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See detailReview of Ertl, Hubert: A World of Difference? Research on Higher and Vocational Education in Germany and England. Munich: Herbert Utz Verlag
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Journal of Vocational Education and Training (2015), 67(3), 417-419

In A world of difference? Research on higher and vocational education in Germany and England, Ertl draws on diverse pieces of his own scholarship (and those of his research collaborators) on both national ... [more ▼]

In A world of difference? Research on higher and vocational education in Germany and England, Ertl draws on diverse pieces of his own scholarship (and those of his research collaborators) on both national contexts to offer a contemporary picture of developments in vocational and higher education and the impact of these reforms on individual education pathways and, ultimately, educational and social inequalities. Structured in five substantive chapters and brief introductory and concluding chapters, the monograph collects and builds on a considerable body of work published over roughly a dozen years (more than twenty sole- and co-authored contributions are cited). The book’s overarching argument is that recent reforms have strengthened intranational heterogeneity in terms of institutional frameworks and governance due to culturally-specific policy formation and reception processes—and in contrast to the frequently postulated homogenizing impact of internationalization. In sum, the chosen examples of research on these two sectors provide insights into the variable impact of education policy agendas and programmes in England and Germany, including pan-European and international developments over the past two decades that emphasize both continuity and change. This book, with its wide-ranging and specific analyses presented by an expert on both countries, will be of interest to scholars and students who hope to make sense of contemporary transitions of and within VET and HE systems in the Bologna era. This volume is most innovative in combining these two sectors, far too often treated singly although, as Ertl shows, they have developed in complex relationships to each other and to schooling and the labour market. [less ▲]

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See detailExponential Growth and the Shifting Global Center of Gravity of Science Production, 1900-2011
Zhang, Liang; Powell, Justin J W UL; Baker, David P.

in Change. The Magazine of Higher Learning (2015), 47(4), 46-49

The unprecedented, exponential growth in article production reflects the increased importance of science in countries worldwide. The shifting center of gravity away from the US emphasizes its relative ... [more ▼]

The unprecedented, exponential growth in article production reflects the increased importance of science in countries worldwide. The shifting center of gravity away from the US emphasizes its relative decline as Asian and European countries invest heavily in their national higher education and research capacity. At the same time, cutting-edge knowledge production increasingly relies on building international and intercultural bridges between scholars. Thus, research and development requires investment not only in individuals within organizations but also in the networks, connections, and exchanges that facilitate discoveries. Competition is complemented by collaboration. The simultaneous shift and eastward movement of the centers of economic prosperity and scientific production since the 1950s is not surprising. Economic development provides the resources necessary for scientific production, which in turn spurs further economic growth. Although causality cannot be inferred from this concurrent movement, decades of economic research have shown that education, science, and technology have played crucial and mutually reinforcing roles in economic growth. They are likely to do so even more in an increasingly knowledge-driven global economy. [less ▲]

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See detailSoziale Inwertsetzung von Wissen, Erfahrung und Kompetenz in der Berufsbildung
Dietzen, Agnes; Powell, Justin J W UL; Bahl, Anke et al

Book published by Beltz Juventa (2015)

Welchen Wandel hat die Wertigkeit unterschiedlicher Wissensformen infolge gesellschaftlicher und ökonomischer Herausforderungen erfahren? Wie wird das Verständnis von Wissen und Können gegenwärtig in der ... [more ▼]

Welchen Wandel hat die Wertigkeit unterschiedlicher Wissensformen infolge gesellschaftlicher und ökonomischer Herausforderungen erfahren? Wie wird das Verständnis von Wissen und Können gegenwärtig in der Berufsbildung diskutiert? Wie verhält sich das erworbene Wissen zur Anwendung und Problemlösungsfähigkeit? Aufgrund erhöhter Qualifikationsanforderungen werden die Lerninhalte und Kompetenzen im Spannungsfeld von beruflicher und akademischer Bildung neu bestimmt. Die theoretisch-konzeptionelle und empirische Analysen vergleichen Strukturveränderungen zwischen beruflich-betrieblichen und akademischen Bildungsbereichen und präsentieren das neue Verhältnis von Wissen und Erfahrung, Handeln und Kompetenzen. [less ▲]

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See detailStratifizierung von Berufs- und Hochschulbildung in Europa: Deutschland und Frankreich im Spiegel klassischer Vergleichsstudien
Bernhard, Nadine; Graf, Lukas UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Dietzen, Agnes; Powell, Justin J W; Bahl, Anke (Eds.) et al Soziale Inwertsetzung von Wissen, Erfahrung und Kompetenz in der Berufsbildung (2015)

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See detailAusbruch aus der Sonderschule
Edelstein, Benjamin; Blanck, Jonna M.; Powell, Justin J W UL

Article for general public (2014)

Im Jahr 2008 hat Deutschland die UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention (UN-BRK) ratifiziert und sich verpflichtet, ein inklusives Bildungssystem zu schaffen. Die Konvention verbietet Sonderschulen nicht explizit ... [more ▼]

Im Jahr 2008 hat Deutschland die UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention (UN-BRK) ratifiziert und sich verpflichtet, ein inklusives Bildungssystem zu schaffen. Die Konvention verbietet Sonderschulen nicht explizit. Aber das systematische Aussondern von Schülern mit Behinderungen aus dem Regelschulsystem, wie es in Deutschland praktiziert wird, verstößt gegen die Konvention. Die vermeintlichen Vorteile der Sonderbeschulung werden zudem durch Akteure aus Wissenschaft, Politik und Praxis sowie internationalen Organisationen seit Jahrzehnten in Frage gestellt. Der Auslesegedanke ist gesellschaftlich verwurzelt. Ein Kernkonflikt deutscher Schulpolitik. Was Schleswig-Holstein richtig macht. In Deutschland gibt es längst erfolgreiche Modelle für inklusiven Unterricht, die in den letzten 30 Jahren entwickelt, erprobt und wissenschaftlich evaluiert worden sind. Die flächendeckende Umsetzung der Behindertenrechtskonvention darf indes nicht Jahrzehnte in Anspruch nehmen. Auch der Bund ist gefragt: Da Inklusion vorübergehend Mehrkosten verursacht und diese für die Länder gerade in Zeiten der Schuldenbremse ein massives Reformhindernis sind, dürfte ein finanzielles Engagement des Bundes – ähnlich dem Ganztagsschulprogramm – die inklusive Schulentwicklung beflügeln. Das aber setzt voraus, dass auch im Schulbereich wieder Kooperationsmöglichkeiten zwischen Bund und Ländern gefunden werden. [less ▲]

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See detailSubversive Status: Disability Studies in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland
Pfahl, Lisa; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Disability Studies Quarterly (2014), 34(2),

What activities facilitate the development of disability studies (DS)? What barriers hinder its (multi)disciplinary flourishing? We address these questions focusing on contemporary DS in Germany, Austria ... [more ▼]

What activities facilitate the development of disability studies (DS)? What barriers hinder its (multi)disciplinary flourishing? We address these questions focusing on contemporary DS in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland—vibrant but challenging locales for DS. This multidisciplinary field engages intellectuals, activists, and stakeholders to subversively cross disciplinary, institutional, and political divides. Critical DS scholarship relies on collaboration among members of the disability (rights) movement, advocates, and academics to develop its subversive status. Within the academy, despite general barriers to transdisciplinary fields of study and persistent disability discrimination, more positions have been devoted to research and teaching in DS. Intersectionality debates thrive and further disciplines discover the richness that the complex subject of dis/ability offers. The field, recognizing its subversive status and engaging insights from DS worldwide—across language and disciplinary boundaries—could better focus and unfold its critical powers. The potential of DS in the German-speaking countries continues to grow, with diverse conferences, teaching, and publications bolstering the exchange of ideas. [less ▲]

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See detailMade only in Germany? Internationalization and Transfer of Dual Study Programs
Graf, Lukas UL; Powell, Justin J W UL; Fortwengel, Johann et al

Scientific Conference (2014)

Germany, along with Switzerland and Austria, has a long tradition in the provision of dual apprenticeship training. However, since the late 1960s we see a new development with the rise of hybrid dual ... [more ▼]

Germany, along with Switzerland and Austria, has a long tradition in the provision of dual apprenticeship training. However, since the late 1960s we see a new development with the rise of hybrid dual study programs located at the nexus of vocational training and higher education. In recent years, this innovative training model has received increasing attention by policy makers in Germany – and abroad. In this context, our study first analyses the degree of internationalization of dual study programs in Germany. Secondly, we examine institutional conditions for the transfer of these programs to other countries: France, the US, Mexico, Brazil, and Qatar. The explorative analysis is based on a range of expert and stakeholder interviews in all six countries. We apply a neo-institutional comparative-historical approach. [less ▲]

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See detailReview of The German Example: English Interest in Educational Provision in Germany since 1800 by David Phillips
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Comparative Education Review (2014), 58(4), 743-744

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See detailDual Study Programmes in Global Context: Internationalisation in Germany and Transfer to Brazil, France, Qatar, Mexico and the US
Graf, Lukas UL; Powell, Justin J W UL; Fortwengel, Johann et al

Book published by DAAD (2014)

This exploratory study is devoted in equal measure to the status quo and the future perspectives of the internationalisation of dual study programmes, a special hybrid form of vocational training and ... [more ▼]

This exploratory study is devoted in equal measure to the status quo and the future perspectives of the internationalisation of dual study programmes, a special hybrid form of vocational training and higher education developed in Germany. Building on the earlier DAAD studies ‘Sachstand: Duales Studium als Exportmodell’ (Maschke 2012) and ‘Modelle und Szenarien für den Export deutscher Studienangebote ins Ausland’ (Schreiterer and Witte 2001; see also DAAD/HRK 2012), the authors examine both the degree of internationalisation of existing dual study programmes in Germany (with special emphasis on students’ geographical mobility) and the possibilities and limits of systematically transferring this emergent educational model to selected countries. Two recent trends have helped put issues of internationalisation and the transfer of German education concepts higher up on the policy agenda again: first, the current economic situation in Germany, which has remained robust despite the recent financial and economic turmoil, reflected most importantly in comparatively low levels of youth unemployment. Dual vocational education and training models are seen as a key factor contributing to this success. Second, the concept of dual studies reflects an emergent model of skill formation at the nexus of initial vocational training and tertiary education. This innovative hybrid form is seen as having the potential to play a crucial role in the development of competencies for twenty-first-century occupations, not least against the backdrop of the pressing skills gap. [less ▲]

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See detailInternational National Universities: Migration and Mobility in Luxembourg and Qatar
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Streitwieser, Bernhard (Ed.) Internationalisation of Higher Education and Global Mobility (2014)

Located in small states with extraordinary migration flows, the University of Luxembourg and Qatar University reflect global norms relating to research universities. Each has opened its doors widely in ... [more ▼]

Located in small states with extraordinary migration flows, the University of Luxembourg and Qatar University reflect global norms relating to research universities. Each has opened its doors widely in recent decades to scholars and students from around the world. Higher education in both countries relies to a considerable extent on global mobility; indeed, the international dimension of higher education is a precondition for their development. Elaborated internationalisation strategies characterise the universities in Luxembourg and Qatar, embedded in hyper-diverse and very wealthy nation-states as well as in significant regional and global networks. In these two cases, the ‘national’ flagship universities are thoroughly ‘international’. These recently founded universities rely on global scientific networks, without which higher education and science could not flourish. Likewise, these young international national universities facilitate the accelerating global reach of higher education and science as they systematically foster the global recruitment, cross-border mobility and multicultural networks of faculty, staff and students. [less ▲]

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See detailMade in Germany – Produced in America? How Dual Vocational Training Programs Can Help Close the Skills Gap in the United States
Powell, Justin J W UL; Fortwengel, Johann

in AICGS Issue Brief (2014), 47

Two of the strongest education systems and economies worldwide, the United States and Germany, have been among the key sources for models in skill formation emulated globally. Public and private ... [more ▼]

Two of the strongest education systems and economies worldwide, the United States and Germany, have been among the key sources for models in skill formation emulated globally. Public and private investments in skill formation have increased in both countries. Yet these systems maintain contrasting emphases: general and academic education in the U.S. and specific vocational training, in particular occupations, in Germany. Both countries continue to learn from each other as they compete in global education and labor markets—and continue their extensive bilateral cooperation. While both are meritocratic democracies with federal political structures, the educational institutions of Germany and the United States, especially those of vocational education and training, are quite different. This challenges the direct transfer of educational models. Yet there exists great interest among firms, politicians, and educators in praxis oriented, workplace-based, occupationally-focused education and training as it has developed over decades in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria. This is because it has become the backbone of robust export-driven economies and protected these societies from the economic crisis and high unemployment rates that the U.S. has recently suffered. Thus, the German model in vocational education and training, especially dual apprenticeship, has been widely discussed, most recently by President Barack Obama in his State of the Union address, in which he envisioned implementing elements of the German dual model to address the skills gap and unemployment in the U.S. economy. The current rise of dual studies in Germany—and functionally-equivalent programs in the United States described here—shows that employers are increasingly willing to collaborate with higher education institutions to recruit talent, train workers, and upgrade skills. [less ▲]

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See detailAuf dem Pfad zur inklusiven Bildung? Schulreformen in Deutschland und die UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention
Blanck, Jonna M.; Edelstein, Benjamin; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Schuppener, Saskia; Bernhardt, Nora; Hauser, Mandy (Eds.) et al Inklusion und Chancengleichheit (2014)

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See detailSammelrezension zum Thema: Schulische Inklusion in den USA und Canada
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Erziehungswissenschaftliche Revue (2014), 13(6),

Die massive, globale Bildungsexpansion hat kein Land unberührt gelassen. Zudem wachsen stetig die Zahlen der als sonderpädagogisch förderbedürftig wahrgenommenen Kinder und Jugendlichen. Obwohl in ... [more ▼]

Die massive, globale Bildungsexpansion hat kein Land unberührt gelassen. Zudem wachsen stetig die Zahlen der als sonderpädagogisch förderbedürftig wahrgenommenen Kinder und Jugendlichen. Obwohl in vielen Ländern immer mehr dieser Schülerinnen und Schüler in Regelklassen unterrichtet werden, ist ihr Anteil in separaten Klassen oder Einrichtungen nicht rückläufig. Trotz vielfältiger Reformvorhaben auf unterschiedlichen Ebenen des Bildungssystems werden Schülerinnen und Schüler mit wahrgenommenem Förderbedarf weiterhin stigmatisiert und segregiert. Gleichzeitig wird Bildung zunehmend als Menschenrecht verstanden, das in dem Leitgedanken „Bildung für Alle“ (Education for All) und der zumindest rhetorisch zur globalen Norm gewordenen „inclusive education“ zum Ausdruck kommt. Diese spannungsreichen Entwicklungen variieren geographisch in verschiedenen Dimensionen und in mannigfacher Hinsicht erheblich. Die Thematik sonderpädagogischer Förderung – und damit auch inklusive Bildung – ist seit jeher von Ambivalenzen und Konflikten durchsetzt. Beide werden in den aktuellen weltweiten Debatten evident. Es wird eine Bandbreite an Förderorten bereitgestellt und nach Lösungen für die sich zunehmend stellende Frage nach der optimalen individuellen Förderung jede/r Schüler/in gesucht. Vor diesem Hintergrund bieten die vorgelegten Dissertationen zu Reformen zu inklusiveren Schulen in den USA von Magdalena Johnson und in Kanada von Andreas Köpfer den deutschsprachigen Leserinnen und Lesern wichtige Quellen für die wissenschaftliche und bildungspolitische Auseinandersetzung entlang von Ländern, die schon länger versuchen, die schulische Segregation zu reduzieren; oft mit Erfolg. Einerseits liefern beide Bücher ein tiefgreifendes Verständnis der oft verkürzt dargestellten Entwicklungen Nordamerikas im Bereich der inklusiven, schulischen Bildung. Andererseits berichten diese Studien über wesentliche Wandlungsprozesse in der sonderpädagogischen Förderung – vor allem auf Schulebene in bestimmten US-Bundesstaaten bzw. kanadischen Provinzen – in nationalen Kontexten, die oft pauschal als vorbildhaft gelten. Die beiden analysierten föderalen Bildungssysteme Nordamerikas bieten wertvolle Vergleichsmöglichkeiten. Dies insbesondere für die in Deutschland aufflammende Debatte nach Inkrafttreten der UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention 2009 und im Zuge der (meist schleppenden) Umsetzung inklusiver Bildungsreformen. [less ▲]

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See detailTransferpotenziale des deutschen dualen Studiums. Eine Bestimmung zentraler Faktoren anhand der Fallstudien Brasilien und Frankreich
Graf, Lukas UL; Powell, Justin J W UL; Bernhard, Nadine

in Berufsbildung in Wissenschaft und Praxis (2014), 6/2014

Dem dualen Studium wird das Potenzial zugesprochen, eine wichtige Rolle bei der Kompetenzentwicklung für Berufe des 21. Jahrhunderts zu spielen. Bislang sind duale Studiengänge vor allem ein deutsches ... [more ▼]

Dem dualen Studium wird das Potenzial zugesprochen, eine wichtige Rolle bei der Kompetenzentwicklung für Berufe des 21. Jahrhunderts zu spielen. Bislang sind duale Studiengänge vor allem ein deutsches Phänomen. Derzeit trifft dieses Studienmodell jedoch vermehrt auf das Interesse von ausländischen Bildungsakteuren, die gezielt nach Modellen zur besseren Verknüpfung akademischer und berufspraxisbezogener Lernerfahrungen suchen. Anhand der Länder Frankreich und Brasilien werden allgemeine Bedingungen für einen erfolgreichen Transfer dieses Studienmodells und Möglichkeiten der binationalen Kooperation analysiert. [less ▲]

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See detailUniversity Roots and Branches between ‘Glocalization’ and ‘Mondialisation’: Qatar’s (Inter)National Universities
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Wiseman, Alexander W.; Alromi, Naif H.; Alshumrani, Saleh (Eds.) Education for a Knowledge Society in Arabian Gulf Countries (2014)

Qatar’s higher education system is growing rapidly, as science in the Islamic world witnesses a contemporary renaissance. Steering a course toward becoming a “knowledge society,” Qatar and other countries ... [more ▼]

Qatar’s higher education system is growing rapidly, as science in the Islamic world witnesses a contemporary renaissance. Steering a course toward becoming a “knowledge society,” Qatar and other countries in the Arabian Gulf region are now home to dozens of universities. The establishment of many international offshore, satellite or branch campuses further emphasizes the international dynamism of higher education development there. The remarkable expansion of higher education in Qatar builds upon unifying two distinct strategies, both prevalent in capacity-building attempts worldwide. Firstly, Qatar seeks to cultivate human capital domestically through massive infrastructure investment and development of educational structures, including Qatar University. Secondly, Qatar seeks to match the strongest global universities through direct importation of existing organizational capacity, faculty and staff, and accumulated reputation. Local capacity in higher education and scientific productivity is built simultaneously with the on-going import of ideas and talent from different regions of the world. The relative youth of the higher education system and the state’s small geographic and demographic size are being compensated by considerable investments in the standard-bearing university—a national university taking root—simultaneously with hosting branches of eminent foreign higher education institutions, mainly on the Education City campus. Exemplifying extreme glocalization and mondialisation, Qatar has become a regional hub, bridging the traditional university strongholds in the West and the rising powerhouses in the East. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative and International Perspectives on Special Education
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Florian, Lani (Ed.) The SAGE Handbook of Special Education (2014)

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See detailInstitutionelle Dimensionen inklusiver Schulbildung: Herausforderungen der UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention für Deutschland, Island und Schweden im Vergleich
Biermann, Julia; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaften (2014), 17(4), 679-700

The rights-based orientation embedded in the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which mandates inclusive education for all students and counts segregation as discrimination, poses ... [more ▼]

The rights-based orientation embedded in the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which mandates inclusive education for all students and counts segregation as discrimination, poses fundamental challenges to institutionalized (special) education systems. However, it does so to different extents, with the Nordic countries already the most inclusive systems worldwide. Thus, this analysis contrasts challenges and opportunities in institutional transformation of special education and inclusive education in Germany, Iceland and Sweden. We address the questions: How do these countries provide educational supports for students considered to have special educational needs? What perspectives can be derived for the implementation of inclusive education, especially for Germany, still among the most segregated systems in Europe, from such comparative analysis? The study revealed key differences in the three institutional dimensions—educational ideals and disability paradigms, organizational forms, and regulations—that hinder or enable inclusive education. [less ▲]

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See detailAn der Schnittstelle Ethnie und Behinderung benachteiligt: Jugendliche mit Migrationshintergrund an deutschen Sonderschulen weiterhin überrepräsentiert
Powell, Justin J W UL; Wagner, Sandra J

in Wansing, Gudrun; Westphal, Manuela (Eds.) Behinderung und Migration (2014)

An der Schnittstelle Ethnie und „schulische Behinderung“ (Powell 2009) werden Jugendliche mit Migrationshintergrund in sonderpädagogische Fördersysteme durch die Klassifizierung als sonderpädagogisch ... [more ▼]

An der Schnittstelle Ethnie und „schulische Behinderung“ (Powell 2009) werden Jugendliche mit Migrationshintergrund in sonderpädagogische Fördersysteme durch die Klassifizierung als sonderpädagogisch förderbedürftig und die räumliche Segregation weiterhin benachteiligt. Es zeigt sich, dass sowohl von der Klassifizierung als auch von der Überweisung an die Sonderschule bestimmte Gruppen wesentlich häufiger betroffen sind als andere und dies entlang bestimmter sozio-struktureller und kultureller Merkmale. Nach Staatsangehörigkeit, Förderschwerpunkt, aber auch Wohnort sind Schülerinnen und Schüler z. T. erheblich überrepräsentiert in sonderpädagogischen Maßnahmen. Die Brisanz dieser Befunde liegt weniger darin, dass sie neu sind. Vielmehr ist es ihre Persistenz über Jahrzehnte hinweg, trotz Ratifizierung der UN-Konvention über die Rechte von Menschen mit Behinderungen in Deutschland. Dies gilt als eine der größten Herausforderungen für das deutsche Bildungswesen. [less ▲]

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See detailDiverging Paths: How the UN Disability Convention Affects School Reforms in Germany
Blanck, Jonna M.; Edelstein, Benjamin; Powell, Justin J W UL

in WZB Report (2014)

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities, ratified in Germany in 2008, mandates “inclusive” education. This necessitates profound reforms because the ambitious goals of the ... [more ▼]

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities, ratified in Germany in 2008, mandates “inclusive” education. This necessitates profound reforms because the ambitious goals of the Convention challenge the segregated special education systems of the Bundesländer and ultimately stratified schooling as a whole. However, the implementation of inclusive reforms faces serious obstacles. By comparing Schleswig-Holstein and Bavaria, we show how these can be overcome and what role the UN Convention can play in this regard. [less ▲]

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