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See detailDifferent but Similar: Personality Traits of Surgeons and Internists. Results of a Cross-Sectional Observational Study
Stienen, Martin N.; Scholtes, Felix; Samuel, Robin UL et al

in BMJ Open (2018), 8(e02131),

Objectives: Medical practice may attract and possibly enhance distinct personality profiles. We set out to describe the personality profiles of surgical and medical specialties focusing on board-certified ... [more ▼]

Objectives: Medical practice may attract and possibly enhance distinct personality profiles. We set out to describe the personality profiles of surgical and medical specialties focusing on board-certified physicians. Design: Prospective, observational. Setting: Online survey containing the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI), an internationally validated measure of the Five Factor Model of personality dimensions, distributed to board-certified physicians, residents and medical students in several European countries and Canada. Differences in personality profiles were analyzed using MANOVA and Canonical Linear Discriminant Analysis on age- and sex-standardized z-scores of the personality traits. Single personality traits were analyzed using robust t-tests. Participants: The TIPI was completed by 2345 board-certified physicians, 1453 residents and 1350 medical students, who also provided demographic information. Interventions: None. Results: Normal population and board-certified physicians’ personality profiles differed (P<0.001). The latter scored higher on conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness, but lower on neuroticism (all P<0.001). There was no difference in openness to experience. Board-certified surgical and medical doctors’ personality profiles were also different (P<0.001). Surgeons scored higher on extraversion (P=0.003) and openness to experience (P=0.002), but lower on neuroticism (P<0.001). There was no difference in agreeableness and conscientiousness. These differences in personality profiles were reproduced at other levels of training, i.e., in students and training physicians engaging in surgical versus medical practice. Conclusion: These results indicate the existence of a distinct and consistent average “physician personality”. Despite high variability within disciplines, there are moderate, but solid and reproducible differences between surgical and medical specialties. [less ▲]

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See detailLe chômage, ennemi de l’employabilité
Imdorf, Christian; Sacchi, Stefan; Samuel, Robin UL et al

in Die Volkswirtschaft = La Vie économique (2018), 10

Avec un marché de l’emploi en pleine mutation structurelle, un parcours rectiligne après l’apprentissage ne constitue plus la norme. Tout porte à croire que le nombre d’interruptions de carrière – forcées ... [more ▼]

Avec un marché de l’emploi en pleine mutation structurelle, un parcours rectiligne après l’apprentissage ne constitue plus la norme. Tout porte à croire que le nombre d’interruptions de carrière – forcées ou volontaires – ne cessera d’augmenter. Dans ces circonstances, la question est de savoir comment les employeurs désireux de repourvoir un poste perçoivent ces parenthèses dans le curriculum des jeunes à la recherche d’un emploi. Une étude récente menée en Suisse parvient à la conclusion qu’une période de chômage porte atteinte à l’employabilité, et que ce phénomène n’épargne pas les détenteurs d’un certificat fédéral de capacité. [less ▲]

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See detailArbeitslosigkeit mindert Jobchancen
Imdorf, Christian; Sacchi, Stefan; Samuel, Robin UL et al

in Die Volkswirtschaft = La Vie économique (2018), 10

Angesichts des raschen strukturellen Wandels im Arbeitsmarkt ist ein geradliniger Berufsverlauf nach der Lehre nicht mehr die Norm. Es ist anzunehmen, dass durch Arbeitslosigkeit oder Berufswechsel ... [more ▼]

Angesichts des raschen strukturellen Wandels im Arbeitsmarkt ist ein geradliniger Berufsverlauf nach der Lehre nicht mehr die Norm. Es ist anzunehmen, dass durch Arbeitslosigkeit oder Berufswechsel bedingte Brüche im Berufsverlauf in Zukunft häufiger werden. In diesem Kontext stellt sich die Frage, wie Arbeitgeber bei der Besetzung von offenen Stellen solche Brüche in den Lebensläufen junger Stellensuchender bewerten. Eine Studie, welche die Frage nach einer möglichen Beeinträchtigung der Bewerbungschancen junger Stellensuchender nach einer Phase der Arbeitslosigkeit ins Zentrum stellt, zeigt: Arbeitslosigkeit beeinträchtigt in der Schweiz die Bewerbungschancen von Stellensuchenden. Eine abgeschlossene Berufsausbildung schützt dabei nicht vor den problematischen Folgen. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Effects of Deskilling and Unemployment on Hiring Decisions
Samuel, Robin UL; Imdorf, Christian; Sacchi, Stefan et al

Scientific Conference (2017, November 08)

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See detailEidgenössische Jugendbefragungen ch-x: Lebensstile, Konsum und Zukunftsperspektiven junger Erwachsener in der Schweiz
Samuel, Robin UL

Speeches/Talks (2017)

Welches sind die aktuellen Wert-, Lebens- und Zukunftsvorstellungen von jungen Erwachsenen in der Schweiz? Welche Rolle nehmen die neuen Medien im Leben der ersten Generation der Digital Natives ein? Was ... [more ▼]

Welches sind die aktuellen Wert-, Lebens- und Zukunftsvorstellungen von jungen Erwachsenen in der Schweiz? Welche Rolle nehmen die neuen Medien im Leben der ersten Generation der Digital Natives ein? Was sind die Erwartungen der jungen Erwachsenen an Familie, Beruf, Religion und Freizeit? Eine neue Studie der Eidgenössischen Jugendbefragungen ch-x geht diesen Fragen nach. Sie stellt u.a. eine erstaunliche Trendstabilität bei den Grundwerten und bei der Einstufung der Wichtigkeit verschiedener Lebensbereiche fest. [less ▲]

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See detailFinding a job after precarious labour market experience. A cross-country factorial survey experiment with recruiters in Bulgaria, Greece, Norway and Switzerland
Imdorf, Christian; Shi, Lulu P.; Sacchi, Stefan et al

Scientific Conference (2017, September 01)

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See detailInstitutional Determinants of Early Job Insecurity in Nine European Countries: Country Report Switzerland
Imdorf, Christian; Shi, Lulu P.; Helbling, Laura et al

E-print/Working paper (2017)

An overview of institutional determinants of early job insecurity in Switzerland.

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (5 UL)
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See detailThe Role of Perceived Stress and Self-Efficacy in Young People’s Life Satisfaction: A Longitudinal Study
Burger, Kaspar; Samuel, Robin UL

in Journal of Youth and Adolescence (2017), 46(1), 78-90

Life satisfaction is an important indicator of successful development. However, adolescents’ life satisfaction tends to be relatively unsteady, and environmental influences play a critical role in shaping ... [more ▼]

Life satisfaction is an important indicator of successful development. However, adolescents’ life satisfaction tends to be relatively unsteady, and environmental influences play a critical role in shaping life satisfaction among adolescents in the transition to young adulthood. Given the paramount importance that education plays in adolescents’ lives, adolescents’ life satisfaction may vary as a function of school-related stress experience. At the same time, coping resources may help reduce adverse effects of stress on life satisfaction. With this in mind, we examined whether, and to what extent, perceived stress in education and general self-efficacy (a resource that facilitates coping) affect the life satisfaction of adolescents in transition to young adulthood. We distinguished between baseline levels of stress and self-efficacy and within-person change in stress and self-efficacy to determine whether life satisfaction is sensitive to fluctuations in stress and self-efficacy when person-specific levels of stress and self-efficacy are taken into account. Estimating growth curve models on data from a panel study on the life trajectories of compulsory-school leavers (n = 5126, 55.3 % female), we found that baseline levels of stress and self-efficacy, as well as within-person change in stress and self-efficacy, affected adolescents’ life satisfaction. Moreover, our results showed that baseline self-efficacy mitigated the negative effect of baseline stress on life satisfaction. These findings improve our understanding of two major psychological determinants of adolescents’ life satisfaction and extend our knowledge of life satisfaction trajectories during the transition to young adulthood. [less ▲]

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See detailAn International Comparative Analysis of Employers’ Hiring Decisions
Imdorf, Christian; Samuel, Robin UL; Shi, Lulu P.

Presentation (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (2 UL)
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See detailHow Social Support and Self-Efficacy Moderate Effects of Significant Life Events on School Drop-Out
Burger, Kaspar; Samuel, Robin UL

Scientific Conference (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (0 UL)
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See detailLebensstile, Konsum und Zukunftsperspektiven junger Erwachsener in der Schweiz
Samuel, Robin UL; Berger, Lena; Bergman, Manfred Max

Book published by Somedia (2017)

Bei der Erhebung von 50'000 stellungspflichtigen Männern in den Jahren 2012/13 sowie rund 1’800 gleichaltrigen Schweizerinnen standen zwei Fragen im Vordergrund. Erstens: Was sind die aktuellen Lebens ... [more ▼]

Bei der Erhebung von 50'000 stellungspflichtigen Männern in den Jahren 2012/13 sowie rund 1’800 gleichaltrigen Schweizerinnen standen zwei Fragen im Vordergrund. Erstens: Was sind die aktuellen Lebens- und Zukunftsvorstellungen der jungen Erwachsenen? Und: Welche Rolle spielen neue Medien im Leben einer der ersten Generationen von Digital Natives? Die Vergleiche mit früheren ch-x-Erhebungen bei den jungen Erwachsenen an der Schwelle von der Jugend- ins Erwachsenenalter belegen eine hohe Trendstabilität bei den Grundwerten, bei der Rangierung der Wichtigkeit von Lebensbereichen sowie bei den Determinanten der Berufswahl und den Familien- und Geschlechterrollenbildern. Werte, Familie und Freizeit Junge Erwachsene streben nach Unabhängigkeit und Selbstverwirklichung, betonen individuelle Bedürfnisse und aspirieren auf einen hohen sozialen Status mittels beruflichem Erfolg. Sie rangieren die Wichtigkeit der Lebensbereiche gleich wie die Befragten früherer ch-x-Erhebungen. Bei der Familiengestaltung sind herkömmliche Familien- und Geschlechtermodelle nach wie vor hoch im Kurs. Man möchte heiraten und Kinder haben. Der Mann wird ungebrochen in der Ernährerrolle gesehen, während die Frau sich um die Familie kümmern sollte. Diesbezüglich unterscheiden sich die Lebensansichten und Zukunftsvorstellungen der Digital Natives nur geringfügig von denjenigen der vorhergehenden Generationen. Wandel prägt indes das Freizeitverhalten insofern, als informationstechnische Unterhaltungsangebote und soziale Netzwerke neben herkömmlichen Medien zu wichtigen Gestaltungsfaktoren für die Freizeit avanciert sind. Die jungen Erwachsenen stehen heute in einem sich akzentuierenden Spannungsfeld zwischen dem Wunsch nach Selbstverwirklichung und dem Festhalten an traditionellen institutionalisierten Strukturen und Rollenbildern. Für erstere bieten die neuen digitalen Medien in Art und Form zahlreiche neue Optionen, die rege genutzt werden. Für letztere steht das Festhalten an klassischen Familienmodellen und hohen Berufszielen. Damit steht diese Generation vor der Herausforderung, viele nur noch schwer zu vereinbarende Wünsche mit gesellschaftlichen Erwartungen in Übereinstimmung zu bringen. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (9 UL)
See detailStyles de vie, consommation et perspectives d’avenir des jeunes adultes en Suisse
Berger, Lena; Samuel, Robin UL; Bergman, Manfred Max

Article for general public (2017)

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See detailExplaining employers’ hiring decisions: A comparative study of employers’ risk assessment
Imdorf, Christian; Shi, Lulu P.; Sacchi, Stefan et al

E-print/Working paper (2017)

In order to investigate the scarring effect of early job insecurity on future employment chances we have implemented a factorial survey experiment with recruiters based on real vacancies in Bulgaria ... [more ▼]

In order to investigate the scarring effect of early job insecurity on future employment chances we have implemented a factorial survey experiment with recruiters based on real vacancies in Bulgaria, Greece, Norway and Switzerland. We contribute to recruitment research at least in three ways: First, the multinational design allows us to run comparative analysis across countries, which are carried out along the national dimensions youth unemployment rate, employment protection regulation and type of educational system. Second, we differentiate between two different forms of early job insecurity – unemployment and work experience in deskilling jobs, and we demonstrate that the sole focus on unemployment, as it is the case in the prevalent labour market research, is not sufficient in order to fully understand labour market outcomes caused by different forms of job insecurities. Third, since our sample consists of real recruiters who were hiring for current jobs at the time when the study was carried out, we provide a unique cross-country data set of high external validity. Our findings suggest that scarring effects of early job insecurity vary across countries and across occupational fields, and while scarring caused by work experience in deskilling jobs seems to be enforced by strong employment protection regulations, unemployment scarring seems to stronger where national unemployment is low. Further, the differences in recruiter’s evaluation across occupational fields indicate that signalling value of education may vary depending on specific sectors. Not at least, we contribute to debates around active labour market policies, arguing that measures aiming at quick labour market reintegration without consideration of job quality may not be the most sustainable solution, as work experience in a deskilling job does not lead to better recruiter’s evaluation. [less ▲]

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See detailHow Social Support and Self-Efficacy Moderate Effects of Significant Life Events on School Drop-Out in Young People
Burger, Kaspar; Samuel, Robin UL

Scientific Conference (2017)

Drivers of drop-out have been studied extensively over the past years. A number of studies suggest that self-efficacy and social support help reduce adverse effects of significant life events, such as ... [more ▼]

Drivers of drop-out have been studied extensively over the past years. A number of studies suggest that self-efficacy and social support help reduce adverse effects of significant life events, such as trouble with family and friends, on drop-out intention but also on actual drop- out. However, over-all, evidence as to whether self-efficacy and social support influence drop-out intention and actual drop-out is mixed. We examined whether, and to what extent, perceived social support and general self-efficacy affect drop-out of adolescents in transition to young adulthood. We distinguished between baseline levels of social support and self-efficacy and (within-person) change in social support and self-efficacy in order to determine whether drop-out is sensitive to fluctuations in social support and self-efficacy when person-specific levels of social support and self-efficacy are taken into account. Estimating growth curve models on TREE data, a panel study on the life trajectories of compulsory-school leavers in Switzerland, we found that baseline levels of social support and self-efficacy, as well as within-person change in social support and self-efficacy, affected adolescents’ drop-out intention, but did not prevent actual drop-out. Moreover, our models show effects of a range of significant life events on drop-out intention and actual drop-out. These findings improve our understanding of the role that psychological and social factors play in shaping drop-out intentions and actual drop-out [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 124 (1 UL)
See detailStili di vita, consumo e aspettative future dei giovani adulti in Svizzera
Berger, Lena; Samuel, Robin UL; Bergman, Manfred Max

Article for general public (2017)

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See detailMale Breadwinning Revisited: How Specialisation, Gender Role Attitudes and Work Characteristics Affect Overwork and Underwork in Europe
Kanji, Shireen; Samuel, Robin UL

in Sociology (2017), 51(2), 339-356

We examine how male breadwinning and fatherhood relate to men’s overwork and underwork in western Europe. Male breadwinners should be less likely to experience overwork than other men, particularly when ... [more ▼]

We examine how male breadwinning and fatherhood relate to men’s overwork and underwork in western Europe. Male breadwinners should be less likely to experience overwork than other men, particularly when they have children, if specialising in paid work suits them. However, multinomial logistic regression analysis of the European Social Survey data from 2010 (n = 4662) challenges this position: male breadwinners, with and without children, want to work fewer than their actual hours, making visible one of the downsides of specialisation. Male breadwinners wanting to work fewer hours is specifically related to the job interfering with family life, as revealed by a comparison of the average marginal effects of variables across models. Work–life interference has an effect over and beyond the separate effects of work characteristics and family structure, showing the salience of the way work and life articulate. [less ▲]

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See detailLebensstile, Konsum und Zukunftsperspektiven junger Erwachsener in der Schweiz
Berger, Lena; Samuel, Robin UL; Bergman, Manfred Max

Article for general public (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 65 (5 UL)
See detailStudying Scarring Effects Using Factorial Designs: Rating or Ranking?
Imdorf, Christian; Sacchi, Stefan; Samuel, Robin UL et al

Scientific Conference (2016, November 09)

Early job insecurity is a much-discussed topic across European countries. Research overwhelmingly found that being unemployed after graduation affects employment chances and also future wages negatively ... [more ▼]

Early job insecurity is a much-discussed topic across European countries. Research overwhelmingly found that being unemployed after graduation affects employment chances and also future wages negatively, other research, however, did not find such scarring effects. Some of this mixed evidence may be due to the different ways in which data were collected. Evaluating the effects of potentially stigmatizing applicant characteristics on hiring chances, such as previous unemployment spells, is known to be prone to social desirability bias. Factorial survey experiments (FSE) and forced choice experiments (FCE) have been suggested to alleviate some of these problems. In this workshop contribution, we gauge the capability of FSE and FCE to estimate effects of early career unemployment spells on recruiters’ hiring decisions. Using data obtained from a survey with sequentially implemented FSE and FCE with 2000 recruiters in Bulgaria, Greece, Norway, and Switzerland we compare FSE and FCE using multilevel linear regression models and multilevel probit models with random effects. Our preliminary results suggest that FCE may be better suited to gather valid data with minimal social desirability bias. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding unemployment scars: A vignette Experiment of employers' decisions in Bulgaria, Greece, Norway and Switzerland
Hyggen, Christer; Imdorf, Christian; Parsanaglou, Dimitris et al

E-print/Working paper (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 58 (8 UL)