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See detailIntegration of beneficiaries of international/humanitarian protection into the labour market: Policies and good practices
Petry, David UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2016)

In Luxembourgish legislation the term “international protection” includes both refugee status and subsidiary protection status. Integration of beneficiaries of international protection into the ... [more ▼]

In Luxembourgish legislation the term “international protection” includes both refugee status and subsidiary protection status. Integration of beneficiaries of international protection into the Luxembourgish labour market might appear quite unproblematic at first glance. From a legal point of view, the access is indeed very much open to both beneficiaries of international protection as well as beneficiaries of subsidiary protection. As from 2006 onwards, the legislator proceeded with an approximation of both statuses, providing the same rights to both types of beneficiaries of international protection. As soon as the applicants are granted international protection they are authorised to engage in employed or self-employed activities under the same conditions as Luxembourgish nationals, with the exceptionof civil servant jobs. This is also true for most of the support measures that aim to advance or enhance the access to employment, whether on the level of education, vocational training, language learning, recognition of diploma, counselling, social aid or access to housing. In each of those areas, the beneficiaries of international may in principle benefit from equivalent access as provided to other migrants, third-countrynationals or Luxembourgish nationals. Yet, the reality on the ground seldom matches the aims of the legislative framework. Effective access to the labour market remains a significant challenge for beneficiaries of international protection in order to fully integrate in Luxembourgish society. The linguistic regime as well as the high demands in terms of language requirements constitute a first major hurdle, both at the level of education/vocational training and the labour market. Rather than being able to immediately access the regular education system, respectively the labour market, refugees must first engage in a learning process sometimes coupled with administrative procedures (i.e. recognition of diplomas) that may significantly slow down the integration process. The transition period that begins once the applicant is granted international protection status appears to be particularly challenging. Indeed, several measures from which the applicants for international protection benefited during the procedure will no longer be available once they are granted the status. Thus, social aid, including housing, provided to international protection seekers will no longer be applicable to refugees. Even though national authorities have implemented several specific targeted measures in order to facilitate the transition period (i.e. progressive financial contribution to accommodation costs), it remains a phase of instability and uncertainty for the refugees and their families. This also stresses the need for employment-related support measures, which in Luxembourg are implemented in a more general integration framework. Thus, most of the support measures that exist for beneficiaries of international protection are not tailored to them in particular, but they are also open to other types of migrants or foreigners living in Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailMIGRATION INTERNATIONALE AU LUXEMBOURG: Système d'observation permanente des migrations OCDE
Nienaber, Birte UL; Jacobs, Sarah UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL et al

Report (2016)

Le Luxembourg est une terre d’immigration depuis plus de 50 ans. Situé au cœur de l’Europe, le pays attire aussi bien les citoyens de l’UE que les ressortissants des pays du monde entier. Ces populations ... [more ▼]

Le Luxembourg est une terre d’immigration depuis plus de 50 ans. Situé au cœur de l’Europe, le pays attire aussi bien les citoyens de l’UE que les ressortissants des pays du monde entier. Ces populations jouent un rôle central vis-à-vis de l’économie du pays, et apportent une importante contribution à la croissance de la population et au marché du travail. En 2015, la population du Luxembourg a poursuivi sa croissance stable d’environ 13 000 personnes par an, en augmentation de 2,36 %, passant de 562 958 au 1er janvier 2015 à 576 249 au 1er janvier 2016. Les citoyens étrangers ont continué à jouer un rôle essentiel dans la croissance de la population du Luxembourg, aussi bien en matière d’immigration nette que sur le plan des naissances. L’immigration nette affichait un total de +11 159 personnes en 2015, signifiant un surplus d’arrivées par rapport aux départs. La proportion de citoyens étrangers ressortissants de pays de l’UE était de 76,1 %, les ressortissants de pays tiers représentaient 32,9 %, tandis que la contribution des ressortissants luxembourgeois était négative à -9 %. Le nombre de naissances a enregistré un pic en 2015, égal à celui de 2013, avec 6 115 naissances au total. Les ressortissants étrangers ont contribué à l’accroissement naturel du Luxembourg avec un surplus de 2 150 naissances tandis qu’un déficit de naissances de -18 a été enregistré chez les ressortissants luxembourgeois. 2015 a également été une année record en ce qui concerne les naturalisations. Les Belges ont été les plus nombreux à avoir acquis la nationalité luxembourgeoise en 2015, suivis par les Français et les Portugais. Au 1er janvier 2016, 46,7 % des résidents luxembourgeois étaient étrangers. 34,6 % de la population étrangère totale étaient des Portugais, qui demeuraient la nationalité la plus représentée, suivis par les Français (15,5 %) et les Italiens (7,5 %). Les ressortissants de pays tiers les plus représentés étaient monténégrins. En raison du conflit syrien et de l’afflux de demandeurs de protection internationale qui en a suivi, la population syrienne vivant au Luxembourg a enregistré la plus forte hausse proportionnelle en 2015, avec une croissance de 461,5 % entre janvier 2015 et janvier 2016. En observant le marché du travail au Luxembourg, le rôle central joué par les ressortissants étrangers dans l’économie nationale devient évident. Au premier trimestre 2016, les résidents luxembourgeois représentaient 55 % de la main-d’œuvre salariée du pays. Parmi eux, 27,5 % étaient des ressortissants luxembourgeois, tandis que les ressortissants des Etats membres de l’UE représentaient 24,2 % et les ressortissants de pays tiers 3,3 %. Les travailleurs transfrontaliers venant de France, de Belgique et d’Allemagne représentaient 45 % du total des salariés au Luxembourg. Ils travaillent principalement dans les secteurs manufacturiers, la construction et le commerce. Le secteur HORECA (hôtellerie, restauration et cafés) recrute majoritairement des résidents étrangers. Les ressortissants de pays tiers qui ne bénéficient pas des accords de libre circulation doivent être détenteurs d’un titre de séjour pour pouvoir entrer au Luxembourg. Une augmentation du nombre de premières délivrances de titres de séjour a été enregistrée pour la plupart des catégories par rapport à l’année précédente, où une baisse dans la quasi-totalité des catégories avait été observée. En 2015, les titres de séjour étaient le plus souvent délivrés dans les catégories « Membre de famille », « Travailleur salarié » et « Carte bleue européenne ». L’année 2015 a été marquée par une forte augmentation du nombre de demandes de protection internationale qui a plus que doublé par rapport à 2014 (2 447 demandes en 2015). Malgré une forte augmentation fin 2015, il y a eu un ralentissement de la tendance en 2016. Néanmoins, le nombre de demandes de protection internationale demeure plus élevé qu’en 2013/2014. La plupart des demandes émanaient de ressortissants syriens ou iraquiens, (27,3 % et 22 % respectivement), qui ne représentaient que 9 % et 1 % respectivement en 2014. De plus, les taux de reconnaissance des statuts (statut de réfugié et statut conféré par la protection subsidiaire) et de retour ont augmenté. En 2015, le Luxembourg s’est engagé à accueillir 557 personnes conformément à la décision du Conseil de l’Union européenne visant à relocaliser 160 000 demandeurs de protection internationale venant de Grèce et d’Italie. Ainsi, dans le cadre de cette décision, 114 réfugiés ont été relocalisés depuis la Grèce et 20 réfugiés ont été relocalisés depuis l’Italie avant la mi-août 2016. En outre, 46 réfugiés en provenance de Turquie ont été réinstallés en 2015, suivis de 52 autres réfugiés conformément à l’engagement pris par le Luxembourg d’accueillir 194 réfugiés de Turquie dans le contexte de l’accord conclu en mars 2016 entre l’UE et la Turquie. De plus, 44 Syriens ont été accueillis en 2015 suite à une demande d’assistance émanant des autorités allemandes. Face à un afflux grandissant de demandeurs de protection internationale, un programme d’accueil d’urgence a été développé en 2015. Le programme prévoyait l’établissement de centres de primo-accueil ainsi que le renforcement des ressources humaines de l’Office luxembourgeois de l’accueil et de l’intégration (OLAI) et de la Direction de l’immigration, placée sous l’autorité du Ministère des Affaires étrangères. L’OLAI a également renforcé sa collaboration inter-ministérielle et avec les parties prenantes au niveau local. Un accent a également été mis sur l’intégration, avec des déploiements majeurs, dont la mise en place de projets d’intégration par les municipalités dans le contexte du « Plan d’intégration communal » et avec la création du Centre luxembourgeois pour l’intégration et la cohésion sociale (LISKO), qui soutient les bénéficiaires de protection internationale à s’intégrer dans la société luxembourgeoise. En 2015 et 2016, le Luxembourg a continué à transposer et à mettre en application plusieurs directives de l’UE. La loi du 18 décembre 2015 relative à l’accueil de demandeurs de protection internationale et de protection temporaire transpose la Directive 2013/33/UE (refonte : conditions d’accueil) dans le droit national. La loi du 18 décembre 2015 sur la protection internationale et la protection temporaire transpose la Directive 2013/32/UE (refonte : procédure), établissant les procédures d’octroi et de retrait de la protection internationale et de la protection subsidiaire et la standardisation du contenu de cette protection. Le projet de loi mettant en application la Directive 2013/55/UE sur la reconnaissance des qualifications professionnelles a été déposé à la Chambre des députés en 2015 et le projet de loi mettant en application la Directive 2014/36/UE relative aux travailleurs saisonniers et la Directive 2014/66/UE relative aux titres de séjour des personnes faisant l’objet d’un transfert intragroupe et des investisseurs a été présenté en 2016. En ce qui concerne la transposition de la Directive applicable à la Carte bleue, un décret du gouvernement a été émis le 22 mai 2015 établissant les professions concernées par le seuil salarial inférieur pour l’embauche de travailleurs hautement qualifiés. Au niveau national, plusieurs changements législatifs visent à répondre aux enjeux posés par l’hétérogénéité du Luxembourg. Le projet de loi n 6410 relatif à la jeunesse, déposé à la Chambre des députés le 6 février 2015, permet aux travailleurs transfrontaliers d’accéder au système de chèques-services précédemment réservé aux résidents luxembourgeois. Le projet de loi n 6893 relatif à la reconnaissance des qualifications a été déposé à la Chambre des députés en octobre 2015. Lors du référendum du 7 juin 2015, la proposition visant à étendre le droit de vote aux résidents non luxembourgeois a été rejetée par une vaste majorité, qui considérait l’acquisition de la nationalité comme un moyen plus approprié d’acquérir le droit de vote. Par conséquent, le gouvernement a pris des mesures en vue de réformer la loi sur la nationalité, afin d’assouplir les critères à remplir pour l’acquisition de la nationalité, et ainsi permettre d’élargir la participation aux élections. Le projet de loi n 6977 sur la nationalité a été déposé à la Chambre des députés le 24 mars 2016. Il prévoit de réduire la durée de résidence requise de sept à cinq années et de réintroduire la procédure d’option pour les personnes ayant des liens étroits avec le Luxembourg. Le niveau de maîtrise du luxembourgeois, langue nationale du Grand-Duché, a été au centre des débats sur le projet de loi relatif à la nationalité. Certains craignaient que les exigences linguistiques ne fassent obstacle à l’acquisition de la nationalité par les ressortissants étrangers, tandis que d’autres mettaient en avant la maîtrise de la langue en tant que facteur déterminant d’intégration, et donc d’acquisition de la nationalité.   [less ▲]

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See detailGlobalizing Rural Areas. International Migrants in Rural Germany
Nienaber, Birte UL; Roos, Ursula UL

in Domínguez-Mujica, Josefina (Ed.) Global Change and Human Mobility (2016)

International migrants sometimes decide to live in rural instead of in urban areas. These migrants can be clustered into different groups, e.g. amenity migrants, cross-border migrants, asylum seekers ... [more ▼]

International migrants sometimes decide to live in rural instead of in urban areas. These migrants can be clustered into different groups, e.g. amenity migrants, cross-border migrants, asylum seekers, training migrants and working migrants (seasonal and permanent). In rural areas in Germany, for example, in 2010 11.1 per cent of the population had a migratory background (Statistisches Bundesamt 2011). Even though this phenomenon of international migrants moving into rural instead of urban areas exists, it has long been neglected by researchers. The aim of this chapter is to investigate how international migrants support the development of a “globalized countryside” (Woods 2007). Afterwards we focus on two different German case studies. First, we analyse international migration into the district town of Merzig (Saarland). Second, we investigate cross-border migration into rural areas in the German-Austrian borderlands (Bavaria). Based on the results, in our conclusion we discuss the statement that international migrants globalize rural areas. [less ▲]

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See detailGroßschutzgebiete, Biodiversität und räumliche Planung. Ein Positionspapier aus der Akademie für Raumforschung und Landesplanung
Heiland, Stefan; Jedicke, Eckhardt; Job, Hubert et al

in Naturschutz und Landschaftsplanung (2016), 48(9),

Zu Fragen einer Förderung der Biodiversität und nachhaltiger Landnutzung in Groß­schutzgebieten hat ein gleichnamiger Arbeits­kreis2 der Akademie für Raumforschung und Landesplanung (ARL) ein ... [more ▼]

Zu Fragen einer Förderung der Biodiversität und nachhaltiger Landnutzung in Groß­schutzgebieten hat ein gleichnamiger Arbeits­kreis2 der Akademie für Raumforschung und Landesplanung (ARL) ein Positionspapier vorgelegt. Neben sieben Thesen fordert der Arbeitskreis als Fazit eine „Bund­Länder­Gemeinschaftsaufgabe Groß­schutzgebiete“. [less ▲]

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See detailINTERNATIONAL MIGRATION IN LUXEMBOURG Continuous Reporting System on Migration OECD
Nienaber, Birte UL; Jacobs, Sarah UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL et al

Report (2016)

Luxembourg has been a country of immigration for more than 50 years. Located in the heart of Europe, it holds a strong attraction for EU citizens and nationals from countries all around the world, who ... [more ▼]

Luxembourg has been a country of immigration for more than 50 years. Located in the heart of Europe, it holds a strong attraction for EU citizens and nationals from countries all around the world, who play a central role in the national economy, making an important contribution to the population growth and the labour market. Over the course of 2015, Luxembourg’s population has continued its steady growth of approximately 13.000 people per year, increasing by 2,36%, from 562.958 on 1st January 2015 to 576.249 on 1st January 2016. Foreign citizens have continued to play an essential role in Luxembourg’s population growth, both in terms of net migration and births. The total net migration amounted to +11.159 individuals in 2015, which signifies a surplus of arrivals over departures. Foreign EU citizens accounted for 76,1%; third-country nationals represented 32,9%, while Luxembourgish nationals’ contribution was negative, at -9%. The number of births in 2015 was the highest on record, equal to that in 2013, with 6.115 births in total. Foreigners contributed a birth surplus of 2.150 to Luxembourg’s natural increase, while a birth deficit of -18 was recorded for Luxembourgish nationals. 2015 also marked a record year regarding naturalisations, with Belgians remaining the citizens that obtain citizenship most frequently, followed by the French and the Portuguese. On 1st January 2016, 46,7% of Luxembourg’s residents were foreigners. Representing 34,6% of the total foreign population, Portuguese remained the most represented nationality, followed by France (15,5%) and Italy (7,5%), while the most numerous third-country nationals were Montenegrins. Due to the war in Syria and the influx of applicants for international protection that followed, the Syrian population living in Luxembourg showed the highest proportional increase during 2015, growing by 461,5% from January 2015 to January 2016. A look at Luxembourg’s labour market also reveals the central role that foreigners play in the national economy. In the first quarter of 2016, residents of Luxembourg represented 55% of the country’s salaried workforce. Of these, 27,5% were Luxembourgish nationals, while EU nationals represented 24,2% and third-country nationals 3,3%. Cross-border workers from France, Belgium and Germany represented 45% of all salaried workers in Luxembourg. They mainly work in the manufacturing industries, construction and commerce. A majority of recruitments in the HORECA sector are of foreign residents. Third-country nationals who do not benefit from free movement must be issued with a residence permit in order to enter Luxembourg. An increase in first issues of residence permits was recorded for most categories compared to the preceding year, which had experienced a decrease in almost all categories. In 2015, residence permits were most frequently issued in the “family member”, “salaried worker” and “European Blue Card” categories. 2015 was marked by a significant increase in the number of applications for international protection, which has more than doubled when compared to 2014 (2.447 applications in 2015). While there was a strong increase at the end of 2015, the trend slowed down in 2016. Nonetheless, the number of applications for international protection remains higher than levels in 2013/2014. Most applications were from Syrians and Iraqis (27,3% and 22% respectively), who accounted for only 9% and 1% respectively in 2014. Moreover, both the rate of status recognition (refugee and subsidiary protection status) and of return decision increased. In 2015, Luxembourg pledged to relocate 557 individuals to Luxembourg in the framework of the EU Council decision to relocate 160.000 international protection applicants from Greece and Italy. Within this framework, 114 refugees have been relocated from Greece and 20 from Italy up until mid-August 2016. Furthermore, 46 refugees were resettled from Turkey in 2015, followed by 52 further refugees as a result of Luxembourg’s pledge to resettle 194 refugees from Turkey in the context of the EU-Turkey agreement of March 2016. Additionally, 44 Syrians were welcomed in 2015 following a request for assistance by German authorities. Faced with the increased inflow of applicants for international protection, an emergency reception plan was developed in 2015. The plan included the establishment of first-instance reception centres and the strengthening of the capacity in human resources of both the Luxembourg Reception and Integration Agency (OLAI) and the Directorate of Immigration, which is under the authority of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. The OLAI also strengthened the collaboration with stakeholders at inter-ministerial and local levels. A strong focus has also been put on integration, where major developments include the setting up of integration projects by the municipalities in the context of the ‘Communal Integration Plan’ project and the creation of Luxembourg’s Centre for Integration and Cohesion (LISKO), a service supporting the beneficiaries of international protection in their process of integration in Luxembourgish society. Over the course of 2015 and 2016, Luxembourg continued to transpose and implement several EU directives. The law of 18th December 2015 on the reception of applicants for international protection and temporary protection transposes Directive 2013/33/EU (re-cast reception conditions) into national law. The law of 18th December 2015 on international protection and temporary protection transposed Directive 2013/32/EU (re-cast procedure), establishing the procedures for granting and withdrawing international and subsidiary protection and the standardisation of the content of this protection. The bill implementing Directive 2013/55/EU on the recognition of professional qualifications was introduced into parliament in 2015 and the bill implementing Directive 2014/36/EU on seasonal workers and Directive 2014/66/EU on intra-corporate transferees and investors’ residence permits was introduced in 2016. Regarding the transposition of the Blue Card Directive, a Government Decree was issued on 22nd May 2015 establishing the professions to which the lower salary threshold for hiring highly qualified workers applies. On the national level, a number of legislative changes address some of the challenges set by Luxembourg’s heterogeneity. The bill no. 6410 on youth, introduced into parliament on 6th February 2015, gives cross-border workers access to the care service voucher system which was previously only available to Luxembourgish residents. Bill no. 6893 on the recognition of qualifications was introduced in parliament in October 2015. At the referendum of 7th June 2015, the proposal to extend the right to vote of non-Luxembourgish residents was rejected by a large majority, who argued in favour of the acquisition of nationality as the more appropriate way to acquire the right to vote. Consequently, the government took steps towards reforming the law on nationality in order to soften the requirements for acquisition of nationality, and in this way enable the broadening of participation in elections. Bill no. 6977 on nationality was introduced in parliament on 24th March 2016. It includes the reduction of the required duration of residency from seven to five years and the reintroduction of procedure of option in cases of close links with Luxembourg. The level of fluency in Luxembourgish required has become a central focus of the debate on the bill on nationality, some fearing that linguistic requirements would become an obstacle to foreigners’ acquisition of nationality, others underlining the command of the language as a central factor in integration and thus also in the acquisition of nationality.   [less ▲]

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See detailInternationale Migration und Planungsdokumente? Eine Analyse der Rolle internationaler Migration am Beispiel der Planungsdokumente im Saarland und Rheinland-Pfalz
Nienaber, Birte UL; Roos, Ursula UL

in RaumPlanung (2016), 183(1), 14-19

Internationale Migranten sind vielerorts im Saarland und Rheinland-Pfalz vertreten. Inwiefern finden jedoch ihre besonderen Bedürfnisse Berücksichtigung in Raumplanungsdokumenten? Einem Forschungsstand ... [more ▼]

Internationale Migranten sind vielerorts im Saarland und Rheinland-Pfalz vertreten. Inwiefern finden jedoch ihre besonderen Bedürfnisse Berücksichtigung in Raumplanungsdokumenten? Einem Forschungsstand zur Internationalisierung in der Raumplanung, folgt eine Charakterisierung der beiden Bundesländer im Hinblick auf internationale Migration. Eine Analyse von Raumplanungsdokumenten sowie die Ableitung einiger Handlungsempfehlungen schließt sich an. [less ▲]

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See detailAkzeptanz als Rahmenbedingung für das erfolgreiche Management von Landnutzungen und biologischer Vielfalt in Großschutzgebieten
von Ruschkowski, Eick; Nienaber, Birte UL

in Raumforschung und Raumordnung (2016), 74(6), 525-540

Local acceptance and the resolution of conflicts that arise from conservation objectives are important tasks for the successful management of large protected areas. This paper focuses on the distinct ... [more ▼]

Local acceptance and the resolution of conflicts that arise from conservation objectives are important tasks for the successful management of large protected areas. This paper focuses on the distinct genesis of acceptance research for German large protected areas compared to the global context where the comprehensive term “park-people relationships” prevails. Using multiple tasks and roles assigned to national parks and biosphere reserves, we illustrate the overall diversity of conflict potential. Four explorative case studies, based on media analysis and selected expert interviews, are used to elaborate on the individual local conditions that foster conflict or co-existence in Germany. Berchtesgaden National Park is currently mainly free of conflicts, but unforeseen events such as barkbeetle infestations could unsettle the situation. On the contrary, private land ownership and conflicts over zoning in the Senne-Teutoburger Wald-Eggegebirge region have halted plans to establish a national park. In the Bliesgau Biosphere Reserve, conflicts arose around conflicting land uses and overlapping planning responsibilities during the designation process, while in the Pfälzerwald Biosphere Reserve region, the development of renewable energies – mainly wind turbines – have shown to bear a specific conflict potential. The paper concludes with suggestions related to spatial and environmental planning, such as widening the mainly local focus on “acceptance” to active stakeholder management, including integrated, adaptive management approaches, in the sense of the term park-people relationships. [less ▲]

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See detailBiodiversität und nachhaltige Landnutzung in Großschutzgebieten
Job, Hubert; Woltering, Manuel; Warner, Barbara et al

in Raumforschung und Raumordnung (2016), 74(6), 481-494

Land-use systems and biodiversity in Germany can be investigated using the network of protected areas. This issue focuses on nature parks, national parks and biosphere reserves that are confronted with ... [more ▼]

Land-use systems and biodiversity in Germany can be investigated using the network of protected areas. This issue focuses on nature parks, national parks and biosphere reserves that are confronted with various problems related to competition for land and acceptance. The working group “Biodiversity and sustainable land use in protected areas” of the Academy for Spatial Research and Planning (ARL) has tackled this topic. This paper reviews the research questions that are debated in this special issue of “Raumforschung und Raumordnung”. These questions include the influence of different land-use systems on the state of ecosystem services, how the different types of protected areas should be evaluated in terms of their individual contributions to the conservation and development of biodiversity, the role played specifically by woods and forestry management with regard to biodiversity and sustainable land use, and the patterns of conflict that exist due to competing land uses. Attention is also paid to concrete governance approaches in protected areas against the background of competition for land and the question of how experience gained in protected areas can be transferred to ‚normal‘ landscapes. The paper also provides basic definitions relevant to the topic. Finally, from the perspective of various disciplines, the working group calls for policy and planning actors to support the sustainable development of protected areas in Germany. Here the focus is not only on a stringent strengthening of the status of protected areas on the federal level combined with appropriate administrative structures, but also on promoting improved quality assurance and quality development of the protected areas. Of further relevance to these calls for action is the field of tension between the necessity for strengthened process protection and the intensification of agriculture in the context of EU Common Agricultural Policy. [less ▲]

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See detailGroßschutzgebiete, Biodiversität und räumliche Planung
Heiland, Stefan; Jedicke, Eckhard; Job, Hubert et al

in Positionspapier aus der Akademie fuer Raumforschung und Landesplanung (2016), 107

Positionen 1 Stellenwert von Großschutzgebieten in der räumlichen Planung stärken 2 Zuständigkeiten von Großschutzgebieten klarer regeln und administrative Struk-turen harmonisieren 3 Monitoring und ... [more ▼]

Positionen 1 Stellenwert von Großschutzgebieten in der räumlichen Planung stärken 2 Zuständigkeiten von Großschutzgebieten klarer regeln und administrative Struk-turen harmonisieren 3 Monitoring und Qualitätsmanagement von Großschutzgebieten sicherstellen 4 Neben klassischem Naturschutz mehr Prozessschutz: Dynamik in Großschutz-gebieten zulassen 5 Großschutzgebiete bundesweit einheitlich zonieren 6 Ökosystemleistungen von Großschutzgebieten stärker für Kommunikation und räumliche Planung nutzen 7 Neue Strategien für den Umgang mit aktuellen Herausforderungen wie demo-graphischem Wandel, Klimawandel und Bodenspekulation in Großschutzgebieten ent-wickeln [less ▲]

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See detailINTERNATIONAL MIGRATION IN LUXEMBOURG: Continuous Reporting System on Migration OECD - Luxembourg
Nienaber, Birte UL; Dionisio, Linda UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL et al

Report (2015)

Migration has always played an important role in Luxembourg’s history. In 2014 and 2015, due to the refugee crisis, migration became the focus of the economic, social and political debates, in particular ... [more ▼]

Migration has always played an important role in Luxembourg’s history. In 2014 and 2015, due to the refugee crisis, migration became the focus of the economic, social and political debates, in particular during Luxembourg’s Presidency of the Council of the European Union. As a country that is a founding Member of the European Union and located at the centre of the EU, Luxembourg has a strong attraction for EU citizens and this - in turn - has a direct incidence on the demographic composition of the country and the workforce. Luxembourg’s demographic composition reflects its migratory diversity. In 2014, the net migration balance was positive having increased by 6.8% in comparison to 2013. As such, the country’s rising population numbers were mainly attributed to the immigration of individuals coming from EU Member States and other European countries. These numbers include European Union (EU), European economic area (EEA) citizens and third-country nationals from non-EU European countries. The country’s diversity is equally reflected in its labour market which heavily relies on its foreign workforce. In fact, Luxembourgish citizens represented 31% of the workforce in 2014, while EU citizens reached 65% and third-country nationals only 4%. Cross border workers also represented a very important part of the Luxembourgish workforce with 44.4 %. Due to the refugee crisis, the number of international protection applicants increased between 2013 and 2014. As a consequence, the recognition rate of the status increased as well. On the other hand, the number of returns continued to decrease. In order to respond to the crisis in an adequate manner, additional funds and staff for the Directorate of Immigration and the Luxembourg Reception and Integration Agency were allocated. Given the magnitude of the migration crisis and the pressure on external border Member States, the EU Council took the decision to relocate 160.000 international protection applicants (European relocation scheme) who are currently in Greece and in Italy. In order to implement this decision, Luxembourg agreed to welcome 527 international protection applicants. The first group of 30 relocated individuals from Greece arrived in Luxembourg on 4 November 2015. During 2014, Luxembourg implemented several EU directives. Directive 2011/36/EU of 5 April 2011 on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings was implemented by the Law of 9 April 2014, which reinforced the rights of victims of trafficking in human beings by criminalising begging and the trafficking of children. Extensive work was undertaken to transpose Directives 2012/32/EU and 2012/33/EU of the Common European Asylum System. Two draft bills are currently within the last stages of the legislative procedure and their implementation is set to take place in 2015, after several amendments were brought to the draft bills at the end of September and October 2015. On the national level, recent legislative changes and reforms answer to several aims, ranging from attracting certain categories of migrants to strengthening the support provided to unaccompanied minors. The creation of a new authorisation of stay for investors and the modification of certain authorisations of stay to adapt them for business managers are currently under discussion by an inter-ministerial working group, which is preparing two draft bills on these issues. [less ▲]

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See detailZwischen Akzeptanz und Widerstand – Konfliktpotenziale in und um deutsche Großnaturschutzgebiete
Nienaber, Birte UL; von Ruschkowski, Eick

Scientific Conference (2015, October 01)

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See detailESPON - From spatial observation to policy oriented output?
Evrard, Estelle UL; Schulz, Christian UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

in Europa Regional (2015), 21(4), 158-164

This articles analyses the development of the ESPON programme in relation to the development of spatial planning in Europe.

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See detailInternationalisierung der Gesellschaft: Auswirkungen auf die Raumentwicklung in Hessen, Rheinland-Pfalz und dem Saarland
Nienaber, Birte UL; Roos, Ursula; Kühne, Olaf

Scientific Conference (2015, June 18)

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See detailLeben an der Grenze: die Großregion SaarLorLux - Chancen und Herausforderungen grenzüberschreitender Mobilität in der Praxis
Nienaber, Birte UL

Presentation (2015, June 15)

This presentation gave an overview about the geographical development of the Greater Region and population and settlement development in this region.

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See detailDetermining labour shortages and the need for labour migration from third countries in the EU
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Becker, Fabienne UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2015)

Since almost 150 years, Luxembourg depends on two kinds of migration, qualified and non-qualified, in order to deal with the workforce needs of its economy. Compared to the other EU Member States ... [more ▼]

Since almost 150 years, Luxembourg depends on two kinds of migration, qualified and non-qualified, in order to deal with the workforce needs of its economy. Compared to the other EU Member States, Luxembourg is the country with the largest proportion of foreigners; however, this foreign population is mainly composed of EU citizens. Due to its size and geographic position, Luxembourg was able to have access to a very particular form of economic migration: cross-border workers. Globalisation has also played a decisive role in the development of economic migration for the Luxembourgish labour market. The financial centre was obliged to become highly specialised in order to remain competitive in regards to other financial centres and to maintain its volume of business. In order to maintain its competitive advantage, Luxembourg needs highly skilled personnel, which the country has found, up until now, within the Greater Region. This reality is even more pronounced with regards to the labour market: the number of actives (salaried and non-salaried) on 31 March 2014 shows that Luxembourgish nationals represented only 31%, EU citizens 65% and third-country nationals only 4%. Cross-border workers from Belgium, France and Germany represented 42% of the workforce and the resident migrant population (EU citizens and third-country nationals) 28%. Cross-border workers, which consist of skilled and highly skilled labour are substantially attracted for two reasons: 1) more competitive salaries on the Luxemburgish labour market ; and 2) a geographical location which allows the commuting of cross-border workers. The attitude of the successive governments was to adapt immigration to the economic needs of the country. The government policy intends to focus on attracting highly added value activities focussed on new technologies (biomedicine and information as well as communication technologies – focusing on IT security), logistics and research. However, being one of the smallest countries in the European Union, Luxembourg has limited human resources to guarantee the growth not only of the financial sector but also of the new technologies sectors. The government introduced the highly qualified worker residence permit in the bill on free movement of persons and immigration approved by law of 29 August 2008 almost a year before of the enactment of the Blue Card Directive to facilitate the entry of third-country national highly qualified workers. However, this reform was isolated and incomplete and took place without making a real evaluation of the workforce demand of the different sectors of the economy. Even though until now Luxembourg has been relying on the workforce from the Greater Region, for some socio-economic and political stakeholders, highly qualified workforces began to become scarce in the Greater region. In addition to the cross-border workers, the lifting of restrictions to access all the sectors of the labour market for citizens of the new Member States (EU-8) can be considered as a mitigating factor for the need to make an evaluation of the workforce demand, because the high salaries paid in Luxembourg became a real pull factor for the highly qualified workers. As a consequence, the political authorities did not foresee a systematic plan on how to address labour shortages in specific sectors of the economy, because there has not been a significant need for doing so. [less ▲]

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See detailNachhaltige Daseinsvorsorge – was können wir aus anderen Ländern Europas lernen?
Nienaber, Birte UL

Scientific Conference (2015, March 19)

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See detailGlobalization Processes and the Restructuring of Europe's Rural Regions
Woods, Michael; Nienaber, Birte UL; McDonagh, John

in McDonagh, John; Nienaber, Birte; Woods, Michael (Eds.) Globalization and Europe’s Rural Regions (2015)

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See detailPolicy Report on Migration and Asylum 2014 - Luxembourg
Li, Lisa UL; Petry, David UL; Nienaber, Birte UL et al

Report (2015)

The structure of the political system and the institutional context of Luxembourg were described in detail in the previous policy reports on migration and asylum. Important changes related to the national ... [more ▼]

The structure of the political system and the institutional context of Luxembourg were described in detail in the previous policy reports on migration and asylum. Important changes related to the national elections of 2014 can be found in the Policy Report. [less ▲]

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See detailRaising Sustainability
Carr, Constance UL; Becker, Tom UL; Evrard, Estelle UL et al

in Planning Theory & Practice (2015)

The contributions that follow in this issue of the Interface address some operationalisations of sustainable development that have prevailed in planning policy in recent years.

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