References of "Schiltz, Christine 50003015"
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See detailThe development of number symbol processing: A fast periodic visual stimulation study
Mejias, Sandrine; Rossion, Bruno; Schiltz, Christine UL

Poster (2014)

In our cultures the meaning of number symbols is acquired and reinforced through education. Accordingly, it is critical to understand how children become experts in the use of Arabic numbers (AN). Here ... [more ▼]

In our cultures the meaning of number symbols is acquired and reinforced through education. Accordingly, it is critical to understand how children become experts in the use of Arabic numbers (AN). Here, we used fast periodic visual stimulation (FPVS) combined with a repetition-suppression paradigm (Rossion & Boremanse, 2011) to measure rapidly and objectively the sensitivity to symbolic numerical stimuli of 6-to-12-y.o. children (n=20) and adults (n=11). Participants were presented four sequences: two of AN and two of AN-like sham stimuli. Half of the sequences consisted of different stimuli (“10”, “18”, “12”,...), the other half of same stimuli (“10”) presented repeatedly. Stimuli appeared at 3.5 items/second (fundamental frequency=3.5 Hz), for 60 seconds. We observed a large increase of the EEG response at 3.5 Hz (a steady-state visual-evoked potential; Regan, 1966) over parieto-occipital electrodes. This response was larger during different than same sequences, especially when participants saw real (vs. sham) AN. The amplitude of this specific response to numbers increased with children’s age. Moreover its location changed from posterior occipital electrodes in childhood to more lateral parietal electrodes in adulthood. These results indicate that FPVS of AN is a promising tool to study the sensitivity to numerical magnitude in children and adults. [less ▲]

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See detailCanonical finger numeral configurations are perceived holistically
Di Luca, Samuel UL; Pesenti, Mauro; Schiltz, Christine UL et al

Poster (2014)

Sooner or later human beings represent or see numerosities represented by hands. This handling of small numerosities by prototypical finger configurations has been the focus of many experiments ... [more ▼]

Sooner or later human beings represent or see numerosities represented by hands. This handling of small numerosities by prototypical finger configurations has been the focus of many experiments investigating the possibility that semantic representations of numbers are motor-rooted. Canonical finger configurations (i.e. the culturally determined way to express numerosity with fingers) are for instance recognized faster (Di Luca et al., 2006), and give direct access to number semantics (Di Luca et Pesenti, 2008). It is also known that these effects are not due to a visual facilitation of canonical configurations (Di Luca et Pesenti, 2010), but to a different inner representation (Di Luca, Lefèvre and Pesenti, 2010). However, a precise characterization of their visual processing is currently lacking. We addressed this shortcoming by using an eye-tracking method based on gaze-contingent stimulus presentation (Van Belle et al., 2010). While participants named numerosities expressed by canonical and non-canonical finger numeral configurations presented in upright or inverted orientations, we selectively impaired analytical or holistic visual perception by respectively masking (in real time) peripheral or focal vision. Our data confirm the results found in literature: canonical configurations are processed faster than non-canonical ones, upright configurations are processed faster than inverted ones and holistic perception is faster than analytical one. Most importantly, we also demonstrate that canonical configurations are impaired by the peripheral mask (i.e. holistic vision hindered) whereas non-canonical ones are impaired by the foveal mask (i.e. analytical vision hindered). These results confirm that the practice of finger numeral configurations modifies not only the way human beings process and represent numerosities but especially the way to visually perceive them. [less ▲]

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See detailThe influence of body motion on random number generation
Sosson, Charlotte UL; Guillaume, Mathieu UL; Van Rinsveld, Amandine UL et al

Poster (2014)

Knowledge and thinking are constrained by sensory-motor processes. This increasingly influential view has been termed the “embodiment theory” and proposes that bodily actions directly impact the quality ... [more ▼]

Knowledge and thinking are constrained by sensory-motor processes. This increasingly influential view has been termed the “embodiment theory” and proposes that bodily actions directly impact the quality of mental representations. The present study specifically aimed to investigate the influence of passive whole-body movement on numerical cognition. Two recent studies (Loetscher, et al., 2008; Hartmann, et al. 2011) indeed indicate that head or body movements can induce a shift of the attention on the mental number line. More precisely, leftward movements seemed to enhance small number generation while rightward movements led to larger number generation. The current study investigated this effect by using a non-motorized rotating chair. Concretely, while seated, participants were cyclically rotated 40 times for a movement amplitude of 90° from left to right and vice versa at an average frequency of 0.3 Hz. During each 90° movement segment they had to randomly produce numbers ranging between 1 and 30, but for methodological reasons the six extreme numbers were excluded from the analysis. The results indicate that the average number produced during leftward movement was smaller than the average number produced during rightward movement. These findings confirm the impact of passive whole-body movement on the production of numerical stimuli, indicating that rotation-movements of the body can displace attention on the mental number line. [less ▲]

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See detailSelectivity of face perception to horizontal information over lifespan (from 6 to 74 year old)
Goffaux, Valerie; Poncin, Aude; Schiltz, Christine UL

Poster (2014)

Detailed reference viewed: 75 (1 UL)
See detailWaat as Dyscalculie?
Schiltz, Christine UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2014)

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See detailThe impact of inhibition capacities and age on number–space associations.
Hoffmann, Danielle UL; Pigat, Delia; Schiltz, Christine UL

in Cognitive Processing (2014)

Numerical and spatial representations are tightly linked, i.e., when doing a binary classification judgment on Arabic digits, participants are faster to respond with their left/right hand to small/large ... [more ▼]

Numerical and spatial representations are tightly linked, i.e., when doing a binary classification judgment on Arabic digits, participants are faster to respond with their left/right hand to small/large numbers, respectively (Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes, SNARC effect, Dehaene et al. in J Exp Psychol Gen 122:371–396, 1993). To understand the underlying mechanisms of the well-established SNARC effect, it seems essential to explore the considerable inter-individual variability characterizing it. The present study assesses the respective roles of inhibition, age, working memory (WM) and response speed. Whereas these non-numerical factors have been proposed as potentially important factors to explain individual differences in SNARC effects, none (except response speed) has so far been explored directly. Confirming our hypotheses, the results show that the SNARC effect was stronger in participants that had weaker inhibition abilities (as assessed by the Stroop task), were relatively older and had longer response times. Interestingly, whereas a significant part of the age influence was mediated by cognitive inhibition, age also directly impacted the SNARC effect. Similarly, cognitive inhibition abilities explained inter-individual variability in number– space associations over and above the factors age, WM capacity and response speed. Taken together our results provide new insights into the nature of number–space associations by describing how these are influenced by the non-numerical factors age and inhibition. [less ▲]

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See detailDeveloping number–space associations: SNARC effects using a color discrimination task in 5-year-olds
Hoffmann, Danielle UL; Hornung, Caroline UL; Martin, Romain UL et al

in Journal of Experimental Child Psychology (2013), 116

Human adults’ numerical representation is spatially oriented; consequently, participants are faster to respond to small/large numerals with their left/right hand, respectively, when doing a binary ... [more ▼]

Human adults’ numerical representation is spatially oriented; consequently, participants are faster to respond to small/large numerals with their left/right hand, respectively, when doing a binary classification judgment on numbers, known as the SNARC (spatial– numerical association of response codes) effect. Studies on the emergence and development of the SNARC effect remain scarce. The current study introduces an innovative new paradigm based on a simple color judgment of Arabic digits. Using this task, we found a SNARC effect in children as young as 5.5 years. In contrast, when preschool children needed to perform a magnitude judgment task necessitating exact number knowledge, the SNARC effect started to emerge only at 5.8 years. Moreover, the emergence of a magnitude SNARC but not a color SNARC was linked to proficiency with Arabic digits. Our results suggest that access to a spatially oriented approximate magnitude representation from symbolic digits emerges early in ontogenetic development. Exact magnitude judgments, on the other hand, rely on experience with Arabic digits and, thus, necessitate formal or informal schooling to give access to a spatially oriented numerical representation. [less ▲]

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See detailWéi ensteet d`Zuel 10 an eisem Kapp?
Schiltz, Christine UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (2 UL)
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See detailEstimation abilities of large numerosities in preschool children
Mejias, Sandrine; Schiltz, Christine UL

Poster (2013, October)

The approximate number system (ANS) is thought to be a building block for the elaboration of formal mathematics. However, little is known about how this core system develops and if it can be influenced by ... [more ▼]

The approximate number system (ANS) is thought to be a building block for the elaboration of formal mathematics. However, little is known about how this core system develops and if it can be influenced by external factors at a young age (before the child enters formal numeracy education). The purpose of this study was to examine numerical magnitude representations of 5-6 year old children at 2 different moments of Kindergarten considering children's early number competence as well as schools' socio-economic index (SEI). This study investigated estimation abilities of large numerosities using symbolic and non-symbolic output formats (8-64). In addition, we assessed symbolic and non-symbolic early number competence (1-12) at the end of the 2nd (N = 42) and the 3rd (N = 32) Kindergarten grade. By letting children freely produce estimates we observed surprising estimation abilities at a very young age (from 5 year on) extending far beyond children's symbolic explicit knowledge. Moreover, the time of testing has an impact on the ANS accuracy since 3rd Kindergarteners were more precise in both estimation tasks. Additionally, children who presented better exact symbolic knowledge were also those with the most refined ANS. However, this was true only for 3rd Kindergarteners who were a few months from receiving math instructions. In a similar vein, higher SEI positively impacted only the oldest children's estimation abilities whereas it played a role for exact early number competences already in 2nd and 3rd graders. Our results support the view that approximate numerical representations are linked to exact number competence in young children before the start of formal math education and might thus serve as building blocks for mathematical knowledge. Since this core number system was also sensitive to external components such as the SEI this implies that it can most probably be targeted and refined through specific educational strategies from preschool on. [less ▲]

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See detailLEARN stellt sech fier
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Schiltz, Christine UL; Hoffmann, Danielle UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2013)

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See detailEstimation abilities of large numerosities in Kindergartners
Mejias Vanslype, Sandrine UL; Schiltz, Christine UL

in Frontiers in Psychology [=FPSYG] (2013), 4

The approximate number system (ANS) is thought to be a building block for the elaboration of formal mathematics. However, little is known about how this core system develops and if it can be influenced by ... [more ▼]

The approximate number system (ANS) is thought to be a building block for the elaboration of formal mathematics. However, little is known about how this core system develops and if it can be influenced by external factors at a young age (before the child enters formal numeracy education). The purpose of this study was to examine numerical magnitude representations of 5-6 year old children at 2 different moments of Kindergarten considering children's early number competence as well as schools' socio-economic index (SEI). This study investigated estimation abilities of large numerosities using symbolic and non-symbolic output formats (8-64). In addition, we assessed symbolic and non-symbolic early number competence (1-12) at the end of the 2nd (N = 42) and the 3rd (N = 32) Kindergarten grade. By letting children freely produce estimates we observed surprising estimation abilities at a very young age (from 5 year on) extending far beyond children's symbolic explicit knowledge. Moreover, the time of testing has an impact on the ANS accuracy since 3rd Kindergarteners were more precise in both estimation tasks. Additionally, children who presented better exact symbolic knowledge were also those with the most refined ANS. However, this was true only for 3rd Kindergarteners who were a few months from receiving math instructions. In a similar vein, higher SEI positively impacted only the oldest children's estimation abilities whereas it played a role for exact early number competences already in 2nd and 3rd graders. Our results support the view that approximate numerical representations are linked to exact number competence in young children before the start of formal math education and might thus serve as building blocks for mathematical knowledge. Since this core number system was also sensitive to external components such as the SEI this implies that it can most probably be targeted and refined through specific educational strategies from preschool on. [less ▲]

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See detailHow the human brain discriminates numerosities: A steady-state visual-evoked potentials study
Mejias, Sandrine; Rossion, Bruno; Schiltz, Christine UL

Poster (2013, May 28)

This study aimed at measuring rapidly and objectively human adults' sensitivity to (non)symbolic numerical stimuli, using the steady-state visual-evoked potentials (1) response in the context of ... [more ▼]

This study aimed at measuring rapidly and objectively human adults' sensitivity to (non)symbolic numerical stimuli, using the steady-state visual-evoked potentials (1) response in the context of repetition suppression (2). It aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of the method and evaluate its potential to tap into the basic numerical representation systems that can be assumed to underlie symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude comparisons. Following a short duration experiment, we observed a large reduction of signal specifically at the 3.5 Hz response, over the occipito-temporo-parietal cortex. This reduction was greater for symbolic than non-symbolic control stimuli. This first observation of repetition suppression to fast periodic stimulation of symbolic and non-symbolic numerosities in the human brain offers a promising tool to study the sensitivity to numerosities in the human brain in adults, but also especially in children. [less ▲]

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See detailThe influence of language on exact additions in bilinguals.
Van Rinsveld, Amandine UL; Brunner, Martin UL; Landerl, Karin et al

Scientific Conference (2013, May)

To which degree is language involved in arithmetic and dependent on language proficiency? We investigated this question in a German-French educational bilingual setting in Luxembourg, where there is a ... [more ▼]

To which degree is language involved in arithmetic and dependent on language proficiency? We investigated this question in a German-French educational bilingual setting in Luxembourg, where there is a progressive transition from German to French as a teaching language. Due to this shift, students become increasingly more proficient in the non-dominant language (French) throughout the school years. Interestingly, the decades and units of two-digit number names follow the unit-decade order in German but the decade-unit order in French. Students from grades 7, 8, 10, 11, and German-French adults (total N = 200) solved simple and complex additions presented in different conditions: (1) visual Arabic digits, (2) auditory presentation, and (3) as a dual task in which visually presented additions were preceded by visually presented semantic judgements to indirectly activate a language context. Participants performed each condition in a German and a French testing session. Participants were asked to respond orally in the testing language. Measures include correct responses and response times. The results suggest that language proficiency is crucial for the computation of complex additions, whereas simple additions can be retrieved equally well in both languages. Furthermore, additional error analyses showed more errors on the decade or on the unit digit depending on the language of the task. However, providing a language context seems to enhance performances only in the non-dominant language. Taken together, these results support the view of a strong language influence on arithmetic. [less ▲]

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See detailThe influence of language on exact additions in bilingual adults.
Van Rinsveld, Amandine UL; Brunner, Martin UL; Landerl, Karin et al

Poster (2013, April)

To which degree is language involved in arithmetic? We investigated this question in a German-French bilingual setting. In Luxembourg, bilingualism is acquired through education: mathematics are taught in ... [more ▼]

To which degree is language involved in arithmetic? We investigated this question in a German-French bilingual setting. In Luxembourg, bilingualism is acquired through education: mathematics are taught in German in primary and in French in secondary school. Interestingly, the decades and units within two-digit number names follow the unit-decade order in German but the decade-unit order in French. Forty-eight bilingual adults performed simple and complex additions. Participants had to orally respond either in German or in French. Additions were presented in different conditions: (1) visual Arabic presentation, (2) auditory presentation (in German or in French), and (3) as a dual task in which visually presented additions were preceded by visually presented semantic judgments to indirectly activate a German or French language context. The results showed that participants performed complex calculations better in the dominant language (German), while there were no differences for simple calculations. Thus, language proficiency seems to be crucial for the computation of more complex calculations, whereas arithmetic facts can be retrieved equally well in both languages. Further, adding language at the input level (auditory presentation) enhanced performances for simple calculations, especially in the non-dominant language (French), while it was exactly the opposite effect for complex calculations. Additionally, visual additions were better performed within a surrounding linguistic context (3) than alone (1) in their non-dominant language, suggesting the crucial role of the linguistic context of an addition task in bilinguals. Taken together, these results support the view of a strong language impact on calculations. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of inhibition capacities on number-space associations
Hoffmann, Danielle UL; Pigat, Delia; Schiltz, Christine UL

Poster (2013, March 01)

Numerical and spatial representations are tightly linked (for a review see de Hevia et al., 2008). One specific instance of this link is the finding that when doing a binary classification judgment on ... [more ▼]

Numerical and spatial representations are tightly linked (for a review see de Hevia et al., 2008). One specific instance of this link is the finding that when doing a binary classification judgment on single Arabic digits, participants are faster to respond with their left/right hand to small/large numbers respectively. This observation has first been described by Dehaene and colleagues in the early 1990’s (Dehaene et al., 1993) and termed the SNARC effect (Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes). Celebrating its 20th anniversary this year, the SNARC effect has been extensively replicated (for a meta-analysis see Wood et al., 2008) but one of its characteristics remains its high inter-individual variability (Wood et al., 2006a; 2006b). The source of this variability can partly be ascribed to differences in mathematical proficiency (Hoffmann et al., submitted) but a more domain general hypothesis implicating general inhibition capacities warrants further investigation. For the present study a total of 77 participants have been evaluated with a SNARC paradigm as well as standard inhibition tests (Stroop, Incompatibility subtest of the TAP test). Results show that when age-appropriate inhibition tests are used, inhibition capacities are strongly correlated with the SNARC effect, in the way that very efficient inhibition capacities lead to weaker SNARC effects. Consequently this finding could at least partly explain the impact of arithmetical proficiency on the SNARC effect. A study combining both measures would be an appropriate next step. [less ▲]

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See detailDo the mental number line and spatial sequence synesthesia share neural substrates?
Bien, Nina; Van der Horst, Anne; Sack, Alexander et al

Scientific Conference (2013, March 01)

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (1 UL)
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See detailEstimation abilities of large numerosities in preschool children: Do they depend on school grade and socio-economic background?
Mejias, Sandrine; Schiltz, Christine UL

Poster (2013, March 01)

The approximate number system (ANS) is thought to be a building block for the elaboration of formal mathematics. However, little is known about how this core system develops and if it can be influenced by ... [more ▼]

The approximate number system (ANS) is thought to be a building block for the elaboration of formal mathematics. However, little is known about how this core system develops and if it can be influenced by external factors at a young age (before the child enters formal numeracy education). The purpose of this study was to examine numerical magnitude representations of 5-6 year old children at 2 different moments of Kindergarten considering children's early number competence as well as schools' socio-economic index (SEI). This study investigated estimation abilities of large numerosities using symbolic and non-symbolic output formats (8-64). In addition, we assessed symbolic and non-symbolic early number competence (1-12) at the end of the 2nd (N = 42) and the 3rd (N = 32) Kindergarten grade. By letting children freely produce estimates we observed surprising estimation abilities at a very young age (from 5 year on) extending far beyond children's symbolic explicit knowledge. Moreover, the time of testing has an impact on the ANS accuracy since 3rd Kindergarteners were more precise in both estimation tasks. Additionally, children who presented better exact symbolic knowledge were also those with the most refined ANS. However, this was true only for 3rd Kindergarteners who were a few months from receiving math instructions. In a similar vein, higher SEI positively impacted only the oldest children's estimation abilities whereas it played a role for exact early number competences already in 2nd and 3rd graders. Our results support the view that approximate numerical representations are linked to exact number competence in young children before the start of formal math education and might thus serve as building blocks for mathematical knowledge. Since this core number system was also sensitive to external components such as the SEI this implies that it can most probably be targeted and refined through specific educational strategies from preschool on. [less ▲]

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See detailSensitivity to spacing information increases more for the eye region than for the mouth region during childhood
de Heering, Adélaïde; Schiltz, Christine UL

in International Journal of Behavioral Development (2013), 37(2), 169-174

Sensitivity to spacing information within faces improves with age and reaches maturity only at adolescence. In this study, we tested 6–16-year-old children’s sensitivity to vertical spacing when the eyes ... [more ▼]

Sensitivity to spacing information within faces improves with age and reaches maturity only at adolescence. In this study, we tested 6–16-year-old children’s sensitivity to vertical spacing when the eyes or the mouth is the facial feature selectively manipulated. Despite the similar discriminability of these manipulations when they are embedded in inverted faces (Experiment 1), children’s sensitivity to spacing information manipulated in upright faces improved with age only when the eye region was concerned (Experiment 2). Moreover, children’s ability to process the eye region did not correlate with their selective visual attention, marking the automation of the mechanism (Experiment 2). In line with recent findings, we suggest here that children rely on a holistic/configural face processing mechanism to process the eye region, composed of multiple features to integrate, which steadily improves with age. [less ▲]

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See detailThe influence of language on exact additions in bilingual pupils and adults.
Van Rinsveld, Amandine UL; Brunner, Martin UL; Landerl, Karin et al

Poster (2013, March)

To which degree is language involved in arithmetic? We investigated this question in a German-French bilingual setting. In Luxembourg, bilingualism is acquired through education: mathematics are taught in ... [more ▼]

To which degree is language involved in arithmetic? We investigated this question in a German-French bilingual setting. In Luxembourg, bilingualism is acquired through education: mathematics are taught in German in primary and in French in secondary school. Interestingly, the decades and units within two-digit number names follow the unit-decade order in German but the decade-unit order in French. We studied our research question in the multi-lingual educational context of Luxembourg by applying a developmental design. The present sample (total N = 200) included students from grades 7, 8, 10 and 11, as well as an adult bilingual group. This sample takes advantage of following the progressive transition from German to French as teaching languages. All participants performed simple and complex additions that they had to orally respond either in German or in French. Additions were presented in different conditions: (1) visual Arabic presentation, (2) auditory presentation (in German or in French), and (3) as a dual task in which visually presented additions were preceded by visually presented semantic judgements to indirectly activate a German or French language context. The results suggested that language proficiency seems to be crucial for the computation of more complex calculations, whereas simple additions can be retrieved equally well in both languages. Taken together, these results support the view of a strong language impact on calculations. Further results and implications will be discussed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 93 (7 UL)