References of "Powell, Justin J W 50002885"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
See detailHigher Education Between National Ambitions, Supranational Coordination, and Global Competition: The University of Luxembourg in the Bologna Era
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Nelson, Adam R.; Strohl, Nicholas M. (Eds.) Universities 2030: Learning from the Past to Anticipate the Future. Commissioned Report for the Global Higher Education and Research (GHEAR) Project (2013)

Among the youngest research universities in Europe, the University of Luxembourg (UL) is one of very few public universities to be established since the pan-European “Bologna process” began in 1998 amidst ... [more ▼]

Among the youngest research universities in Europe, the University of Luxembourg (UL) is one of very few public universities to be established since the pan-European “Bologna process” began in 1998 amidst celebrations for the Sorbonne’s 800th Anniversary. Founded in 2003, and growing rapidly, UL aims to become a full-fledged, internationally-recognized research university. Embedded in a small, hyper-diverse, multi-lingual, and (recently) very prosperous nation-state located in the heart of Western Europe, and well-positioned in significant regional and global networks, Luxembourg’s “national” flagship university is thoroughly international. Recruiting scholars, staff, and students from over a hundred countries, the university could not advance without transnational mobility. Luxembourg, the home of a European Union (EU) capital city, simultaneously reflects European and international priorities. Devoted to internationality and interdisciplinarity, UL exemplifies contemporary worldwide trends in higher education. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 130 (9 UL)
Full Text
See detailDurch Europäisierung zu mehr Durchlässigkeit? Wandel im Verhältnis von Berufsbildungs- und Hochschulsystemen in Deutschland, Frankreich und Österreich
Bernhard, Nadine; Graf, Lukas UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Soeffner, Hans-Georg (Ed.) Transnationale Vergesellschaftungen. Verhandlungen des 35. Kongresses der DGS (2013)

Die europäischen Bildungsminister beschlossen 1999 einen einheitlichen europäischen Hochschulraum zu schaffen; der so genannte Bologna Prozess wurde in Gang gesetzt. Mit der Unterzeichnung der ... [more ▼]

Die europäischen Bildungsminister beschlossen 1999 einen einheitlichen europäischen Hochschulraum zu schaffen; der so genannte Bologna Prozess wurde in Gang gesetzt. Mit der Unterzeichnung der Kopenhagener Erklärung nur drei Jahre später entschlossen sich die Nationalstaaten, auch im Bereich der beruflichen Bildung stärker zusammenzuarbeiten. Vor allem soll die nationale wie internationale Vergleichbarkeit von Bildungsabschlüssen verbessert werden. Beide Prozesse zielen darauf ab, Durchlässigkeit zwischen den organisatorischen Feldern berufliche Bildung und Hochschulbildung zu erhöhen, und zwar mit Hilfe von gemeinsam entwi- ckelten Standards wie dem Europäischen und Nationalen Qualifikationsrahmen, einem System zur Validierung und Anerkennung unterschiedlicher Lernformen, der Ermöglichung flexibler Bildungswege und der Einführung von Kreditpunkte- systemen (Powell/Solga 2008, 2010, 2011). Heute, nach einem Jahrzehnt seit Beginn dieser Prozesse stellt sich die Frage, wie diese in den europäischen Nationalstaaten bisher schon gewirkt und wie sie das Verhältnis von Hochschul- und Berufsbildung verändert haben – Veränderungen, die mit vielfältigen Implikationen für die Bildungs- und soziale Mobilität einherge- hen können (Bernhard/Powell/Graf 2010): Die Frage nach Durchlässigkeit zwi- schen beruflicher und Hochschulbildung ist dabei insbesondere deswegen wichtig, da stratifizierte (Aus-)Bildungssysteme ohne Brücken zwischen einzelnen Bildungs- sektoren den möglichst gleichen Zugang zu Bildungs- und Beschäftigungsopportu- nitäten behindern. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 300 (22 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDisciplining: From Corporal Punishment to Full-body Segregation. Comments on “Strict Discipline” by William F. Pinar
Powell, Justin J W UL

in IJHE Bildungsgeschichte (2013), 3(1), 113-115

The text written by William Pinar on “strict discipline” raises issues that can be uncomfortable and yet will benefit most from leaving the closet behind. Pinar here emphasizes the vulnerability of young ... [more ▼]

The text written by William Pinar on “strict discipline” raises issues that can be uncomfortable and yet will benefit most from leaving the closet behind. Pinar here emphasizes the vulnerability of young learners, behavioral norms under continuous pressure as schooling rises in importance for life chances, the power of masters, and the tensions of guiding and disciplining children and adolescents as they orient themselves morally in their own cohorts and in contrast to their elders. His concept of Currere, or the running of the course and the lived experiences of curriculum that constitute a person’s education (see Pinar 2011), underscores the significance of subjectivity, individuality, indeed: developmental distinctive-ness. Pupils’ innocence and their blossoming on the path to adulthood as well as the close contact required in interactive learning processes inherently provide moments of fondness and aversion—and sometimes even passion. The latter have become verboten in an age shocked by innumerable cases of sexual abuse in family, ecclesiastical, and pedagogic settings, and sensitive about the lifelong damage often caused by such acts. There are also costs to ignoring the potential and the need for understanding and intimacy in learning processes, whether intergenerational or among diverse peers. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 178 (3 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGelingensbedingungen der inklusiven Schule
Blanck, Jonna M.; Edelstein, Benjamin; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Solga, Heike; Brzinsky-Fay, Christian; Graf, Lukas (Eds.) et al Vergleiche innerhalb von Gruppen und institutionelle Gelingensbedingungen. Vielversprechende Perspektiven für die Ungleichheitsforschung (2013)

In diesem Beispiel wird der für Deutschland „abweichende Fall“ Schleswig-Holstein für eine integrative Beschulung von Kindern vorgestellt. Dieser Fall gibt Aufschluss darüber, unter welchen Bedingungen ... [more ▼]

In diesem Beispiel wird der für Deutschland „abweichende Fall“ Schleswig-Holstein für eine integrative Beschulung von Kindern vorgestellt. Dieser Fall gibt Aufschluss darüber, unter welchen Bedingungen sich die Reproduktionsmechanismen des Sonderschulwesens aushebeln lassen, und offenbart damit institutionelle Gelingensbedingungen für integrative und möglicherweise auch inklusive Schulentwicklung. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 426 (8 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPersistente schulische Segregation oder Wandel zur inklusiven Bildung? Die Bedeutung der UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention für Reformprozesse in den deutschen Bundesländern
Blanck, Jonna M.; Edelstein, Benjamin; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Soziologie = Revue Suisse de Sociologie (2013), 39(5), 267-292

Im Jahre 2009 ist in Deutschland die UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention (UN-BRK) in Kraft getreten, in welcher sich Deutschland verpflichtet, ein inklusives Bildungssystem zu gewährleisten. Dafür müssen die ... [more ▼]

Im Jahre 2009 ist in Deutschland die UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention (UN-BRK) in Kraft getreten, in welcher sich Deutschland verpflichtet, ein inklusives Bildungssystem zu gewährleisten. Dafür müssen die Bundesländer grundlegende Reformen einleiten: Das Menschenrecht auf inklusive Bildung steht in klarem Widerspruch zum gegliederten Schulsystem. Welche Barrieren bestehen bei der Umsetzung inklusiver Schulreformen in Deutschland? Wie können diese überwunden werden und welche Bedeutung hat dabei die UN-BRK? Schleswig-Holstein, ein im schulischen Bereich vergleichsweise inklusives Bundesland, wird mit dem schulisch stark segregierenden Bayern kontrastiert. Die Untersuchung verdeutlicht die Grenzen und Potenziale der UN-BRK, das Ziel eines inklusiven Bildungssystems zu verwirklichen. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 2598 (29 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailVon der schulischen Segregation zur inklusiven Bildung? Die Wirkung der UN-Konvention über die Rechte von Menschen mit Behinderungen auf Bildungsreformen in Bayern und Schleswig-Holstein
Blanck, Jonna M.; Edelstein, Benjamin; Powell, Justin J W UL

E-print/Working paper (2013)

Germany has among the most highly stratified and segregated educational systems in Europe. Its differentiated special school system, in particular, exemplifies institutional inertia. Yet Article 24 of the ... [more ▼]

Germany has among the most highly stratified and segregated educational systems in Europe. Its differentiated special school system, in particular, exemplifies institutional inertia. Yet Article 24 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Disabled People (UN-CRPD), ratified in Germany in 2008, mandates implementation of inclusive education. To achieve the UN-CRPD’s goals, Germany’s sixteen Bundesländer must radically transform their education systems, whose structures remain antithetical to inclusive education. Examining education policy reform processes in two contrasting cases, we investigate four types of mechanisms of institutional reproduction responsible for path-dependent developments: power-based, legitimacy-based, utilitarian, and functional. We compare Schleswig-Holstein, where inclusive education has diffused broadly, with Bavaria, where implementation has stalled due to backlash and school segregation remains pervasive. Delving below the national level and emphasizing the importance of timing, we show contrasting effects of an exogenous shock on the direction of endogenous reforms. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 164 (14 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEducational Systems and Rising Inequality: Eastern Germany after Unification
Below, Susanne von; Powell, Justin J W UL; Roberts, Lance W

in Sociology of Education (2013), 86(4), 362-375

Educational systems considerably influence educational opportunities and the resulting social inequalities. Contrasting institutional regulations of both structures and contents, the authors present a ... [more ▼]

Educational systems considerably influence educational opportunities and the resulting social inequalities. Contrasting institutional regulations of both structures and contents, the authors present a typology of educational system types in Germany to analyze their effects on social inequality in eastern Germany after unification. After 1990, the comprehensive secondary school was replaced by three types of differentiated secondary schooling. In this unique field experiment of model transfer and institutional change in a federal country, reforms in these state educational systems—all originally of a uniform socialist type—led to par- ticipation rates rising to western enrollment levels, yet with substantial state-level differences. These are attributable to the divergence of educational systems reformed according to contrasting western German models. These types substantially and differentially generate intergenerational inequalities. The authors chart the sharp and significant effects of education policy reforms and societal transformation following German unification. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 171 (35 UL)
Full Text
See detailAuswirkungen des neuen europäischen Bildungsmodells auf die Verknüpfung zwischen Berufs- und Hochschulbildung in Deutschland, Österreich und Frankreich
Bernhard, Nadine; Graf, Lukas UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Amos, Karin; Schmid, Josef; Schrader, Josef (Eds.) et al Europäischer Bildungsraum. Europäisierungsprozesse in Bildungspolitik und Bildungspraxis (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 172 (13 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailVon Exklusion und Inklusion sonderpädagogischer Fördersysteme im internationalen Vergleich
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Dorrance, Carmen; Dannenbeck, Clemens (Eds.) Doing Inclusion. Inklusion in einer nicht inklusiven Gesellschaft (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 423 (11 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailKulturen der sonderpädagogischen Förderung und "schulische Behinderung": Ein deutsch-amerikanischer Vergleich
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Hummrich, Merle; Rademacher, Sandra (Eds.) Kulturvergleich in der qualitativen Forschung. Erziehungswissenschaftliche Perspektiven und Analysen (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 137 (6 UL)
Full Text
See detailFounding the Inter/National University of Luxembourg in the Bologna Era
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Margue, Michel (Ed.) Université du Luxembourg 2003-2013 (2013)

Situated in the heart of Western Europe, the University of Luxembourg (UL) is among the youngest research universities. This new venture is one of the few public universities to be founded since the pan ... [more ▼]

Situated in the heart of Western Europe, the University of Luxembourg (UL) is among the youngest research universities. This new venture is one of the few public universities to be founded since the pan-European “Bologna process” got underway during celebrations for the Sorbonne’s 800th Anniversary in 1998. At ten and growing rapidly, the UL is on the path to becoming a full-fledged, internationally recognized research university within a thriving globalized world of academic institutions. Recruiting scholars, staff, and students from over a hundred countries across the globe, the university relies to a considerable extent on transnational, particularly European, mobility to achieve growth. Embedded in a culturally hyper-diverse and multilingual, small but prosperous nation-state – that is well-positioned in significant regional and worldwide networks – Luxembourg’s “national” flagship university is thoroughly international. While exceptional in Europe due to its relative youth on a continent with centuries of academic history, it well exemplifies recent global trends in the development of the research university. First established in Germany and spreading globally since, the research university seeks to combine higher-level academic teaching and research. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 127 (18 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAmerikanisierung oder Europäisierung der (Aus-)Bildung? Die Bologna und Kopenhagen Prozesse und das neue europäische Modell der Hochschul- und Berufsbildung
Powell, Justin J W UL; Bernhard, Nadine; Graf, Lukas UL

in Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie & Sozialpsychologie (2012), 52

Die USA, Deutschland, Frankreich und Großbritannien stehen für jeweils unterschiedliche sowie international viel beachtete Modelle der Hochschul- und Berufsbildung. Es gibt keinen globalen Konsens darüber ... [more ▼]

Die USA, Deutschland, Frankreich und Großbritannien stehen für jeweils unterschiedliche sowie international viel beachtete Modelle der Hochschul- und Berufsbildung. Es gibt keinen globalen Konsens darüber, welche Kriterien für den Erfolg nationaler Bildungssysteme gelten oder welchem Vorbild gefolgt werden soll. Gegenwärtige europäische Reformen, wie die Bologna- und der Kopenhagen-Prozesse, sollen die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit Europas im Vergleich zu den USA erhöhen. Doch auf welchen zentralen Vorstellungen basiert das in diesen Prozessen verbreitete, im Entstehen begriffene europäische Bildungsmodell? Mit einer Inhaltsanalyse europäischer Dokumente (Deklarationen und Kommuniqués) gehen wir der Frage nach, ob die Ideale, Ziele, Legitimationen und Standards dieses Modells eher auf eine Amerikanisierung oder auf eine bricolage verschiedener aus Europa stammender Modelle hindeuten. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 206 (11 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEuropeanization and the Varying Responses in Collective Skill Systems
Powell, Justin J W UL; Trampusch, Christine

in Busemeyer, Marius R.; Trampusch, Christine (Eds.) The Political Economy of Collective Skill Systems (2012)

Europeanization elicits varying responses in collective skill systems, which are still mainly governed in national contexts and determined primarily by collaboration and conflicts within them. This ... [more ▼]

Europeanization elicits varying responses in collective skill systems, which are still mainly governed in national contexts and determined primarily by collaboration and conflicts within them. This chapter explores the impact of European developments, particularly the European Union (EU), on institutional change in vocational training regimes. The aim is twofold: first, to investigate the impact of the European level on national institutions responsible for skill formation; and second, to explore similar challenges but varying responses to European initiatives of the collective skill systems analyzed in this book. To what extent and in which directions are Europe-wide processes affecting the collective skill systems in Austria, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, and Switzerland? This question is important because these systems share certain characteristics but differ in their institutionalization pathways and the degree to which the influence of the EU has grown in education and training. To answer this question, we investigate the two levels and their interaction in countries in which conflicts over such forms of Europeanization have ensued – Germany and Switzerland – as weIl as those in which consensus has facilitated Europeanization – Austria, Denmark, and the Netherlands. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 158 (6 UL)
Full Text
See detailDer steinige Weg zur Inklusion. Schulreformen in Deutschland und die UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention
Blanck, Jonna M.; Edelstein, Benjamin; Powell, Justin J W UL

in WZB-Mitteilungen (2012), 138

Detailed reference viewed: 293 (15 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Shifting Relationship between Vocational and Higher Education in France and Germany: Towards Convergence?
Powell, Justin J W UL; Graf, Lukas UL; Bernhard, Nadine et al

in European Journal of Education (2012), 47(3), 405-423

For decades, the skill formation systems in France and Germany have been analysed as contrasting cases because of institutionalised differences in educational values, norms, and governance, as well as in ... [more ▼]

For decades, the skill formation systems in France and Germany have been analysed as contrasting cases because of institutionalised differences in educational values, norms, and governance, as well as in labour markets. This comparison follows the logic of difference, comparing dissimilar skill formation systems in centralist France and federalist Germany. Cross-national variance has often been explained in terms of the institutionalization of vocational education, but higher education also differs considerably. Many typologies of vocational education and training (VET) and higher education (HE) summarise these differences. However, not only are national skill formation systems affected by the emerging European model of education via the Bologna and Copenhagen Processes, but the French and German political economies have also been greatly reconfigured in the last two decades. Comparing the present situation, we ask whether traditional education and training typologies continue to be valid. While they have served as useful heuristic devices, they may hinder recognition of contemporary institutional changes, especially incremental changes that may nevertheless be transformational because of endogenous reforms and exogenous pressures due to Europeanisation. Do these typologies continue to reflect these systems as they evolve? To what extent have the key characteristics of skill formation systems in France and Germany changed, exemplified in the relationship between VET and HE? Have these countries converged? [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 236 (7 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSmall State, Large World, Global University: Comparing Ascendant National Universities in Luxemburg and Qatar
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Current Issues in Comparative Education (2012), 15(1), 100-113

Comparing the small states of Luxembourg and Qatar, I analyze their ascendant national universities to find out the extent to which these higher education institutions reflect global norms relating to ... [more ▼]

Comparing the small states of Luxembourg and Qatar, I analyze their ascendant national universities to find out the extent to which these higher education institutions reflect global norms relating to research universities – or the traditions of their host countries. Which characteristics of “world-class” universities exist in the Université du Luxembourg and Qatar University, embedded in two unusual small states that are hyper-diverse culturally and extremely wealthy? Despite significant cultural differences, both Luxembourg and Qatar have compensated perceived vulnerabilities of small states as they invest in national skill formation and the production of knowledge. Although tensions remain regarding the languages of instruction, the international recruitment of scholars and students, and sustainability, these universities are growing in prominence regionally and globally. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 272 (17 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFrom Ableism to Accessibility in the Universal Design University
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Review of Disability Studies: An International Journal (2012), 8(4), 2941

Abstract: Educational expansion has reached the tertiary level; however, inclusive higher education remains an elusive goal despite the ratification, in more than a hundred countries, of the International ... [more ▼]

Abstract: Educational expansion has reached the tertiary level; however, inclusive higher education remains an elusive goal despite the ratification, in more than a hundred countries, of the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities since 2006. The Convention mandates inclusive education throughout the life course—and thus increased access to universities. To enhance accessibility requires us to remove barriers and defeat ableism. Analyzing contemporary trends in Europe and North America, universities’ attempts to implement elements of the “Universal Design University” are compared here. Because universities serve as role models and provide community services, these organizations can and should implement universal design principles. Universities have myriad opportunities—and responsibilities—to enhance access to their programs. In embracing social and political paradigms of disability, in giving voice to diverse participants, and in implementing universal design principles, the university can engage and change public awareness and attitudes. Advancing the educational and social inclusion of persons with disabilities in higher education provides benefits far beyond the university campus. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 228 (7 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Emergent European Model in Skill Formation: Comparing Higher Education and Vocational Training in the Bologna and Copenhagen Processes
Powell, Justin J W UL; Bernhard, Nadine; Graf, Lukas UL

in Sociology of Education (2012), 85(3), 240-258

Proposing an alternative to the American model, intergovernmental reform initiatives in Europe have developed and promote a comprehensive European model of skill formation. What ideals, standards, and ... [more ▼]

Proposing an alternative to the American model, intergovernmental reform initiatives in Europe have developed and promote a comprehensive European model of skill formation. What ideals, standards, and governance are proposed in this new pan-European model? This model responds to heightened global competition among “knowledge societies” as it challenges national systems to improve. The authors thus compare this emergent European model with the historically influential models of Germany, France, Great Britain, and the United States. To what extent does the European model resemble these traditionally influential national models? The authors report findings of a theory-guided content analysis of official European policy documents in higher education and vocational training from 1998 to 2010. They find that while the European model is a bricolage that integrates diverse characteristics of influential models, the ambitious goals and standards codified in the twin Bologna and Copenhagen processes in higher education and vocational training offer a new model to compete internationally. Dozens of countries now seek to implement these principles. This comparative analysis finds different visions for the future of skill formation on both sides of the Atlantic. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 167 (15 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSonderpädagogische Fördersysteme
Powell, Justin J W UL; Pfahl, Lisa

in Bauer, Ullrich; Bittlingmayer, Uwe; Scherr, Albert (Eds.) Handbuch Bildungs- & Erziehungssoziologie (2012)

Sonderpädagogische Förderung soll benachteiligte, beeinträchtigte und behinderte Schüler und Schülerinnen in ihrem Lernen und in ihrer sozialen Entwicklung unterstützen. Schüler und Schülerinnen ... [more ▼]

Sonderpädagogische Förderung soll benachteiligte, beeinträchtigte und behinderte Schüler und Schülerinnen in ihrem Lernen und in ihrer sozialen Entwicklung unterstützen. Schüler und Schülerinnen werden in den Bereichen Lernen, Sehen, Hören, Sprache, körperliche und motorische Entwicklung, geistige Entwicklung sowie emotionale und soziale Entwicklung sonderpädagogisch gefördert. Um ihre individuellen Lernziele zu erreichen und ihre größtmögliche Teilhabe am Leben in der Schule und in der Gesellschaft zu ermöglichen, erhalten diese Kinder und Jugendliche zusätz- liche Aufmerksamkeit und Ressourcen. Diese Leistungen werden jedoch in sehr unter- schiedlichen Schulformen angeboten – die allermeisten sonderpädagogischen Unter- stützungsleistungen werden noch in Sonder- bzw. Förderschulen bereitgestellt. Parallel dazu gibt es seit den 1970er-Jahren, verstärkt seit den 1980er-Jahren, in manchen Bundesländern stetig – aber graduell – ausgebaute Programme gemeinsamen Unterrichts behinderter und nichtbehinderter Kinder (Eberwein 2009). Dennoch gibt es die inklusive Bildung – ein inzwischen als globale Norm gesetztes Ziel und in Deutschland durch Ratifizierung der Behindertenrechtskonvention 2009 eine gesetzgeberische Selbstverpflichtung – nur vereinzelt, nicht flächendeckend. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 347 (13 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAustrian Corporatism and Gradual Institutional Change in the Relationship between Apprenticeship Training and School-based VET
Graf, Lukas UL; Lassnigg, Lorenz; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Busemeyer, Marius R.; Trampusch, Christine (Eds.) The Political Economy of Collective Skill Systems (2012)

Within the context of collective skill formation systems, Austria presents a case in which a well-developed vocational education and training (VET) system provides a differentiated set of pathways for ... [more ▼]

Within the context of collective skill formation systems, Austria presents a case in which a well-developed vocational education and training (VET) system provides a differentiated set of pathways for youth as they prepare their transitions from school to work. If we wish to draw lessons from a comparison of collective skill systems, the dynamic relationship between a strong dual apprenticeship training system and a robust school-based training system is one of the key factors differentiating VET in Austria from the VET systems in Germany and Switzerland. Indeed, we argue that the Austrian collective skill system as well as contemporary changes within it cannot be understood without understanding full-time vocational schooling in Austria. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 133 (8 UL)