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See detailExplaining employers’ hiring decisions: A comparative study of employers’ risk assessment
Imdorf, Christian; Shi, Lulu P.; Sacchi, Stefan et al

E-print/Working paper (2017)

In order to investigate the scarring effect of early job insecurity on future employment chances we have implemented a factorial survey experiment with recruiters based on real vacancies in Bulgaria ... [more ▼]

In order to investigate the scarring effect of early job insecurity on future employment chances we have implemented a factorial survey experiment with recruiters based on real vacancies in Bulgaria, Greece, Norway and Switzerland. We contribute to recruitment research at least in three ways: First, the multinational design allows us to run comparative analysis across countries, which are carried out along the national dimensions youth unemployment rate, employment protection regulation and type of educational system. Second, we differentiate between two different forms of early job insecurity – unemployment and work experience in deskilling jobs, and we demonstrate that the sole focus on unemployment, as it is the case in the prevalent labour market research, is not sufficient in order to fully understand labour market outcomes caused by different forms of job insecurities. Third, since our sample consists of real recruiters who were hiring for current jobs at the time when the study was carried out, we provide a unique cross-country data set of high external validity. Our findings suggest that scarring effects of early job insecurity vary across countries and across occupational fields, and while scarring caused by work experience in deskilling jobs seems to be enforced by strong employment protection regulations, unemployment scarring seems to stronger where national unemployment is low. Further, the differences in recruiter’s evaluation across occupational fields indicate that signalling value of education may vary depending on specific sectors. Not at least, we contribute to debates around active labour market policies, arguing that measures aiming at quick labour market reintegration without consideration of job quality may not be the most sustainable solution, as work experience in a deskilling job does not lead to better recruiter’s evaluation. [less ▲]

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See detailLebensstile, Konsum und Zukunftsperspektiven junger Erwachsener in der Schweiz
Samuel, Robin UL; Berger, Lena; Bergman, Manfred Max

Book published by Somedia (2017)

Bei der Erhebung von 50'000 stellungspflichtigen Männern in den Jahren 2012/13 sowie rund 1’800 gleichaltrigen Schweizerinnen standen zwei Fragen im Vordergrund. Erstens: Was sind die aktuellen Lebens ... [more ▼]

Bei der Erhebung von 50'000 stellungspflichtigen Männern in den Jahren 2012/13 sowie rund 1’800 gleichaltrigen Schweizerinnen standen zwei Fragen im Vordergrund. Erstens: Was sind die aktuellen Lebens- und Zukunftsvorstellungen der jungen Erwachsenen? Und: Welche Rolle spielen neue Medien im Leben einer der ersten Generationen von Digital Natives? Die Vergleiche mit früheren ch-x-Erhebungen bei den jungen Erwachsenen an der Schwelle von der Jugend- ins Erwachsenenalter belegen eine hohe Trendstabilität bei den Grundwerten, bei der Rangierung der Wichtigkeit von Lebensbereichen sowie bei den Determinanten der Berufswahl und den Familien- und Geschlechterrollenbildern. Werte, Familie und Freizeit Junge Erwachsene streben nach Unabhängigkeit und Selbstverwirklichung, betonen individuelle Bedürfnisse und aspirieren auf einen hohen sozialen Status mittels beruflichem Erfolg. Sie rangieren die Wichtigkeit der Lebensbereiche gleich wie die Befragten früherer ch-x-Erhebungen. Bei der Familiengestaltung sind herkömmliche Familien- und Geschlechtermodelle nach wie vor hoch im Kurs. Man möchte heiraten und Kinder haben. Der Mann wird ungebrochen in der Ernährerrolle gesehen, während die Frau sich um die Familie kümmern sollte. Diesbezüglich unterscheiden sich die Lebensansichten und Zukunftsvorstellungen der Digital Natives nur geringfügig von denjenigen der vorhergehenden Generationen. Wandel prägt indes das Freizeitverhalten insofern, als informationstechnische Unterhaltungsangebote und soziale Netzwerke neben herkömmlichen Medien zu wichtigen Gestaltungsfaktoren für die Freizeit avanciert sind. Die jungen Erwachsenen stehen heute in einem sich akzentuierenden Spannungsfeld zwischen dem Wunsch nach Selbstverwirklichung und dem Festhalten an traditionellen institutionalisierten Strukturen und Rollenbildern. Für erstere bieten die neuen digitalen Medien in Art und Form zahlreiche neue Optionen, die rege genutzt werden. Für letztere steht das Festhalten an klassischen Familienmodellen und hohen Berufszielen. Damit steht diese Generation vor der Herausforderung, viele nur noch schwer zu vereinbarende Wünsche mit gesellschaftlichen Erwartungen in Übereinstimmung zu bringen. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 99 (10 UL)
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See detailAn International Comparative Analysis of Employers’ Hiring Decisions
Imdorf, Christian; Samuel, Robin UL; Shi, Lulu P.

Presentation (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (2 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailHow Social Support and Self-Efficacy Moderate Effects of Significant Life Events on School Drop-Out in Young People
Burger, Kaspar; Samuel, Robin UL

Scientific Conference (2017)

Drivers of drop-out have been studied extensively over the past years. A number of studies suggest that self-efficacy and social support help reduce adverse effects of significant life events, such as ... [more ▼]

Drivers of drop-out have been studied extensively over the past years. A number of studies suggest that self-efficacy and social support help reduce adverse effects of significant life events, such as trouble with family and friends, on drop-out intention but also on actual drop- out. However, over-all, evidence as to whether self-efficacy and social support influence drop-out intention and actual drop-out is mixed. We examined whether, and to what extent, perceived social support and general self-efficacy affect drop-out of adolescents in transition to young adulthood. We distinguished between baseline levels of social support and self-efficacy and (within-person) change in social support and self-efficacy in order to determine whether drop-out is sensitive to fluctuations in social support and self-efficacy when person-specific levels of social support and self-efficacy are taken into account. Estimating growth curve models on TREE data, a panel study on the life trajectories of compulsory-school leavers in Switzerland, we found that baseline levels of social support and self-efficacy, as well as within-person change in social support and self-efficacy, affected adolescents’ drop-out intention, but did not prevent actual drop-out. Moreover, our models show effects of a range of significant life events on drop-out intention and actual drop-out. These findings improve our understanding of the role that psychological and social factors play in shaping drop-out intentions and actual drop-out [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 163 (1 UL)
See detailLebensstile, Konsum und Zukunftsperspektiven junger Erwachsener in der Schweiz
Berger, Lena; Samuel, Robin UL; Bergman, Manfred Max

Article for general public (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 91 (6 UL)
See detailStyles de vie, consommation et perspectives d’avenir des jeunes adultes en Suisse
Berger, Lena; Samuel, Robin UL; Bergman, Manfred Max

Article for general public (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (1 UL)
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See detailThe Role of Perceived Stress and Self-Efficacy in Young People’s Life Satisfaction: A Longitudinal Study
Burger, Kaspar; Samuel, Robin UL

in Journal of Youth and Adolescence (2017), 46(1), 78-90

Life satisfaction is an important indicator of successful development. However, adolescents’ life satisfaction tends to be relatively unsteady, and environmental influences play a critical role in shaping ... [more ▼]

Life satisfaction is an important indicator of successful development. However, adolescents’ life satisfaction tends to be relatively unsteady, and environmental influences play a critical role in shaping life satisfaction among adolescents in the transition to young adulthood. Given the paramount importance that education plays in adolescents’ lives, adolescents’ life satisfaction may vary as a function of school-related stress experience. At the same time, coping resources may help reduce adverse effects of stress on life satisfaction. With this in mind, we examined whether, and to what extent, perceived stress in education and general self-efficacy (a resource that facilitates coping) affect the life satisfaction of adolescents in transition to young adulthood. We distinguished between baseline levels of stress and self-efficacy and within-person change in stress and self-efficacy to determine whether life satisfaction is sensitive to fluctuations in stress and self-efficacy when person-specific levels of stress and self-efficacy are taken into account. Estimating growth curve models on data from a panel study on the life trajectories of compulsory-school leavers (n = 5126, 55.3 % female), we found that baseline levels of stress and self-efficacy, as well as within-person change in stress and self-efficacy, affected adolescents’ life satisfaction. Moreover, our results showed that baseline self-efficacy mitigated the negative effect of baseline stress on life satisfaction. These findings improve our understanding of two major psychological determinants of adolescents’ life satisfaction and extend our knowledge of life satisfaction trajectories during the transition to young adulthood. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 486 (35 UL)
See detailStili di vita, consumo e aspettative future dei giovani adulti in Svizzera
Berger, Lena; Samuel, Robin UL; Bergman, Manfred Max

Article for general public (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (0 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailHow Social Support and Self-Efficacy Moderate Effects of Significant Life Events on School Drop-Out
Burger, Kaspar; Samuel, Robin UL

Scientific Conference (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (0 UL)
See detailStudying Scarring Effects Using Factorial Designs: Rating or Ranking?
Imdorf, Christian; Sacchi, Stefan; Samuel, Robin UL et al

Scientific Conference (2016, November 09)

Early job insecurity is a much-discussed topic across European countries. Research overwhelmingly found that being unemployed after graduation affects employment chances and also future wages negatively ... [more ▼]

Early job insecurity is a much-discussed topic across European countries. Research overwhelmingly found that being unemployed after graduation affects employment chances and also future wages negatively, other research, however, did not find such scarring effects. Some of this mixed evidence may be due to the different ways in which data were collected. Evaluating the effects of potentially stigmatizing applicant characteristics on hiring chances, such as previous unemployment spells, is known to be prone to social desirability bias. Factorial survey experiments (FSE) and forced choice experiments (FCE) have been suggested to alleviate some of these problems. In this workshop contribution, we gauge the capability of FSE and FCE to estimate effects of early career unemployment spells on recruiters’ hiring decisions. Using data obtained from a survey with sequentially implemented FSE and FCE with 2000 recruiters in Bulgaria, Greece, Norway, and Switzerland we compare FSE and FCE using multilevel linear regression models and multilevel probit models with random effects. Our preliminary results suggest that FCE may be better suited to gather valid data with minimal social desirability bias. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 82 (3 UL)
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See detailUnderstanding unemployment scars: A vignette Experiment of employers' decisions in Bulgaria, Greece, Norway and Switzerland
Hyggen, Christer; Imdorf, Christian; Parsanaglou, Dimitris et al

E-print/Working paper (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 89 (8 UL)
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See detailIntroduction to Analytical Strategies for Experimental Data
Samuel, Robin UL

Presentation (2016, September 21)

Detailed reference viewed: 79 (10 UL)
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See detailUnderstanding employers’ assessment of young job applicants: A comparative vignette experiment
Imdorf, Christian; Samuel, Robin UL; Shi, Lulu P.

Scientific Conference (2016, September 19)

Detailed reference viewed: 42 (3 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailDer Einfluss der sozialen Herkunft auf postobligatorische Bildungsverläufe in der Schweiz
Hupka-Brunner, Sandra; Samuel, Robin UL; Bergman, Manfred Max

in Scharenberg, Katja; Hupka-Brunner, Sandra; Meyer, Thomas (Eds.) et al Transitionen im Jugend- und jungen Erwachsenenalter: Ergebnisse der Schweizer Längsschnittstudie TREE (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 110 (16 UL)
See detailThe Gendered Interplay between Success and Well-Being during Transitions
Samuel, Robin UL

in Hadjar, Andreas; Krolak, Sabine; Priem, Karin (Eds.) et al Gender and Educational Achievement (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 259 (19 UL)
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See detailHow Welfare-State Regimes Shape Subjective Well-Being Across Europe
Samuel, Robin UL; Hadjar, Andreas UL

in Social Indicators Research (2016), 129(2), 565-587

Welfare-state regimes achieve different outcomes in dealing with social inequalities. For example, the social democratic or Scandinavian welfare-state regime is often considered as the most egalitarian ... [more ▼]

Welfare-state regimes achieve different outcomes in dealing with social inequalities. For example, the social democratic or Scandinavian welfare-state regime is often considered as the most egalitarian with a high social transfer rate and a comparably low level of income inequality. While most research on welfare-state regimes focuses on objective indicators of quality of life and inequalities, we are interested in how citizens actually evaluate their lives, using subjective well-being (SWB) as an indicator. The paper deals with two research questions: (1) How does the welfare-state regime affect subjective well-being, and (2) does the welfare-state regime influence the effect of status on SWB? Status is an essential first-order goal to produce subjective well-being according to the social production theory of Lindenberg and colleagues (Ormel et al. 1999), but is also linked to many other instrumental goals such as comfort and stimulation. The study carries out a multilevel analysis using pooled European Social Survey data from the years 2002–2012, covering more than 30 European countries. While we first look at how status drives SWB levels in different welfare-state regimes as classified by Esping-Andersen 1990, 1999), our focus is mainly on cross-level interactions between welfare-state regime type and the relationship between status and SWB. Our results provide evidence that social-democratic welfare-state regimes not only provide for living standards that are associated with the highest SWB levels, but also compensate best for status differences in SWB compared to other welfare-state regimes. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of Insecure Employment Trajectories on Employers' Hiring Decisions in Switzerland
Shi, Lulu P.; Imdorf, Christian; Samuel, Robin UL et al

in Baslé, Maurice; Beaupère, Nathalie; Guéguen, Chantal (Eds.) et al Les transitions professionnelles tout au long de la vie. Nouveaux regards, nouveaux sens, nouvelles temporalités ? (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 93 (6 UL)
See detailIntroduction to Bayesian Approaches to Data Analysis
Samuel, Robin UL

Presentation (2015, November 06)

Detailed reference viewed: 77 (2 UL)
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See detailAdvances in understanding energy consumption behavior and the governance of its change – outline of an integrated framework
Burger, Paul; Bezençon, Valéry; Bornemann, Basil et al

in Frontiers in Energy Research (2015), 3(29),

Transforming today’s energy systems in industrialized countries requires a substantial reduction of the total energy consumption at the individual level. Selected instruments have been found to be ... [more ▼]

Transforming today’s energy systems in industrialized countries requires a substantial reduction of the total energy consumption at the individual level. Selected instruments have been found to be effective in changing people’s behavior in single domains. However, the so far weak success story on reducing overall energy consumption indicates that our understanding of the determining factors of individual energy consumption as well as of its change is far from being conclusive. Among others, the scientific state of the art is dominated by analyzing single domains of consumption and by neglecting embodied energy. It also displays strong disciplinary splits and the literature often fails to distinguish between explaining behavior and explaining change of behavior. Moreover, there are knowledge gaps regarding the legitimacy and effectiveness of the governance of individual consumption behavior and its change. Against this backdrop, the aim of this paper is to establish an integrated interdisciplinary framework that offers a systematic basis for linking the different aspects in research on energy related consumption behavior, thus paving the way for establishing a better evidence base to inform societal actions. The framework connects the three relevant analytical aspects of the topic in question: (1) it systematically and conceptually frames the objects, i.e., the energy consumption behavior and its change (explananda); (2) it structures the factors that potentially explain the energy consumption behavior and its change (explanantia); (3) it provides a differentiated understanding of change inducing interventions in terms of governance. Based on the existing states of the art approaches from different disciplines within the social sciences, the proposed framework is supposed to guide interdisciplinary empirical research. [less ▲]

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See detailStudying employers’ risk assessment and the role of institutions: An experimental design
Shi, Penghui Lulu; Imdorf, Christian; Samuel, Robin UL

E-print/Working paper (2015)

Work Package 7 aims at understanding how early job insecurity can affect an individual’s future career from an employer’s perspective. By paying special attention to the educational background and gender ... [more ▼]

Work Package 7 aims at understanding how early job insecurity can affect an individual’s future career from an employer’s perspective. By paying special attention to the educational background and gender of the applicants, we plan to investigate how employers interpret young applicants’ job insecurity, for example in the form of unemployment or job-mismatch experiences, during recruitment. The negative effects of such experiences on an individual’s chances of being recruited successfully – so called scarring effects – may further vary depending on economic and institutional contexts such as country-specific economic or political conditions, educational structures or economic sectors. By surveying employers from different sectors, we will examine if and how these scarring effects vary between four different countries: Bulgaria, Greece, Norway and Switzerland. We will apply an innovative methodology in the form of an employer-sided survey with an integrated multidimensional vignette experiment in order to simulate the impact of multiple factor s on success and failure when young people who experienced job insecurities apply for new jobs. In the present working paper we summarise the major theoretical concepts that have been used to explain the scarring effects that can result from employer behaviour. Moreover, we outline how we plan to collect data in WP 7 in order to analyse scarring through decision-making on behalf of employers during the recruitment process [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 104 (10 UL)