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See detailSecrecy Analysis on Network Coding in Bidirectional Multibeam Satellite Communications
Kalantari, Ashkan UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security (2015)

Network coding is an efficient means to improve the spectrum efficiency of satellite communications. However, its resilience to eavesdropping attacks is not well understood. This paper studies the ... [more ▼]

Network coding is an efficient means to improve the spectrum efficiency of satellite communications. However, its resilience to eavesdropping attacks is not well understood. This paper studies the confidentiality issue in a bidirectional satellite network consisting of two mobile users who want to exchange message via a multibeam satellite using the XOR network coding protocol. We aim to maximize the sum secrecy rate by designing the optimal beamforming vector along with optimizing the return and forward link time allocation. The problem is non-convex, and we find its optimal solution using semidefinite programming together with a 1-D search. For comparison, we also solve the sum secrecy rate maximization problem for a conventional reference scheme without using network coding. Simulation results using realistic system parameters demonstrate that the bidirectional scheme using network coding provides considerably higher secrecy rate compared to that of the conventional scheme. [less ▲]

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See detailCognitive interference alignment for spectral coexistence
Sharma, Shree Krishna UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in Cognitive Radio and Networking for Heterogeneous Wireless Networks (2015)

Interference Alignment (IA) has been widely recognized as a promising interference mitigation technique since it can achieve the optimal degrees of freedom in certain interference limited channels. In the ... [more ▼]

Interference Alignment (IA) has been widely recognized as a promising interference mitigation technique since it can achieve the optimal degrees of freedom in certain interference limited channels. In the context of Cognitive Radio (CR) networks, this technique allows the coexistence of two heterogeneous wireless systems in an underlay cognitive mode. The main concept behind this technique is the alignment of the interference on a signal subspace in such a way that it can be filtered out at the non-intended receiver by sacrificing some signal dimensions. This chapter starts with an overview of IA principle, Degree of Freedom (DoF) concept, and the classification of existing IA techniques. Furthermore, this chapter includes a discussion about IA applications in CR networks.Moreover, a generic system model is presented for allowing the coexistence of two heterogeneous networks using IA approach while relevant precoding and filtering processes are described. In addition, two important practical applications of the IA technique are presented along with the numerical results for underlay spectral coexistence of (i) femtocell-macrocell systems, and (ii) monobeam-multibeam satellite systems. More specifically, an uplink IA scheme is investigated in order to mitigate the interference of femtocell. User Terminals (UTs) towards the macrocell Base Station (BS) in the spatial domain and the interference of multibeam satellite terminals towards themonobeam satellite in the frequency domain. [less ▲]

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See detailPower control in cognitive radio networks using cooperative modulation and coding classification
Tsakmalis, Anestis UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, LNICST (2015), 156

In this paper, a centralized Power Control (PC) scheme aided by interference channel gain learning is proposed to allow a Cognitive Radio (CR) network to access the frequency band of a Primary User (PU ... [more ▼]

In this paper, a centralized Power Control (PC) scheme aided by interference channel gain learning is proposed to allow a Cognitive Radio (CR) network to access the frequency band of a Primary User (PU) operating based on an Adaptive Coding and Modulation (ACM) protocol. The main idea is the CR network to constantly probe the band of the PU with intelligently designed aggregated interference and sense whether the Modulation and Coding scheme (MCS) of the PU changes in order to learn the interference channels. The coordinated probing is engineered by the Cognitive Base Station (CBS), which assigns appropriate CR power levels in a binary search way. Subsequently, each CR applies a Modulation and Coding Classification (MCC) technique and sends the sensing information through a control channel to the CBS, where all the MCC information is combined using a fusion rule to acquire an MCS estimate of higher accuracy and monitor the probing impact to the PU MCS. After learning the normalized interference channel gains towards the PU, the CBS selects the CR power levels to maximize total CR network throughput while preserving the PU MCS and thus its QoS. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is demonstrated through numerical simulations. © Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering 2015. [less ▲]

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See detailSensing-Throughput Tradeoff for Interweave Cognitive Radio System: A Deployment-Centric Viewpoint
Kaushik, Ankit UL; Sharma, Shree Krishna UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in Wireless Communications, IEEE Transactions on (2015), PP(99), 14

Secondary access to the licensed spectrum is viable only if the interference is avoided at the primary system. In this regard, different paradigms have been conceptualized in the existing literature ... [more ▼]

Secondary access to the licensed spectrum is viable only if the interference is avoided at the primary system. In this regard, different paradigms have been conceptualized in the existing literature. Among these, interweave systems (ISs) that employ spectrum sensing have been widely investigated. Baseline models investigated in the literature characterize the performance of the IS in terms of a sensing-throughput tradeoff, however, this characterization assumes perfect knowledge of the involved channels at the secondary transmitter, which is unavailable in practice. Motivated by this fact, we establish a novel approach that incorporates channel estimation in the system model, and consequently investigate the impact of imperfect channel knowledge on the performance of the IS. More particularly, the variation induced in the detection probability affects the detector’s performance at the secondary transmitter, which may result in severe interference at the primary receivers. In this view, we propose to employ average and outage constraints on the detection probability, in order to capture the performance of the IS. Our analysis reveals that with an appropriate choice of the estimation time determined by the proposed approach, the performance degradation of the IS can be effectively controlled, and subsequently the achievable secondary throughput can be significantly enhanced. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformance Analysis of Noncoherent Frame Synchronization in Satellite Communications with Frequency Uncertainty
Mazzali, Nicolò UL; Stante, Giulio; Shankar, Bhavani UL et al

in Proceedings on IEEE Symposium on Communications and Vehicular Technology in the Benelux (2015)

Emerging markets for satellite communications, such as maritime and aeronautical applications, require reliable communications in challenging conditions and low-cost, low-complexity user terminals. In ... [more ▼]

Emerging markets for satellite communications, such as maritime and aeronautical applications, require reliable communications in challenging conditions and low-cost, low-complexity user terminals. In this perspective, the synchronization chain is a fundamental part of the receiver and its design becomes critical. When a quadricorrelator is used as first stage of the synchronization chain so as to perform a coarse frequency estimation, then a noncoherent algorithm for frame synchronization can be employed as second stage. A popular algorithm for frame synchronization is the post-detection integration (PDI), whose noncoherent version (NCPDI) is quite robust to non-negligible residual frequency offsets. In this paper we will assess the performance of NCPDI in presence of a random uniformly-distributed residual frequency offset and will find a closed-form approximation for the probability of detection. Moreover, we will optimize the design parameters of NCPDI for a system operating at very low signal-to-noise ratio (VL-SNR) by minimizing the probability of missed detection for a given probability of false alarm. [less ▲]

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See detailCellular-broadcast service convergence through caching for CoMP cloud RANs
Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Christopoulos, Dimitrios; Ottersten, Björn UL

in arXiv preprint arXiv:1504.08274 (2015)

Cellular and Broadcast services have been traditionally treated independently due to the different market requirements, thus resulting in different business models and orthogonal frequency allocations ... [more ▼]

Cellular and Broadcast services have been traditionally treated independently due to the different market requirements, thus resulting in different business models and orthogonal frequency allocations. However, with the advent of cheap memory and smart caching, this traditional paradigm can converge into a single system which can provide both services in an efficient manner. This paper focuses on multimedia delivery through an integrated network, including both a cellular (also known as unicast or broadband) and a broadcast last mile operating over shared spectrum. The subscribers of the network are equipped with a cache which can effectively create zero perceived latency for multimedia delivery, assuming that the content has been proactively and intelligently cached. The main objective of this work is to establish analytically the optimal content popularity threshold, based on a intuitive cost function. In other words, the aim is to derive which content should be broadcasted and which content should be unicasted. To facilitate this, Cooperative Multi- Point (CoMP) joint processing algorithms are employed for the uni and broad-cast PHY transmissions. To practically implement this, the integrated network controller is assumed to have access to traffic statistics in terms of content popularity. Simulation results are provided to assess the gain in terms of total spectral efficiency. A conventional system, where the two networks operate independently, is used as benchmark. [less ▲]

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See detailView-Independent Enhanced 3D Reconstruction of Non-Rigidly Deforming Objects
Afzal, Hassan UL; Aouada, Djamila UL; Destelle, Francois et al

in 16th International Conference on Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns (2015)

In this paper, we target enhanced 3D reconstruction of non-rigidly deforming objects based on a view-independent surface representation with an automated recursive filtering scheme. This work improves ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we target enhanced 3D reconstruction of non-rigidly deforming objects based on a view-independent surface representation with an automated recursive filtering scheme. This work improves upon the KinectDeform algorithm which we recently proposed. KinectDeform uses an implicit viewdependent volumetric truncated signed distance function (TSDF) based surface representation. The view-dependence makes its pipeline complex by requiring surface prediction and extraction steps based on camera’s field of view. This paper proposes to use an explicit projection-based Moving Least Squares (MLS) surface representation from point-sets. Moreover, the empirical weighted filtering scheme in KinectDeform is replaced by an automated fusion scheme based on a Kalman filter. We analyze the performance of the proposed algorithm both qualitatively and quantitatively and show that it is able to produce enhanced and feature preserving 3D reconstructions. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy Efficient Coordinated Beamforming for Multicell System: Duality-Based Algorithm Design and Massive MIMO Transition
He, Shiwen; Huang, Yongming; Yang, Luxi et al

in IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS (2015), 63(12), 4920-4935

In this paper, we investigate joint beamforming and power allocation in multicell multiple-input single-output (MISO) downlink networks. Our goal is to maximize the utility function defined as the ratio ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we investigate joint beamforming and power allocation in multicell multiple-input single-output (MISO) downlink networks. Our goal is to maximize the utility function defined as the ratio between the system weighted sum rate and the total power consumption subject to the users' quality of service requirements and per-base-station (BS) power constraints. The considered problem is nonconvex and its objective is in a fractional form. To circumvent this problem, we first resort to an virtual uplink formulations of the the primal problem by introducing an auxiliary variable and applying the uplink-downlink duality theory. By exploiting the analytic structure of the optimal beamformers in the dual uplink problem, an efficient algorithm is then developed to solve the considered problem. Furthermore, to reduce further the exchange overhead between coordinated BSs in a large-scale antenna system, an effective coordinated power allocation solution only based on statistical channel state information is reached by deriving the asymptotic optimization problem, which is used to obtain the power allocation in a long-term timescale. Numerical results validate the effectiveness of our proposed schemes and show that both the spectral efficiency and the energy efficiency can be simultaneously improved over traditional downlink coordinated schemes, especially in the middle-high transmit power region. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial DCT-Based Channel Estimation in Multi-Antenna Multi-Cell Interference Channels
Alodeh, Maha UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing (2015)

This work addresses channel estimation in multiple antenna multicell interference-limited networks. Channel state information (CSI) acquisition is vital for interference mitigation. Wireless networks ... [more ▼]

This work addresses channel estimation in multiple antenna multicell interference-limited networks. Channel state information (CSI) acquisition is vital for interference mitigation. Wireless networks often suffer from multicell interference, which can be mitigated by deploying beamforming to spatially direct the transmissions. The accuracy of the estimated CSI plays an important role in designing accurate beamformers that can control the amount of interference created from simultaneous spatial transmissions to mobile users. Therefore, a new technique based on the structure of the spatial covariance matrix and the discrete cosine transform (DCT) is proposed to enhance channel estimation in the presence of interference. Bayesian estimation and Least Squares estimation frameworks are introduced by utilizing the DCT to separate the overlapping spatial paths that create the interference. The spatial domain is thus exploited to mitigate the contamination which is able to discriminate across interfering users. Gains over conventional channel estimation techniques are presented in our simulations which are also valid for a small number of antennas. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiple Gateway Transmit Diversity in Q/V Band Feeder Links
Gharanjik, Ahmad UL; Shankar, Bhavani UL; Arapoglou, Pantelis-Daniel et al

in IEEE Transactions on Communications (2015)

Design of high bandwidth and reliable feeder links is central towards provisioning new services on the user link of a multibeam satellite communication (SatCom) system. Towards this, utilization of the Q ... [more ▼]

Design of high bandwidth and reliable feeder links is central towards provisioning new services on the user link of a multibeam satellite communication (SatCom) system. Towards this, utilization of the Q/V band and an exploitation of multiple gateways (GW) as a transmit diversity measure for overcoming severe propagation effects are being considered. In this context, this contribution deals with the design of a feeder link comprising N + P GWs (N active and P redundant GWs). Towards provisioning the desired availability, a novel switching scheme is analysed and practical aspects such as prediction based switching and switching rate are discussed. Unlike most relevant works, a dynamic rain attenuation model is used to derive analytically average outage probability in the fundamental 1 + 1 gateway case. Building on this result, an analysis for the N +P scenario leading to a quantification of the end􀀀to􀀀end performance is provided. This analysis aids system sizing by illustrating the interplay between the number of active and redundant gateways on the chosen metrics : average outage and average switching rate. [less ▲]

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See detailReal-time Curve-skeleton Extraction of Human-scanned Point Clouds
Garcia, Frederic; Ottersten, Björn UL

in International Conference on Computer Vision Theory and Applications (VISAPP 2015) (2015)

This paper presents a practical and robust approach for upright human curve-skeleton extraction. Curve skeletons are object descriptors that represent a simplified version of the geometry and topology of ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a practical and robust approach for upright human curve-skeleton extraction. Curve skeletons are object descriptors that represent a simplified version of the geometry and topology of a 3-D object. The curve-skeleton of a human-scanned point set enables the approximation of the underlying skeletal structure and thus, to estimate the body configuration (human pose). In contrast to most curve-skeleton extraction methodologies from the literature, we herein propose a real-time curve-skeleton extraction approach that applies to scanned point clouds, independently of the object’s complexity and/or the amount of noise within the depth measurements. The experimental results show the ability of the algorithm to extract a centered curve-skeleton within the 3-D object, with the same topology, and with unit thickness. The proposed approach is intended for real world applications and hence, it handles large portions of data missing due to occlusions, acquisition hindrances or registration inaccuracies. [less ▲]

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See detailTo AND or To OR: On Energy-Efficient Distributed Spectrum Sensing with Combined Censoring and Sleeping
Maleki, Sina UL; Leus, Geert; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (2015)

Distributed spectrum sensing improves the detection reliability of a cognitive radio network but generally comes at the price of a large power consumption. Since cognitive radios are generally low-power ... [more ▼]

Distributed spectrum sensing improves the detection reliability of a cognitive radio network but generally comes at the price of a large power consumption. Since cognitive radios are generally low-power sensors with limited batteries, a combined censoring and sleeping scheme is considered as an energy-efficient algorithm for distributed spectrum sensing. Each sensor switches off its sensing module with a specific sleeping rate. When the sensor is on, a censoring policy is employed in order to send the sensing result to the fusion center. The result is only transmitted, if it is deemed to be informative. Hence, the energy consumption of each sensor, including the sensing and transmission energies, is reduced. The underlying sensing parameters are derived by minimizing the maximum average energy consumption per sensor subject to a lower-bound on the global probability of detection and an upper-bound on the global probability of false alarm. We analyze the problem for the OR and the AND rule and provide a performance analysis for a case study based on the IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee standard. It is shown that the combined censoring and sleeping scheme achieves a significant energy saving compared to the case where no censoring or sleeping is taken into account. [less ▲]

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See detailPrecoding in multibeam satellite communications: present and future challenges
Vázquez, Miguel Ángel; Pérez-Neira, Ana; Christopoulos, Dimitrios et al

in jourlib Journal (2015)

Whenever multibeam satellite systems target very aggressive frequency reuse in their coverage area, inter-beam interference becomes the major obstacle for increasing the overall system throughput. As a ... [more ▼]

Whenever multibeam satellite systems target very aggressive frequency reuse in their coverage area, inter-beam interference becomes the major obstacle for increasing the overall system throughput. As a matter of fact, users located at the beam edges suffer from a very large interference for even a moderately aggressive planning of reuse-2. Although solutions for inter-beam interference management have been investigated at the satellite terminal, it turns out that the performance improvement does not justify the increased terminal complexity and cost. In this article, we pay attention to interference mitigation techniques that take place at the transmitter (i.e. the gateway). Based on this understanding, we provide our vision on advanced precoding techniques and user clustering methods for multibeam broadband fixed satellite communications. We also discuss practical challenges to deploy precoding schemes and the support introduced in the recently published DVB-S2X standard. Future challenges for novel configurations employing precoding are also provided. [less ▲]

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See detailFeasibility Study of Full-duplex Relaying in Satellite Networks
Shankar, Bhavani UL; Zheng, Gan; Maleki, Sina UL et al

in The 16th IEEE International Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications, SPAWC 2015 (2015)

With the successful implementation of full-duplex radio prototypes, traditional orthogonal half-duplex communications is deemed to be inefficient in certain terrestrial applications. While full-duplex ... [more ▼]

With the successful implementation of full-duplex radio prototypes, traditional orthogonal half-duplex communications is deemed to be inefficient in certain terrestrial applications. While full-duplex techniques are gaining interest in terrestrial communications, thanks to the trend of short-distance and low-power transmissions, their application to satellite communications has drawn little attention. Motivated by this, the paper explores the use of the full-duplex relaying operation on-board the satellite in a DVB-S2 compliant network. Self-interference, whose management is the key component of a full-duplex communication, is the focus of study in this paper. Modelling the effects of self-interference and power amplifier nonlinearities on the quality of the received signal in undertaken. Subsequently, closed-form expressions for the various interference components are derived. The numerical evaluations of derived expressions rely on realistic link budgets and indicate substantial gains in spectral efficiency when self-interference can be well calibrated and measured. This confirms that the satellite full-duplex communications could be a promising solution for the efficient use of satellite spectrum, at least from a technical point of view. [less ▲]

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See detailExample-Dependent Cost-Sensitive Logistic Regression for Credit Scoring
Correa Bahnsen, Alejandro UL; Aouada, Djamila UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in 2014 13th International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications (2014, December 03)

Several real-world classification problems are example-dependent cost-sensitive in nature, where the costs due to misclassification vary between examples. Credit scoring is a typical example of cost ... [more ▼]

Several real-world classification problems are example-dependent cost-sensitive in nature, where the costs due to misclassification vary between examples. Credit scoring is a typical example of cost-sensitive classification. However, it is usually treated using methods that do not take into account the real financial costs associated with the lending business. In this paper, we propose a new example-dependent cost matrix for credit scoring. Furthermore, we propose an algorithm that introduces the example-dependent costs into a logistic regression. Using two publicly available datasets, we compare our proposed method against state-of-the-art example-dependent cost-sensitive algorithms. The results highlight the importance of using real financial costs. Moreover, by using the proposed cost-sensitive logistic regression, significant improvements are made in the sense of higher savings. [less ▲]

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See detailFeasibility of Positive Secrecy Rate in Wiretap Interference Channels
Kalantari, Ashkan UL; Maleki, Sina UL; Zheng, Gan et al

in IEEE Global Conference on Signal and Information Processing (GlobalSIP) (2014, December 03)

Interference usually is an adverse phenomenon in wireless networks. However, the interference can potentially be used to boost the secrecy rate in wireless interference channels. This work studies the ... [more ▼]

Interference usually is an adverse phenomenon in wireless networks. However, the interference can potentially be used to boost the secrecy rate in wireless interference channels. This work studies the secrecy rate in a two-user interference network where unintended user may overhear one of the users, namely user 1. User 1 tunes its transmission power in order to maximize its secrecy rate as well as to maintain the quality of service at the other user’s destination, user 2, while both user’s power limits are considered. It is demonstrated that achieving a positive secrecy rate for user 1 only depends on the channel conditions and user 2’s transmission power. Consequently, depending on the channel conditions, the exact threshold for user 2’s transmission power which leads to a positive secrecy rate for user 1 is derived. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial Multiplexing in Optical Feeder Links for High Throughput Satellites
Gharanjik, Ahmad UL; Liolis, Konstantinos; Shankar, Bhavani UL et al

in Spatial Multiplexing in Optical Feeder Links for High Throughput Satellites (2014, December 02)

Optical feeder links are an attractive alternative to the RF feeder links in satellite communications (SatCom). In this paper, we present initial results from an optical feeder link study. We discuss the ... [more ▼]

Optical feeder links are an attractive alternative to the RF feeder links in satellite communications (SatCom). In this paper, we present initial results from an optical feeder link study. We discuss the architecture of a geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellite system based on optical feeder links. To mitigate the effects of cloud coverage, which is the main availability-limiting factor, Optical Ground Station (OGS) diversity is employed. Moreover, a spatial multiplexing scheme is considered. Assuming an ON-OFF channel model, the number of required OGSs to ensure availability and throughput requirements is analyzed [less ▲]

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See detailSum Rate Maximizing Multigroup Multicast Beamforming under Per-antenna Power Constraints
Christopoulos, Dimitrios UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in In Proc. of IEEE, Global Communications Conference, GLOBECOM (2014, December)

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See detailData Predistortion for Multicarrier Satellite Channels Based on Direct Learning
Piazza, Roberto UL; Shankar, Bhavani UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing (2014), 62(22),

Satellite communication is facing the urgent need of improving data rate and efficiency to compete with the quality of service offered by terrestrial communication systems. An imminent gain, achievable ... [more ▼]

Satellite communication is facing the urgent need of improving data rate and efficiency to compete with the quality of service offered by terrestrial communication systems. An imminent gain, achievable without the need of upgrading current satellite technology, can be obtained by exploiting multicarrier operation at the transponder and using highly efficient modulation schemes. However, on-board multicarrier joint amplification of high order modulation schemes is a critical operation as it brings severe non-linear distortion effects. These distortions increase as the on-board High Power Amplifier (HPA) is operated to yield higher power efficiencies. In this work, we propose novel techniques to implement on ground predistortion that enable multicarrier transmission of highly efficient modulation schemes over satellite channels without impacting infrastructure on the downlink. [less ▲]

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See detailExploiting polarization for spectrum awareness in cognitive satellite communications
Sharma, S. K.; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in Exploiting polarization for spectrum awareness in cognitive satellite communications (2014)

The continuously increasing demand of spectrum and current static spectrum allocation policies are rendering the available radio spectrum scarce. To address the problem of spectrum scarcity in the ... [more ▼]

The continuously increasing demand of spectrum and current static spectrum allocation policies are rendering the available radio spectrum scarce. To address the problem of spectrum scarcity in the satellite paradigm, cognitive satellite communications has been considered as a promising technique. In addition to the existing spectrum sharing dimensions such as frequency, time, and space, polarization can be exploited as an additional degree of freedom in order to explore the spectral gaps in the underutilized licensed spectrum. In this context, this chapter firstly provides an overview of the existing works in polarization-based spectrum sharing. Secondly, it presents the theoretical analysis of energy detection technique for dual polarized Additive White Gaussian Noise and Rayleigh fading channels considering the spectral coexistence scenarios of dual and hybrid satellite systems. Thirdly, it provides the comparison of different combining techniques in terms of the sensing performance. Finally, it provides interesting future research directions in this domain. © 2015 by IGI Global. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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