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See detailSchülerinnen und Schüler mit besonderem Förderbedarf im luxemburgischen Bildungssystem
Limbach Reich, Arthur; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Bildungsbericht Luxemburg 2015 (2015)

Pupils with special needs in the Luxembourg national education system (Arthur Limbach-Reich, Justin J. W. Powell): As in other European countries, special needs education moves between exclusion and ... [more ▼]

Pupils with special needs in the Luxembourg national education system (Arthur Limbach-Reich, Justin J. W. Powell): As in other European countries, special needs education moves between exclusion and inclusion in Luxembourg. The Luxembourg Education Act of 1881 introduced for the compulsory schooling for all children first the time. In so doing, the law excused children with recognized impairments from this obligation, although the State gradually opened institutions dedicated to these children with special needs. This exclusion, later segregation from mainstream education, was strongly criticized in the late 1950s and 1960s. Then special classes were set up and specific institutions were created with the aim of providing support to these children. Yet not until 1973 did education become compulsory for all children, including those with disabilities – rather late by European standards. Whereas the establishment of special schools and special education classes was interpreted as progress (although late in coming relative to the neighboring countries), criticism became heated at the continued separation of ‚normal‘ from ‚non-normal‘ children. This criticism contributed to the Integration Act of June 1994, which had the goal of the widespread inclusion of all children in regular classes. At the national level, the care of SEN children in mainstream schools since 2009 has been monitored by multi-professional teams (équipes multiprofessionnelles) following the introduction of a new fundamental school law. However, if the skills base defined in the Education Act is not achieved, referral to special education (éducation différenciée) remains as a general option. Another obstacle to school inclusion is turning out to be the legal limitation of a maximum of eight years in primary school. In recent years, totals of between 700 to 850 children per year were classified as SEN children, corresponding to a percentage of about 1.4% to 1.8%. Statistically, at least three facts exemplifying inequalities demand enhanced attention. First, two thirds of SEN children in Luxembourg are male and this trend is increasing. Secondly, we observe that up to three fifths of these SEN children do not have Luxembourgish nationality. And thirdly, it must be noted that only two out of five SEN children are actually integrated into mainstream classes. The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities commits governments to the legally enforceable development of inclusive education systems to global standards – also in Luxembourg. Overall, despite awareness-raising, no fundamental change in special education and school integration in Luxembourg is discernible as a consequence of the ratification of the UN Disability Rights Convention. [less ▲]

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See detailScience Productivity, Higher Education Development and the Knowledge Society (SPHERE Project) Final Report
Baker, David P.; Crist, John T.; Zhang, Liang et al

Report (2015)

This project created and analyzed a new, large global dataset on scientific journal articles, published between 1900 and 2011, and a series of case studies to examine how systems of higher education ... [more ▼]

This project created and analyzed a new, large global dataset on scientific journal articles, published between 1900 and 2011, and a series of case studies to examine how systems of higher education developed and grew nations’ capacity for scientific research. The analysis resulted in a series of new insights about global scientific production that were only possible with a consideration of long-term trends. First, despite predictions as early as the 1960s that the growth rate of “big science” would slow, the dataset shows in fact that “big science” started a phase of exponential growth in the early 1960s that has continued unabated for decades. “Big science” has transformed into “mega-global science” and the trends of global diffusion and regional differentiation began much earlier in the 20th century than is commonly understood. Second, the analysis of rates of regional journal article production also depicts clear shifts in the competition for ascendancy in scientific production. For the first half of the 20th century, global competition for scientific impact was primarily an Atlantic battle between the top producers of Europe (Germany, France, and the U.K.) and the United States. The locus of competition shifted by the, end of the 20th century to a contest between the current research “superpower, ” the United States, and the fast-growing producer, China, along with the many less populous countries of Western Europe with their highly productive science systems. With the contributions of other East Asian, high volume producers such as Japan and South Korea in the later decades of the 20th century, and simultaneous slowing of research production in U.S. science, the center of gravity for research production has been pulled eastward for the past two decades. Third, while science may indeed be an inherently global and collaborative enterprise, the trend toward global collaboration of authors is a relatively recent one. Historically, one-third of all research articles worldwide result from international collaboration, and less than 26 percent are the product of one researcher alone. In 1980 however only about 2 percent of all SCIE publications involved a collaboration across international lines. Three decades later this proportion is eleven times what it was in 1980. Finally, the study also concluded that overall volume of production is not a sufficient measure of scientific capacity by itself. When adjusting for the size of population and the economy the proportion of GDP spent on R&D or the number of researchers some smaller countries (especially in Europe) are more productive on a per capita basis than mid-sized or even larger ones. Similarly the ratio of investment in science to scientific production is much higher in the high volume producers than it is in some small states. While output is smaller in these states, they have maximized R&D investments more efficiently than their larger competitors. [less ▲]

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See detailAusbruch aus der Sonderschule
Edelstein, Benjamin; Blanck, Jonna M.; Powell, Justin J W UL

Article for general public (2014)

Im Jahr 2008 hat Deutschland die UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention (UN-BRK) ratifiziert und sich verpflichtet, ein inklusives Bildungssystem zu schaffen. Die Konvention verbietet Sonderschulen nicht explizit ... [more ▼]

Im Jahr 2008 hat Deutschland die UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention (UN-BRK) ratifiziert und sich verpflichtet, ein inklusives Bildungssystem zu schaffen. Die Konvention verbietet Sonderschulen nicht explizit. Aber das systematische Aussondern von Schülern mit Behinderungen aus dem Regelschulsystem, wie es in Deutschland praktiziert wird, verstößt gegen die Konvention. Die vermeintlichen Vorteile der Sonderbeschulung werden zudem durch Akteure aus Wissenschaft, Politik und Praxis sowie internationalen Organisationen seit Jahrzehnten in Frage gestellt. Der Auslesegedanke ist gesellschaftlich verwurzelt. Ein Kernkonflikt deutscher Schulpolitik. Was Schleswig-Holstein richtig macht. In Deutschland gibt es längst erfolgreiche Modelle für inklusiven Unterricht, die in den letzten 30 Jahren entwickelt, erprobt und wissenschaftlich evaluiert worden sind. Die flächendeckende Umsetzung der Behindertenrechtskonvention darf indes nicht Jahrzehnte in Anspruch nehmen. Auch der Bund ist gefragt: Da Inklusion vorübergehend Mehrkosten verursacht und diese für die Länder gerade in Zeiten der Schuldenbremse ein massives Reformhindernis sind, dürfte ein finanzielles Engagement des Bundes – ähnlich dem Ganztagsschulprogramm – die inklusive Schulentwicklung beflügeln. Das aber setzt voraus, dass auch im Schulbereich wieder Kooperationsmöglichkeiten zwischen Bund und Ländern gefunden werden. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative and International Perspectives on Special Education
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Florian, Lani (Ed.) The SAGE Handbook of Special Education (2014)

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See detailUniversity Roots and Branches between ‘Glocalization’ and ‘Mondialisation’: Qatar’s (Inter)National Universities
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Wiseman, Alexander W.; Alromi, Naif H.; Alshumrani, Saleh (Eds.) Education for a Knowledge Society in Arabian Gulf Countries (2014)

Qatar’s higher education system is growing rapidly, as science in the Islamic world witnesses a contemporary renaissance. Steering a course toward becoming a “knowledge society,” Qatar and other countries ... [more ▼]

Qatar’s higher education system is growing rapidly, as science in the Islamic world witnesses a contemporary renaissance. Steering a course toward becoming a “knowledge society,” Qatar and other countries in the Arabian Gulf region are now home to dozens of universities. The establishment of many international offshore, satellite or branch campuses further emphasizes the international dynamism of higher education development there. The remarkable expansion of higher education in Qatar builds upon unifying two distinct strategies, both prevalent in capacity-building attempts worldwide. Firstly, Qatar seeks to cultivate human capital domestically through massive infrastructure investment and development of educational structures, including Qatar University. Secondly, Qatar seeks to match the strongest global universities through direct importation of existing organizational capacity, faculty and staff, and accumulated reputation. Local capacity in higher education and scientific productivity is built simultaneously with the on-going import of ideas and talent from different regions of the world. The relative youth of the higher education system and the state’s small geographic and demographic size are being compensated by considerable investments in the standard-bearing university—a national university taking root—simultaneously with hosting branches of eminent foreign higher education institutions, mainly on the Education City campus. Exemplifying extreme glocalization and mondialisation, Qatar has become a regional hub, bridging the traditional university strongholds in the West and the rising powerhouses in the East. [less ▲]

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See detailTransferpotenziale des deutschen dualen Studiums. Eine Bestimmung zentraler Faktoren anhand der Fallstudien Brasilien und Frankreich
Graf, Lukas UL; Powell, Justin J W UL; Bernhard, Nadine

in Berufsbildung in Wissenschaft und Praxis (2014), 6/2014

Dem dualen Studium wird das Potenzial zugesprochen, eine wichtige Rolle bei der Kompetenzentwicklung für Berufe des 21. Jahrhunderts zu spielen. Bislang sind duale Studiengänge vor allem ein deutsches ... [more ▼]

Dem dualen Studium wird das Potenzial zugesprochen, eine wichtige Rolle bei der Kompetenzentwicklung für Berufe des 21. Jahrhunderts zu spielen. Bislang sind duale Studiengänge vor allem ein deutsches Phänomen. Derzeit trifft dieses Studienmodell jedoch vermehrt auf das Interesse von ausländischen Bildungsakteuren, die gezielt nach Modellen zur besseren Verknüpfung akademischer und berufspraxisbezogener Lernerfahrungen suchen. Anhand der Länder Frankreich und Brasilien werden allgemeine Bedingungen für einen erfolgreichen Transfer dieses Studienmodells und Möglichkeiten der binationalen Kooperation analysiert. [less ▲]

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See detailSubversive Status: Disability Studies in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland
Pfahl, Lisa; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Disability Studies Quarterly (2014), 34(2),

What activities facilitate the development of disability studies (DS)? What barriers hinder its (multi)disciplinary flourishing? We address these questions focusing on contemporary DS in Germany, Austria ... [more ▼]

What activities facilitate the development of disability studies (DS)? What barriers hinder its (multi)disciplinary flourishing? We address these questions focusing on contemporary DS in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland—vibrant but challenging locales for DS. This multidisciplinary field engages intellectuals, activists, and stakeholders to subversively cross disciplinary, institutional, and political divides. Critical DS scholarship relies on collaboration among members of the disability (rights) movement, advocates, and academics to develop its subversive status. Within the academy, despite general barriers to transdisciplinary fields of study and persistent disability discrimination, more positions have been devoted to research and teaching in DS. Intersectionality debates thrive and further disciplines discover the richness that the complex subject of dis/ability offers. The field, recognizing its subversive status and engaging insights from DS worldwide—across language and disciplinary boundaries—could better focus and unfold its critical powers. The potential of DS in the German-speaking countries continues to grow, with diverse conferences, teaching, and publications bolstering the exchange of ideas. [less ▲]

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See detailAuf dem Pfad zur inklusiven Bildung? Schulreformen in Deutschland und die UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention
Blanck, Jonna M.; Edelstein, Benjamin; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Schuppener, Saskia; Bernhardt, Nora; Hauser, Mandy (Eds.) et al Inklusion und Chancengleichheit (2014)

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See detailInternational National Universities: Migration and Mobility in Luxembourg and Qatar
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Streitwieser, Bernhard (Ed.) Internationalisation of Higher Education and Global Mobility (2014)

Located in small states with extraordinary migration flows, the University of Luxembourg and Qatar University reflect global norms relating to research universities. Each has opened its doors widely in ... [more ▼]

Located in small states with extraordinary migration flows, the University of Luxembourg and Qatar University reflect global norms relating to research universities. Each has opened its doors widely in recent decades to scholars and students from around the world. Higher education in both countries relies to a considerable extent on global mobility; indeed, the international dimension of higher education is a precondition for their development. Elaborated internationalisation strategies characterise the universities in Luxembourg and Qatar, embedded in hyper-diverse and very wealthy nation-states as well as in significant regional and global networks. In these two cases, the ‘national’ flagship universities are thoroughly ‘international’. These recently founded universities rely on global scientific networks, without which higher education and science could not flourish. Likewise, these young international national universities facilitate the accelerating global reach of higher education and science as they systematically foster the global recruitment, cross-border mobility and multicultural networks of faculty, staff and students. [less ▲]

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See detailMade in Germany – Produced in America? How Dual Vocational Training Programs Can Help Close the Skills Gap in the United States
Powell, Justin J W UL; Fortwengel, Johann

in AICGS Issue Brief (2014), 47

Two of the strongest education systems and economies worldwide, the United States and Germany, have been among the key sources for models in skill formation emulated globally. Public and private ... [more ▼]

Two of the strongest education systems and economies worldwide, the United States and Germany, have been among the key sources for models in skill formation emulated globally. Public and private investments in skill formation have increased in both countries. Yet these systems maintain contrasting emphases: general and academic education in the U.S. and specific vocational training, in particular occupations, in Germany. Both countries continue to learn from each other as they compete in global education and labor markets—and continue their extensive bilateral cooperation. While both are meritocratic democracies with federal political structures, the educational institutions of Germany and the United States, especially those of vocational education and training, are quite different. This challenges the direct transfer of educational models. Yet there exists great interest among firms, politicians, and educators in praxis oriented, workplace-based, occupationally-focused education and training as it has developed over decades in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria. This is because it has become the backbone of robust export-driven economies and protected these societies from the economic crisis and high unemployment rates that the U.S. has recently suffered. Thus, the German model in vocational education and training, especially dual apprenticeship, has been widely discussed, most recently by President Barack Obama in his State of the Union address, in which he envisioned implementing elements of the German dual model to address the skills gap and unemployment in the U.S. economy. The current rise of dual studies in Germany—and functionally-equivalent programs in the United States described here—shows that employers are increasingly willing to collaborate with higher education institutions to recruit talent, train workers, and upgrade skills. [less ▲]

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See detailInstitutionelle Dimensionen inklusiver Schulbildung: Herausforderungen der UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention für Deutschland, Island und Schweden im Vergleich
Biermann, Julia; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaften (2014), 17(4), 679-700

The rights-based orientation embedded in the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which mandates inclusive education for all students and counts segregation as discrimination, poses ... [more ▼]

The rights-based orientation embedded in the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which mandates inclusive education for all students and counts segregation as discrimination, poses fundamental challenges to institutionalized (special) education systems. However, it does so to different extents, with the Nordic countries already the most inclusive systems worldwide. Thus, this analysis contrasts challenges and opportunities in institutional transformation of special education and inclusive education in Germany, Iceland and Sweden. We address the questions: How do these countries provide educational supports for students considered to have special educational needs? What perspectives can be derived for the implementation of inclusive education, especially for Germany, still among the most segregated systems in Europe, from such comparative analysis? The study revealed key differences in the three institutional dimensions—educational ideals and disability paradigms, organizational forms, and regulations—that hinder or enable inclusive education. [less ▲]

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See detailAn der Schnittstelle Ethnie und Behinderung benachteiligt: Jugendliche mit Migrationshintergrund an deutschen Sonderschulen weiterhin überrepräsentiert
Powell, Justin J W UL; Wagner, Sandra J

in Wansing, Gudrun; Westphal, Manuela (Eds.) Behinderung und Migration (2014)

An der Schnittstelle Ethnie und „schulische Behinderung“ (Powell 2009) werden Jugendliche mit Migrationshintergrund in sonderpädagogische Fördersysteme durch die Klassifizierung als sonderpädagogisch ... [more ▼]

An der Schnittstelle Ethnie und „schulische Behinderung“ (Powell 2009) werden Jugendliche mit Migrationshintergrund in sonderpädagogische Fördersysteme durch die Klassifizierung als sonderpädagogisch förderbedürftig und die räumliche Segregation weiterhin benachteiligt. Es zeigt sich, dass sowohl von der Klassifizierung als auch von der Überweisung an die Sonderschule bestimmte Gruppen wesentlich häufiger betroffen sind als andere und dies entlang bestimmter sozio-struktureller und kultureller Merkmale. Nach Staatsangehörigkeit, Förderschwerpunkt, aber auch Wohnort sind Schülerinnen und Schüler z. T. erheblich überrepräsentiert in sonderpädagogischen Maßnahmen. Die Brisanz dieser Befunde liegt weniger darin, dass sie neu sind. Vielmehr ist es ihre Persistenz über Jahrzehnte hinweg, trotz Ratifizierung der UN-Konvention über die Rechte von Menschen mit Behinderungen in Deutschland. Dies gilt als eine der größten Herausforderungen für das deutsche Bildungswesen. [less ▲]

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See detailReview of The German Example: English Interest in Educational Provision in Germany since 1800 by David Phillips
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Comparative Education Review (2014), 58(4), 743-744

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See detailDual Study Programmes in Global Context: Internationalisation in Germany and Transfer to Brazil, France, Qatar, Mexico and the US
Graf, Lukas UL; Powell, Justin J W UL; Fortwengel, Johann et al

Book published by DAAD (2014)

This exploratory study is devoted in equal measure to the status quo and the future perspectives of the internationalisation of dual study programmes, a special hybrid form of vocational training and ... [more ▼]

This exploratory study is devoted in equal measure to the status quo and the future perspectives of the internationalisation of dual study programmes, a special hybrid form of vocational training and higher education developed in Germany. Building on the earlier DAAD studies ‘Sachstand: Duales Studium als Exportmodell’ (Maschke 2012) and ‘Modelle und Szenarien für den Export deutscher Studienangebote ins Ausland’ (Schreiterer and Witte 2001; see also DAAD/HRK 2012), the authors examine both the degree of internationalisation of existing dual study programmes in Germany (with special emphasis on students’ geographical mobility) and the possibilities and limits of systematically transferring this emergent educational model to selected countries. Two recent trends have helped put issues of internationalisation and the transfer of German education concepts higher up on the policy agenda again: first, the current economic situation in Germany, which has remained robust despite the recent financial and economic turmoil, reflected most importantly in comparatively low levels of youth unemployment. Dual vocational education and training models are seen as a key factor contributing to this success. Second, the concept of dual studies reflects an emergent model of skill formation at the nexus of initial vocational training and tertiary education. This innovative hybrid form is seen as having the potential to play a crucial role in the development of competencies for twenty-first-century occupations, not least against the backdrop of the pressing skills gap. [less ▲]

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See detailDiverging Paths: How the UN Disability Convention Affects School Reforms in Germany
Blanck, Jonna M.; Edelstein, Benjamin; Powell, Justin J W UL

in WZB Report (2014)

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities, ratified in Germany in 2008, mandates “inclusive” education. This necessitates profound reforms because the ambitious goals of the ... [more ▼]

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities, ratified in Germany in 2008, mandates “inclusive” education. This necessitates profound reforms because the ambitious goals of the Convention challenge the segregated special education systems of the Bundesländer and ultimately stratified schooling as a whole. However, the implementation of inclusive reforms faces serious obstacles. By comparing Schleswig-Holstein and Bavaria, we show how these can be overcome and what role the UN Convention can play in this regard. [less ▲]

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See detailMade only in Germany? Internationalization and Transfer of Dual Study Programs
Graf, Lukas UL; Powell, Justin J W UL; Fortwengel, Johann et al

Scientific Conference (2014)

Germany, along with Switzerland and Austria, has a long tradition in the provision of dual apprenticeship training. However, since the late 1960s we see a new development with the rise of hybrid dual ... [more ▼]

Germany, along with Switzerland and Austria, has a long tradition in the provision of dual apprenticeship training. However, since the late 1960s we see a new development with the rise of hybrid dual study programs located at the nexus of vocational training and higher education. In recent years, this innovative training model has received increasing attention by policy makers in Germany – and abroad. In this context, our study first analyses the degree of internationalization of dual study programs in Germany. Secondly, we examine institutional conditions for the transfer of these programs to other countries: France, the US, Mexico, Brazil, and Qatar. The explorative analysis is based on a range of expert and stakeholder interviews in all six countries. We apply a neo-institutional comparative-historical approach. [less ▲]

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See detailSammelrezension zum Thema: Schulische Inklusion in den USA und Canada
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Erziehungswissenschaftliche Revue (2014), 13(6),

Die massive, globale Bildungsexpansion hat kein Land unberührt gelassen. Zudem wachsen stetig die Zahlen der als sonderpädagogisch förderbedürftig wahrgenommenen Kinder und Jugendlichen. Obwohl in ... [more ▼]

Die massive, globale Bildungsexpansion hat kein Land unberührt gelassen. Zudem wachsen stetig die Zahlen der als sonderpädagogisch förderbedürftig wahrgenommenen Kinder und Jugendlichen. Obwohl in vielen Ländern immer mehr dieser Schülerinnen und Schüler in Regelklassen unterrichtet werden, ist ihr Anteil in separaten Klassen oder Einrichtungen nicht rückläufig. Trotz vielfältiger Reformvorhaben auf unterschiedlichen Ebenen des Bildungssystems werden Schülerinnen und Schüler mit wahrgenommenem Förderbedarf weiterhin stigmatisiert und segregiert. Gleichzeitig wird Bildung zunehmend als Menschenrecht verstanden, das in dem Leitgedanken „Bildung für Alle“ (Education for All) und der zumindest rhetorisch zur globalen Norm gewordenen „inclusive education“ zum Ausdruck kommt. Diese spannungsreichen Entwicklungen variieren geographisch in verschiedenen Dimensionen und in mannigfacher Hinsicht erheblich. Die Thematik sonderpädagogischer Förderung – und damit auch inklusive Bildung – ist seit jeher von Ambivalenzen und Konflikten durchsetzt. Beide werden in den aktuellen weltweiten Debatten evident. Es wird eine Bandbreite an Förderorten bereitgestellt und nach Lösungen für die sich zunehmend stellende Frage nach der optimalen individuellen Förderung jede/r Schüler/in gesucht. Vor diesem Hintergrund bieten die vorgelegten Dissertationen zu Reformen zu inklusiveren Schulen in den USA von Magdalena Johnson und in Kanada von Andreas Köpfer den deutschsprachigen Leserinnen und Lesern wichtige Quellen für die wissenschaftliche und bildungspolitische Auseinandersetzung entlang von Ländern, die schon länger versuchen, die schulische Segregation zu reduzieren; oft mit Erfolg. Einerseits liefern beide Bücher ein tiefgreifendes Verständnis der oft verkürzt dargestellten Entwicklungen Nordamerikas im Bereich der inklusiven, schulischen Bildung. Andererseits berichten diese Studien über wesentliche Wandlungsprozesse in der sonderpädagogischen Förderung – vor allem auf Schulebene in bestimmten US-Bundesstaaten bzw. kanadischen Provinzen – in nationalen Kontexten, die oft pauschal als vorbildhaft gelten. Die beiden analysierten föderalen Bildungssysteme Nordamerikas bieten wertvolle Vergleichsmöglichkeiten. Dies insbesondere für die in Deutschland aufflammende Debatte nach Inkrafttreten der UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention 2009 und im Zuge der (meist schleppenden) Umsetzung inklusiver Bildungsreformen. [less ▲]

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See detailRecht auf inklusive Bildung: Ressourcen der Vielfalt nutzen. Justin Powell: Schule soll Menschen für ein eigenständiges Leben in einer demokratischen Gesellschaft bilden.
Hanff, Françoise; Powell, Justin J W UL

Article for general public (2013)

Recht auf inklusive Bildung: Ressourcen der Vielfalt nutzen. Schule soll Menschen für ein eigenständiges Leben in einer demokratischen Gesellschaft bilden.

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See detailThe Bologna Process's Model of Mobility in Europe: The Relationship of its Spatial and Social Dimensions
Powell, Justin J W UL; Finger, Claudia

in European Educational Research Journal (2013), 12(2), 270-285

Cross-border mobility is among the pillars of internationality in higher education. Understood as central to educational and economic growth for individuals and societies, mobility also should facilitate ... [more ▼]

Cross-border mobility is among the pillars of internationality in higher education. Understood as central to educational and economic growth for individuals and societies, mobility also should facilitate social cohesion. Yet those who can afford spatial mobility are unevenly distributed; elites benefit in far greater measure. Policymakers in Europe aim to bolster the competitiveness and attractiveness of European higher education, especially through enhanced mobility of students and staff. Extending beyond the successes of Erasmus, the Bologna process defines a new model of mobility in higher education to foster spatial mobility, but how is the social selectivity of spatial mobility addressed? Based on a theory-guided content analysis of official Bologna policy documents, the authors examine the principles and standards of mobility. Which dimensions of mobility are mentioned in these declarations and communiqués from 1998 to 2012? To what extent are spatial mobility's social significance and selection processes reflected? The authors find that the dimensions, benefits and effects of spatial mobility have been mainly taken for granted, and both its social selectivity and its effects on social mobility understated. However, if the Bologna process is to facilitate social inclusion, inequalities must be addressed. The authors argue that if the 47 signatory countries to the Bologna process simply follow the principles espoused in this model, considerable disparities in participation in international exchange are likely to persist, reproducing dis/advantages. [less ▲]

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