bezüglich der P2-Komponente stärker ist als in der NSB-Gruppe (p=.031). Afferente Signalübermittlung auf der Hirn-Körper-Achse könnte bei Personen mit HSB bereits frühe, automatischeWahrnehmungsprozesse verändern, die durch späte, aufmerksamkeits-gesteuerte Prozesse kompensiert werden. Diese prä-attentive Beeinflussung der Stimulus-Verarbeitung könnte ein Mechanismus der Symptomentstehung bei Personen mit HSB und SBS sein. [less ▲]

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