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See detailThe Temporary Reintroduction of Border Controls Inside theSchengen Area: Towards a Spatial Perspective
Evrard, Estelle UL; Nienaber, Birte UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

in Journal of Borderlands Studies (2020), 35(3), 369-383

Following the terrorist attacks in Paris (November 2015) and Brussels(March 2016), several EU Member States have decided to re-establish border controls or to build walls inside the Schengen Area ... [more ▼]

Following the terrorist attacks in Paris (November 2015) and Brussels(March 2016), several EU Member States have decided to re-establish border controls or to build walls inside the Schengen Area. Although these decisions are temporary and legally framed by the Schengen code, their extent disrupts the free movement within the Schengen Area, in particular in border areas. While lawyers and economists have analyzed the impacts of this situation, the spatial perspective has remained rather neglected.This exploratory contribution aims to address this gap in the literature by outlining the spatial significance of reintroduced controls for border areas inside the Schengen Area. This contribution firstly undertakes a literature review of the different conceptual tools at hand. These are then compared with a set of exploratory empirical materials. The article focuses more precisely on the Greater Region where France and Germany have reintroduced border controls, thus disrupting in particular daily cross-border flows with Luxembourg and Belgium. The analysis demonstrates that the border acts as a filter, disrupting cross-border flows and cooperation. Also, it sheds some light on the important role played by the ideational perception of the border for practitioners and decision-makers. This contribution concludes by suggesting several paths for a future research agenda. [less ▲]

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See detailAttracting and Protecting Seasonal Workers from third countries in the EU
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Rozenberga, Zane UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2020)

For almost 150 years, Luxembourg depends on two kinds of migration, qualified and non-qualified, in order to deal with the workforce needs of its economy. Compared to other EU Member States, Luxembourg is ... [more ▼]

For almost 150 years, Luxembourg depends on two kinds of migration, qualified and non-qualified, in order to deal with the workforce needs of its economy. Compared to other EU Member States, Luxembourg is a country with the largest proportion of foreigners; however, this foreign population is mainly composed of EU citizens. In Luxembourg, 296.500 residents (47,4%) of a total population of 626.100 are foreigners. 247.900 are EU citizens representing 39.6% of the total population of the country and 83,6% of the foreign population of the country. The 48.600 third-country nationals represent only 7,8% of the total population and 16.4% of the foreign population. Due to its size and geographic location, Luxembourg has an access to a very particular form of economic migration: cross-border workers. Globalisation has also played a decisive role in the development of economic migration for the Luxembourgish labour market. The financial center was obliged to become highly specialised in order to remain competitive in regards to other financial centers and to maintain its volume of business. In order to maintain its competitive advantage, Luxembourg needs highly skilled personnel, which, up until now, the country has found within the Greater Region. With regards to the labour market: the number of salaried workers on 31 December 2019 shows that Luxembourgish residents represented only 26,5%, EU citizens (other than Luxembourgish) 23,4% and third-country national residents only 4,2%. Cross-border workers from Belgium, France and Germany represented 46% of the workforce. The Luxembourgish labour market is not a national labour market but rather a labour market of the Greater Region with a trend to become an international labour market. This situation can be explained in the context of the free movement of services and the posted workers coming from other Member States to Luxembourg. The need of workforce must be placed in this particular context, taking into account the “internal reserves”, the free movement of persons from which EU citizens, who reside in the country, benefit and the large majority of cross-border workers. To this framework one must add a range of measures that were introduced by the Luxembourgish authorities in order to regulate the labour market. Some of these measures did not have labour market needs as their only objective, but were also foreseen to manage integration processes. The attitude of the successive governments was to adapt immigration to the economic needs of the country. The government policy intends to implement an economic diversification policy, focused on attracting high added value activities such as ICT, health technologies, space, logistics, industry and FinTech. In consequence and taking into consideration the specificities of Luxembourg’s labour market, third-country national seasonal workers are not a priority of the Luxembourgish government. [less ▲]

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See detailANNUAL REPORT ON MIGRATION AND ASYLUM Luxembourg 2019
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Hallack, Florence UL; Rozenberga, Zane UL et al

Report (2020)

The present report provides an overview of the main developments and debates in relation to migration and asylum in Luxembourg in 2019. Luxembourg remains an important country of immigration, as evidenced ... [more ▼]

The present report provides an overview of the main developments and debates in relation to migration and asylum in Luxembourg in 2019. Luxembourg remains an important country of immigration, as evidenced by the figures on net migration, which remains the main reason for the demographic growth of the Luxembourgish resident population. Net immigration of third-country nationals remains high (7 336) and exceeds that of citizens of the European Union (EU; 4 806). The number of people applying for international protection remained high in 2019 (2 047 applications) compared to the levels registered pre-‘migration crisis’ (1 091 in 2014). Family reunification remains the principal reason for third-country nationals to immigrate to Luxembourg, followed by economic reasons and international protection. Several major developments occurred in the field of legal migration. The introduction of a new long-term visa simplifies the entry and stay of third-country nationals for a period of up to one year, without having to apply for a residence permit. In order to guarantee the rights of British citizens working and residing in Luxembourg before the withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the EU (Brexit) four laws were adopted, most of them were supposed to enter into force if there was a non-deal Brexit. Other important changes related to migration result from the adoption of the law of 4 December 2019 amending the law of 29 August 2009 on the free movement of persons and immigration (hereinafter Immigration Law). This law takes into account the expert’s comments during the evaluation in 2016 of the application of Schengen. [less ▲]

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See detailCountry study - Coronavirus COVID-19 outbreak in the EU - Fundamental Rights Implications - Luxembourg
Vysotskaya, Volha UL; Vukovich, Lilla UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2020)

The report intends to cover the possible impacts of the outbreak of the virus on fundamental rights and freedoms within the Grand Duchy. This includes impacts of quarantine measures, issues concerning ... [more ▼]

The report intends to cover the possible impacts of the outbreak of the virus on fundamental rights and freedoms within the Grand Duchy. This includes impacts of quarantine measures, issues concerning pharmaceutical supplies and testing, situation of employees and families in this specific situation, as well as several other socio-political concerns. [less ▲]

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See detailL’accès à la nationalité luxembourgeoise pour ressortissants de pays tiers
Petry, Ralph UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Article for general public (2020)

La note de synthèse présente les principaux résultats de l’étude réalisée en 2019 par le Point de contact luxembourgeois du Réseau Européen des Migrations (EMN Luxembourg) intitulée « Pathways to ... [more ▼]

La note de synthèse présente les principaux résultats de l’étude réalisée en 2019 par le Point de contact luxembourgeois du Réseau Européen des Migrations (EMN Luxembourg) intitulée « Pathways to citizenship for third-country nationals in Luxembourg » qui a été publiée en décembre 2019. Cette étude fournit un aperçu de l’accès à la nationalité luxembourgeoise des ressortissants de pays tiers par voie procédurale, et plus précisément sur l’acquisition par naturalisation. Toutefois, cette note ne serait pas complète si l’obtention automatique de la nationalité luxembourgeoise ainsi que les deux autres modes d’acquisition procédurales, à savoir l’option et le recouvrement, ne seraient pas abordées. L’annexe conférence 2020 présente une mise à jour de la note de synthèse « L’accès à la nationalité luxembourgeoise pour ressortissants de pays tiers » publiée en février 2020. Cette mise à jour tient compte d’un changement législatif, entré en vigueur le 25 juin 2020, ainsi que des statistiques des acquisitions de nationalité luxembourgeoise qui ont eu lieu en 2019. En outre, l’annexe présente des informations sur deux éléments faisant partie de l’ordre du jour de la conférence annuelle 2020, à savoir l’incidence du Brexit sur les acquisitions de nationalité luxembourgeoise depuis 2015 et le droit à la nationalité pour enfants apatrides. [less ▲]

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See detailGrenzen, Kooperation und Bildungsmobilität. Einblicke in grenzünberschreitende Zusammenarbeit
Nienaber, Birte UL

in ARL Nachrichten (2020), 2020(3), 35-38

The article analyses cross-border education on different levels.

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See detailLa réintroduction des contrôles frontaliers dans l’Espace Schengen. Réflexions préliminaires pour un agenda de recherche
Evrard, Estelle UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

in Hamez, Grégory; Defays, Jean-Marc (Eds.) Réalités, perceptions et représentations des frontières. L’Espace transfrontalier de la Grande Région Saare-Lor-Lux, (2020)

This articles analyses the potential impact of closed borders or the re-establishing of border checks on the Greater Region - especially in Luxembourg.

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See detailLa formation professionnelle transfrontalière en tant que processus d’apprentissage et mobilisation du savoir transfrontaliers
Funk, Ines; Nienaber, Birte UL; Dörrenbächer, H. Peter

in Hamez, Grégory; Defays, Jean-Marc (Eds.) Réalités, perceptions et représentations des frontières (2020)

This article deals with cross border mobility in vocational and educational training in the Greater Region.

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See detailBorders and border experiences
Wille, Christian UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

in Wille, Christian; Nienaber, Birte (Eds.) Border Experiences in Europe. Everyday Life - Working Life - Communication - Languages (2020)

The idea of a “Europe without borders” has been contested for the last decade and is increasingly overshadowed by rebordering phenomena. This development has sparked debates within border studies on how ... [more ▼]

The idea of a “Europe without borders” has been contested for the last decade and is increasingly overshadowed by rebordering phenomena. This development has sparked debates within border studies on how borders should be thought of and investigated. The introductory article deals with this and reconstructs the formation and differentiation of the bordering approach. Furthermore, the concept of border experiences is determined as an investigative perspective that is interested in everyday cultural arenas of bordering processes. It puts the agency of ‘border(lands) residents’ in the center and provides insights into everyday cultural border (re)productions.With this in mind, we will present the book articles in the final section. [less ▲]

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See detailProcessus d'apprentissage régionaux dans la région frontalière Sarre-Lorraine. Un exemple de formation professionnelle transfrontalière en alternance
Nienaber, Birte UL; Dörrenbächer, H. Peter; Funk, Ines

in Les Cahiers de la Grande Région (2020), 3

In the Saarland-Lorraine border region, not only do numerous people work in the neighbouring country, the border is also crossed for the purpose of dual vocational and educational training. The text ... [more ▼]

In the Saarland-Lorraine border region, not only do numerous people work in the neighbouring country, the border is also crossed for the purpose of dual vocational and educational training. The text explains in a generally understandable way who are important regional players; which cross-border players play a role and how learning processes take place. [less ▲]

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See detailBorders and Migration
Nienaber, Birte UL

in Wassenberg, Birte; Reitel, Bernard (Eds.) Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration (2020)

This is a dictionary chapter on border and migration.

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See detailRAPPORT ANNUEL SUR LES MIGRATIONS ET L'ASILE Luxembourg 2019
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Hallack, Florence UL; Rozenberga, Zane UL et al

Report (2020)

Le présent rapport trace les principaux développements et débats relatifs à la migration et à l'asile au Luxembourg en 2019. Le Luxembourg reste un pays d'immigration important, comme en témoignent les ... [more ▼]

Le présent rapport trace les principaux développements et débats relatifs à la migration et à l'asile au Luxembourg en 2019. Le Luxembourg reste un pays d'immigration important, comme en témoignent les chiffres du solde migratoire, qui reste la principale raison de la croissance démographique de la population résidente luxembourgeoise. L'immigration nette de ressortissants de pays tiers reste élevée (7 336) et dépasse celle des citoyens de l'Union européenne (UE; 4 806). Le nombre de personnes demandant une protection internationale est resté élevé en 2019 (2 047 demandes) par rapport aux niveaux enregistrés avant la «crise migratoire» (1 091 en 2014). Le regroupement familial reste la principale raison pour laquelle les ressortissants de pays tiers immigrent au Luxembourg, suivi des raisons économiques et de la protection internationale. Plusieurs développements majeurs se sont produits dans le domaine de la migration légale. L'introduction d'un nouveau visa de longue durée simplifie l'entrée et le séjour des ressortissants de pays tiers pour une période pouvant aller jusqu'à un an, sans avoir à demander un permis de séjour. Afin de garantir les droits des citoyens britanniques travaillant et résidant au Luxembourg avant le retrait du Royaume-Uni (UK) de l'UE (Brexit), quatre lois ont été adoptées, la plupart d'entre elles étant censées entrer en vigueur en cas d’un Brexit sans accord. D'autres changements importants liés à la migration résultent de l'adoption de la loi du 4 décembre 2019 modifiant la loi du 29 août 2009 sur la libre circulation des personnes et l'immigration. Cette loi prend en compte les commentaires de l'expert lors de l'évaluation en 2016 de l'application de Schengen. [less ▲]

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See detailBorder Experiences in Europe. Everyday Life - Working Life - Communication - Languages
Wille, Christian UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Book published by Nomos (2020)

For a decade now, borders in Europe have been back on the political agenda. Border research has responded and is breaking new ground in thinking about and exploring borders. This book follows this ... [more ▼]

For a decade now, borders in Europe have been back on the political agenda. Border research has responded and is breaking new ground in thinking about and exploring borders. This book follows this development and strengthens a perspective that is interested in life realities and that focuses on everyday cultural experiences of borders. The authors reconstruct such experiences in the context of different forms of migration and mobility as well as language contact situations and are sensitive to the freedom of the participants. In this way, they empirically identify everyday cultural usage or appropriation strategies of borders as vastly different experiences of borders. The readers of this volume will gain insights into current developments in border research and life realities in Europe where borders are (made) relevant. With contributions by Christian Wille, Birte Nienaber, Carsten Yndigegn, Isabelle Pigeron-Piroth, Rachid Belkacem, Ursula Roos, Elisabeth Boesen, Ariela House, Ignacy Jóźwiak, Corinne Martin, Erika Kalocsányiová, Xosé-Afonso Álvarez, Konstanze Jungbluth, Florian Dost, Nicole Richter, Dominik Gerst. [less ▲]

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See detailRegionale Lernprozesse im Grenzraum Saarland- Lothringen. Das Beispiel der grenzüberschreitenden dualen Berufsausbildung.
Nienaber, Birte UL; Dörrenbächer, H. Peter; Funk, Ines

in Die Hefte der Großregion (2020), 3

In the Saarland-Lorraine border region, not only do numerous people work in the neighbouring country, the border is also crossed for the purpose of dual vocational and educational training. The text ... [more ▼]

In the Saarland-Lorraine border region, not only do numerous people work in the neighbouring country, the border is also crossed for the purpose of dual vocational and educational training. The text explains in a generally understandable way who are important regional players; which cross-border players play a role and how learning processes take place. [less ▲]

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See detailChallenging youth unemployment through international mobility
Nienaber, Birte UL; Manafi, Ioana; Vysotskaya, Volha UL et al

in Journal of Social and Economic Statistics (2020), 9(1), 5-27

Youth unemployment is a challenge in many European countries – especially since the financial crises. Young people face difficulties in the transition from education into employment. This article focuses ... [more ▼]

Youth unemployment is a challenge in many European countries – especially since the financial crises. Young people face difficulties in the transition from education into employment. This article focuses on young mobile Europeans from six countries (Germany, Hungary, Luxembourg, Norway, Romania and Spain). The research question is whether and to which extent international mobility has an impact on employability and therefore reduces youth unemployment. By using a cluster analysis of personal adaptability, social and human capital and career identity, the importance of mobility experiences for employability is analysed in a recent dataset of 5,272 young (formerly) mobile respondents. Youth mobility is established as a strong characteristic for the employability cluster. Mobility is however not the long-term aim of most of the mobile young people, since most of the mobiles choose to return to their home countries after one or more stays abroad. [less ▲]

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See detailBorder controls versus European solidarity
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

in Mein, Georg; Pause, Johannes (Eds.) Self and Society in the Corona Crisis: Perspectives from the Humanities and Social Sciences (2020)

The COVID- 19 crisis led to an asymmetric response from the European Union Member States. This was shown by the closure of the internal borders inside the Schengen area. In order to justify this action ... [more ▼]

The COVID- 19 crisis led to an asymmetric response from the European Union Member States. This was shown by the closure of the internal borders inside the Schengen area. In order to justify this action, Member States advanced the argument of protection the public health of their national population leaving aside the solidarity that Member States should have demonstrated during a time of crisis. This article is therefore dealing with the notion of solidarity in times of temporary border re-establishments. [less ▲]

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See detailLändliche Räume Europas
Nienaber, Birte UL

in Gebhardt, Hans; Glaser, Rüdiger; Radtke, Ulrich (Eds.) et al Geographie - Physische Geographie und Humangeographie (2020)

The chapter of a university textbook explains the diversity of European rural areas and their development.

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (6 UL)