References of "Neyses, Ludwig 50002752"
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See detailCalcineurin in human heart hypertrophy.
Ritter, Oliver; Hack, Susanne; Schuh, Kai et al

in Circulation (2002), 105(19), 2265-9

BACKGROUND: In animal models, increased signaling through the calcineurin pathway has been shown to be sufficient for the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Calcineurin activity has been reported to be ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: In animal models, increased signaling through the calcineurin pathway has been shown to be sufficient for the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Calcineurin activity has been reported to be elevated in the myocardium of patients with congestive heart failure. In contrast, few data are available about calcineurin activity in patients with pressure overload or cardiomyopathic hypertrophy who are not in cardiac failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated calcineurin activity and protein expression in 2 different forms of cardiac hypertrophy: hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) and aortic stenosis (AS). We found that the C-terminus of calcineurin A protein containing the autoinhibitory domain was less abundant in myocardial hypertrophy than in normal heart, which suggests the possibility of proteolysis. No new splice variants could be detected by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. This resulted in a significant elevation of calcineurin enzymatic activity in HOCM and AS compared with 6 normal hearts. Increased calcineurin phosphatase activity caused increased migration of NF-AT2 (nuclear factor of activated T cells 2) in SDS-PAGE compatible with pronounced NF-AT dephosphorylation in hypertrophied myocardial tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Hypertrophy in HOCM and AS without heart failure is characterized by a significant increase in calcineurin activity. This might occur by (partial) proteolysis of the calcineurin A C-terminus containing the autoinhibitory domain. Increased calcineurin activity has functional relevance, as shown by altered NF-AT phosphorylation state. Although hypertrophy in AS and HOCM may be initiated by different upstream triggers (internal versus external fiber overload), in both cases, there is activation of calcineurin, which suggests an involvement of this pathway in the pathogenesis of human cardiac hypertrophy. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of additional temporary glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibition on troponin release in elective percutaneous coronary interventions after pretreatment with aspirin and clopidogrel (TOPSTAR trial).
Bonz, Andreas W.; Lengenfelder, Bjorn; Strotmann, Jorg et al

in Journal of the American College of Cardiology (2002), 40(4), 662-8

OBJECTIVES: The Troponin in Planned PTCA/Stent Implantation With or Without Administration of the Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Receptor Antagonist Tirofiban (TOPSTAR) trial investigated: 1) the amount of ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: The Troponin in Planned PTCA/Stent Implantation With or Without Administration of the Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Receptor Antagonist Tirofiban (TOPSTAR) trial investigated: 1) the amount of troponin T (TnT) release after nonacute, elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients pretreated with aspirin and clopidogrel; and 2) the effect of additional glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor inhibiton on postinterventional TnT release. BACKGROUND: No data are available yet as to whether additional administration of a GP IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist might be beneficial in patients undergoing elective PCI already pretreated with aspirin and clopidogrel. METHODS: After bolus application of the study medication (tirofiban [T] or placebo [P]), PCI was performed followed by an 18-h continuous infusion of T/P. Primary end point of the study was incidence and amount of TnT release after elective PCI after 24 h. RESULTS: A total of 12 h after PCI troponin release was detected in 63% of the patients receiving P and in 40% of the patients receiving T (p < 0.05), after 24 h in 69% (P) and 48% (T) (p < 0.05) and after 48 h in 74% (P) versus 58% (T) (p < 0.08) of the patients. No differences were observed regarding major bleeding, intracranial bleeding or nonhemorrhagic strokes. After nine months a reduction of combined death/myocardial infarction/target vessel revascularization could be observed in the tirofiban group ([T] 2.3% vs. [P] 13.04%, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Troponin T release occurs after successful intervention in 74% of the patients undergoing elective PCI after 48 h even after pretreatment with aspirin and clopidogrel. The GP IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist tirofiban is able to decrease the incidence of troponin release significantly in this patient population. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanisms of estrogen receptor action in the myocardium. Rapid gene activation via the ERK1/2 pathway and serum response elements.
de Jager, T.; Pelzer, T.; Muller-Botz, S. et al

in The Journal of biological chemistry (2001), 276(30), 27873-80

We have previously shown that the myocardium is a target tissue for estrogen. Here, we have identified rapid non-nuclear estrogen effects on the expression of the early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1) in ... [more ▼]

We have previously shown that the myocardium is a target tissue for estrogen. Here, we have identified rapid non-nuclear estrogen effects on the expression of the early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1) in cardiomyocytes. Egr-1 mRNA and protein were rapidly and strongly induced by estrogen in an estrogen receptor-dependent manner via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, ERK1/2. A promoter analysis study of a 1.2-kilobase Egr-1 promoter fragment revealed that the serum response elements (SREs) but not the estrogen response elements or AP-1 sites are responsible for Egr-1 induction by estrogen, identifying a novel mechanism of estrogen receptor-dependent gene activation in the myocardium. Both estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta induced the Egr-1 promoter via the SREs as well as an artificial promoter consisting of only five SREs in cardiomyocytes. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that a protein complex containing serum response factor or an antigenically related protein was recruited to the SREs by estrogen treatment of primary cardiomyocytes. The recruitment of the protein complex was inhibited by the specific estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 as well as the MEK inhibitor PD 98059. Taken together, these results identify SREs as important promoter control elements for an estrogen receptor-dependent mechanism of gene activation in the myocardium. [less ▲]

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See detailThe plasmamembrane calmodulin-dependent calcium pump: a major regulator of nitric oxide synthase I.
Schuh, K.; Uldrijan, S.; Telkamp, M. et al

in The Journal of cell biology (2001), 155(2), 201-5

The plasma membrane calcium/calmodulin-dependent calcium ATPase (PMCA) (Shull, G.E., and J. Greeb. 1988. J. Biol. Chem. 263:8646-8657; Verma, A.K., A.G. Filoteo, D.R. Stanford, E.D. Wieben, J.T. Penniston ... [more ▼]

The plasma membrane calcium/calmodulin-dependent calcium ATPase (PMCA) (Shull, G.E., and J. Greeb. 1988. J. Biol. Chem. 263:8646-8657; Verma, A.K., A.G. Filoteo, D.R. Stanford, E.D. Wieben, J.T. Penniston, E.E. Strehler, R. Fischer, R. Heim, G. Vogel, S. Mathews, et al. 1988. J. Biol. Chem. 263:14152-14159; Carafoli, E. 1997. Basic Res. Cardiol. 92:59-61) has been proposed to be a regulator of calcium homeostasis and signal transduction networks of the cell. However, little is known about its precise mechanisms of action. Knock-out of (mainly neuronal) isoform 2 of the enzyme resulted in hearing loss and balance deficits due to severe inner ear defects, affecting formation and maintenance of otoconia (Kozel, P.J., R.A. Friedman, L.C. Erway, E.N. Yamoah, L.H. Liu, T. Riddle, J.J. Duffy, T. Doetschman, M.L. Miller, E.L. Cardell, and G.E. Shull. 1998. J. Biol. Chem. 273:18693-18696). Here we demonstrate that PMCA 4b is a negative regulator of nitric oxide synthase I (NOS-I, nNOS) in HEK293 embryonic kidney and neuro-2a neuroblastoma cell models. Binding of PMCA 4b to NOS-I was mediated by interaction of the COOH-terminal amino acids of PMCA 4b and the PDZ domain of NOS-I (PDZ: PSD 95/Dlg/ZO-1 protein domain). Increasing expression of wild-type PMCA 4b (but not PMCA mutants unable to bind PDZ domains or devoid of Ca2+-transporting activity) dramatically downregulated NO synthesis from wild-type NOS-I. A NOS-I mutant lacking the PDZ domain was not regulated by PMCA, demonstrating the specific nature of the PMCA-NOS-I interaction. Elucidation of PMCA as an interaction partner and major regulator of NOS-I provides evidence for a new dimension of integration between calcium and NO signaling pathways. [less ▲]

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See detailEstrogen effects in the myocardium: inhibition of NF-kappaB DNA binding by estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta.
Pelzer, T.; Neumann, M.; de Jager, T. et al

in Biochemical and biophysical research communications (2001), 286(5), 1153-7

We have previously shown that estrogen effects in the heart include direct hormone effects on the myocardium. In a recent study we found that one beneficial effect of estradiol on the myocardium is the ... [more ▼]

We have previously shown that estrogen effects in the heart include direct hormone effects on the myocardium. In a recent study we found that one beneficial effect of estradiol on the myocardium is the inhibition of apoptosis in cardiac myocytes. This effect was associated with a reduction of NF-kappaB activity. In the present study we have analyzed the functional mechanism of NF-kappaB inhibition in the myocardium by estrogen receptors-alpha and -beta. Despite the previous finding that 17-beta-estradiol (10 nM) inhibited the staurosporine-induced binding of p65/p50 NF-kappaB complexes to their cognate DNA elements in cultured rat cardiac myocytes, myocyte extracts showed no change in expression or cellular localization of p65, p50, and IkappaB upon staurosporine or estradiol treatment. Addition of either estrogen receptor-alpha or estrogen receptor-beta as recombinant protein was sufficient to inhibit staurosporine-dependent p65/p50 DNA binding in cardiac myocytes. 17-beta-Estradiol inhibits staurosporine-induced p65/p50 DNA binding associated with apoptotic cell death of cardiac myocytes via estrogen receptors-alpha and -beta. This is not associated with changes in p65, p50 and IkappaB expression or subcellular localization. Thus, inhibition of NF-kappaB activity by estrogenic compounds might inhibit NF-kappaB dependent gene expression such as pro-inflammatory cytokines in the myocardium. [less ▲]

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See detailOverexpression of sarcolemmal calcium pump attenuates induction of cardiac gene expression in response to ET-1.
Piuhola, J.; Hammes, A.; Schuh, K. et al

in American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology (2001), 281(3), 699-705

The function of the plasma membrane calmodulin-dependent calcium ATPase (PMCA) in myocardium is unknown. PMCA is localized in caveolae, 50- to 100-nm membrane invaginations, which also contain receptors ... [more ▼]

The function of the plasma membrane calmodulin-dependent calcium ATPase (PMCA) in myocardium is unknown. PMCA is localized in caveolae, 50- to 100-nm membrane invaginations, which also contain receptors for endothelin-1 (ET-1) and various other ligands. PMCA has been suggested to play a role in regulation of caveolar signal transduction. We studied the effects of the hypertrophic agonist ET-1 and increased coronary perfusion pressure on cardiac synthesis of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in transgenic rats overexpressing the human PMCA 4CI in isolated perfused heart preparation. ET-1 infusion for 2 h increased BNP mRNA levels twofold in left ventricles (LV) of nontransgenic rats, whereas no increase was noted in PMCA rat hearts. Similar responses were seen in adrenomedullin and c-fos mRNA levels, and in immunoreactive BNP secretion. Increased mechanical load produced by elevated perfusion pressure induced similar 1.5- to 1.6-fold increases in LV BNP mRNA in both nontransgenic and PMCA rat hearts. These results show that cardiac overexpression of PMCA attenuates ET-1-stimulated early induction of cardiac gene expression, suggesting that PMCA may modulate myocardial growth responses. [less ▲]

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See detail17beta-estradiol prevents programmed cell death in cardiac myocytes.
Pelzer, T.; Neumann, M.; deJager, T. et al

in Biochemical and biophysical research communications (2000), 268(1), 192-200

The cardioprotective effects of estrogens are clearly established. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Because programmed cell death (apoptosis) probably contributes to the loss of ... [more ▼]

The cardioprotective effects of estrogens are clearly established. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Because programmed cell death (apoptosis) probably contributes to the loss of cardiac myocytes in heart failure and because estrogens prevent apoptosis in breast cancer cells, we investigated whether the loss of cardiac myocytes by programmed cell death could be prevented by physiological doses of 17beta-estradiol. Apoptosis of cultured cardiac myocytes was induced by staurosporine. 17beta-estradiol (10 nM) had an antiapoptotic effect as determined by morphological analysis, vital staining using the Hoechst dye 33342 and terminal transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). As a potential mechanism for the antiapoptotic effect of 17beta-estradiol we found a reduced activity of the ICE-like protease caspase-3 in hormone-treated myocytes. Furthermore, inhibition of apoptosis by estradiol was associated with a reduced activity of NF-kappaB transcription factors, particularly p65/RelA and p50. To our knowledge, these data provide the first indication that 17beta-estradiol in physiological concentrations inhibits apoptosis in cardiac myocytes. The antiapoptotic effect of estrogens might contribute to the known cardioprotective effect of estrogens and provides a starting point for the development of future treatment options. [less ▲]

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See detailInduction of Egr-1 mRNA and protein by endothelin 1, angiotensin II and norepinephrine in neonatal cardiac myocytes.
Shamim, A.; Pelzer, T.; Grohe, C. et al

in Molecular and cellular biochemistry (1999), 195(1-2), 11-7

The early growth response gene Egr-1 is a nuclear transcription factor known to serve as an intermediary in a broad range of signal transduction processes. Recent studies have assigned Egr-1 a new role as ... [more ▼]

The early growth response gene Egr-1 is a nuclear transcription factor known to serve as an intermediary in a broad range of signal transduction processes. Recent studies have assigned Egr-1 a new role as an amplifier of gene expression. Egr-1 mRNA is expressed in the myocardium and is rapidly induced in response to hypertrophic stimuli. However, induction of the Egr-1 protein has not yet been demonstrated in the myocardium; on the other hand, in skeletal muscle cells we have shown translational regulation of Egr-1. To further investigate the role of Egr-1 in the regulatory mechanisms of a variety of signal transduction processes we have therefore asked whether bona fide hypertrophic stimuli induce Egr-1 protein subsequently to its mRNA in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes or whether translational block occurs. In confocal laser studies the Egr-1 protein was nuclearly localized. Norepinephrine (NE, 2 microM), angiotensin II (AII, 0.1 microM), and endothelin 1 (E1, 0.1 microM) each induced the Egr-1 mRNA 6-8 fold and the Egr-1 protein 3-5 fold (n = 3, p < 0.01). Therefore, in contrast to skeletal muscle cells, these stimuli increased Egr-1 mRNA and protein levels. These results point further to the role of Egr-1 as a possible amplifier of signal transduction in the myocardium. [less ▲]

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See detailCombined SSCP and heteroduplex analysis of the human plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase isoform 1 in patients with essential hypertension.
Benkwitz, C.; Oberdorf-Maass, S.; Neyses, Ludwig UL

in Biochemical and biophysical research communications (1999), 261(2), 515-20

In recent theories concerning the pathogenesis of essential hypertension, altered calcium homeostasis plays an important role. Increased intracellular Ca(2+) levels have repeatedly been reported in ... [more ▼]

In recent theories concerning the pathogenesis of essential hypertension, altered calcium homeostasis plays an important role. Increased intracellular Ca(2+) levels have repeatedly been reported in different cell types of hypertensive subjects. In vascular smooth muscle cells the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) represents the most important Ca(2+)-ejection system. Modifications of this pump therefore have been assumed to increase contractile tone of small vessels. For this reason, the purpose of this study was to determine if genetic alterations in the hPMCA1 gene might be associated with arterial hypertension. For detection of polymorphisms all 22 PMCA1 exons from 44 patients with essential hypertension (based on rigorous clinical data in addition to a positive family history) and from 40 normotensives without a family history of hypertension were PCR amplified and subsequently subjected to combined single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and heteroduplex (HTX) analysis. Despite the high sensitivity of almost 100%, differences could not be identified between hypertensives and normotensives within the two groups. These data indicate that at least in this population PMCA1 polymorphisms are presumably not related to common forms of essential hypertension. Furthermore, the high degree of evolutionary conservation of the PMCA1 gene underlines the pivotal role of this ATPase for cell physiology. [less ▲]

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See detailAngiotensin converting enzyme inhibition modulates cardiac fibroblast growth.
Grohe, C.; Kahlert, S.; Lobbert, K. et al

in Journal of hypertension (1998), 16(3), 377-84

BACKGROUND: The progression of left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiac fibrosis in hypertensive heart disease is influenced by sex and age. Although angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition has been ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The progression of left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiac fibrosis in hypertensive heart disease is influenced by sex and age. Although angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition has been shown to prevent progression of the disease in postmenopausal women, the interaction of angiotensin II and estrogen in this process before and after the menopause is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor moexiprilat on serum, estrogen and angiotensin II-induced cardiac fibroblast growth. METHODS: Neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts were incubated with 1 and 10% fetal calf serum, 10(-7) mol/l angiotensin II, 10(-9) mol/l estrone, 10(-9) mol/l 17beta-estradiol and 10(-8) mol/l moexiprilat. Proliferation was measured in terms of incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine. Western blot analysis was performed using antibodies directed against the growth-related immediate early genes c-fos and Sp-1. All experiments were performed at least three times. RESULTS: Fetal calf serum stimulated cardiac fibroblast proliferation (1% fetal calf serum 2.0+/-0.028-fold; 10% fetal calf serum 2.7+/-0.028-fold). Angiotensin II and estrone stimulated proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts grown in the absence of fetal calf serum (angiotensin II 4.2+/-0.075-fold; estrone 2.9+/-0.034-fold) and further increased proliferation in the presence of 1% fetal calf serum (angiotensin 11 4.3+/-0.072-fold); estrone 3.8+/-0.045-fold) and 10% fetal calf serum (angiotensin II 4.8+/-0.112-fold; estrone 4.1+/-0.047-fold). Coincubation with moexiprilat specifically inhibited proliferation induced by angiotensin II and estrone but not by serum, and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade inhibited angiotensin II-induced but not estrone-induced cell growth. Western blot analysis showed that the expression of c-fos and Sp-1 was induced in a time-dependent fashion by angiotensin II (to maxima of 5.0-fold for c-fos and 3.0-fold for Sp-1) and estrone (15.2-fold for c-fos and 6.2-fold for Sp-1). This effect was completely inhibited by moexiprilat. CONCLUSIONS: Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition modulates cardiac fibroblast growth induced by angiotensin II and estrone. This mechanism might contribute to the beneficial effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition in postmenopausal patients with hypertensive heart disease. [less ▲]

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See detailOverexpression of the sarcolemmal calcium pump in the myocardium of transgenic rats.
Hammes, A.; Oberdorf-Maass, S.; Rother, T. et al

in Circulation Research (1998), 83(9), 877-88

The plasma membrane calmodulin-dependent calcium ATPase (PMCA) is a calcium-extruding enzyme controlling Ca2+ homeostasis in nonexcitable cells. However, its function in the myocardium is unclear because ... [more ▼]

The plasma membrane calmodulin-dependent calcium ATPase (PMCA) is a calcium-extruding enzyme controlling Ca2+ homeostasis in nonexcitable cells. However, its function in the myocardium is unclear because of the presence of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. We approached the question of the physiological function of the calcium pump using a transgenic "gain of function" model. Transgenic rat lines carrying the human PMCA 4 cDNA under control of the ventricle-specific myosin light chain-2 promoter were established, and expression in the myocardium was ascertained at the mRNA, protein, and functional levels. In vivo hemodynamic measurements in adult homozygous animals showed no differences in baseline and increased cardiac performance recruited by volume overload compared with controls. No differences between transgenic and control cardiomyocytes were found in patch clamp voltage dependence, activation/inactivation behavior of the L-type Ca2+ current, or fast [Ca2+]i transients (assessed by the Fura-2 method). To test whether the PMCA might be involved in processes other than beat-to-beat regulation of contraction/relaxation, we compared growth processes of neonatal transgenic and control cardiomyocytes. A 1.6- and 2.3-fold higher synthesis rate of total protein was seen in cells from transgenic animals compared with controls on incubation with 2% FCS for 24 hours and 36 hours, respectively. An effect of similar magnitude was observed using 20 micromol/L phenylephrine. A 1.4-fold- and 2.0-fold-higher protein synthesis peak was seen in PMCA-overexpressing cardiomyocytes after stimulation with isoproterenol for 12 hours and 24 hours, respectively. Because pivotal parts of the alpha- and beta-adrenergic signal transduction pathways recently have been localized to caveolae, we tested the hypothesis that the PMCA might alter the amplitude of alpha- and beta-adrenergic growth signals by virtue of its localization in caveolae. Biochemical as well as immunocytochemical studies suggested that the PMCA in large part was colocalized with caveolin 3 in caveolae of cardiomyocytes. These results indicate that the sarcolemmal Ca2+-pump has little relevance for beat-to-beat regulation of contraction/relaxation in adult animals but likely plays a role in regulating myocardial growth, possibly through modulation of caveolar signal transduction. [less ▲]

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See detail[Compression therapy of a ruptured spurious aneurysm].
Beer, M.; Tschammler, A.; Wittenberg, G. et al

in RoFo : Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Rontgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin (1998), 168(3), 291-3

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See detailEffects of moexiprilat on oestrogen-stimulated cardiac fibroblast growth.
Grohe, C.; Kahlert, S.; Lobbert, K. et al

in British journal of pharmacology (1997), 121(7), 1350-4

1. The effects of 2-2-(1-(ethoxycarbonyl)-3-phenylpropyl)-[amino-oxopropyl]-6,7-dimethoxy- 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3 carboxylic acid (moexiprilat), 17beta-oestradiol (E2), oestrone (ES) and ... [more ▼]

1. The effects of 2-2-(1-(ethoxycarbonyl)-3-phenylpropyl)-[amino-oxopropyl]-6,7-dimethoxy- 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3 carboxylic acid (moexiprilat), 17beta-oestradiol (E2), oestrone (ES) and angiotensin II (AII) on growth and activation of oestrogen receptors and the immediate-early gene egr-1 were investigated in neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts of female and male origin. 2. In BrdU proliferation assays, oestrone (10(-7)- 10(-9) M) stimulated cardiac fibroblast growth in a concentration-dependent fashion (maximum at 10(-7) M, 4.0 fold +/- 0.14 in female and 3.1 fold +/- 0.06 in male cells, n=9, P<0.05), while E2 (10(-7)-10(-9) M) had no effect. Moexiprilat (10(-7)M) completely inhibited oestrone-induced cardiac fibroblast growth. 3. Angiotensin II (10(-7) M) induced cardiac fibroblast growth (female 4.1 fold +/- 0.1/male 3.9 fold +/- 0.2; n=9, P<0.05). Angiotensin II induced oestrogen receptor (maximum 21.8 fold at 60 min) and egr-1 (maximum 47.5 fold at 60 min) expression in a time-dependent fashion. 4. In immunoblot experiments, oestrogen activated oestrogen receptor (ES: 12.8 fold +/- 2.0; E2: 14.7 fold +/- 4.9; n=3, P<0.05) and egr-1 (ES: 5.1 fold, +/- 0.24; E2: 3.8 fold, +/- 0.25; n=3, P<0.05) expression. The induction of oestrogen receptor and egr-1 protein expression was time-dependent and inhibited by moexiprilat. 5. Our results show that oestrone and 17beta-oestradiol reveal a significant difference in their potential to activate cardiac fibroblast growth in female and male cells and that oestrone-stimulated growth is inhibited by moexiprilat. The inhibition of oestrone-stimulated cardiac fibroblast growth by moexiprilat may contribute to the beneficial effects seen in postmenopausal women with hypertensive heart disease treated with ACE inhibitors. [less ▲]

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See detailSex specific mechanisms of cardiovascular disease
Neyses, Ludwig UL; Pelzer, T

in Stimpel, M; Zanchetti, A (Eds.) Hypertension after menopause (1997)

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See detailEffects of estrogen on skeletal myoblast growth.
Kahlert, S.; Grohe, C.; Karas, R. H. et al

in Biochemical and biophysical research communications (1997), 232(2), 373-8

To determine the role of estrogen in skeletal muscle growth, we investigated estrogen receptor-mediated effects on proliferation in skeletal myoblasts. In L6, C2C12 and Sol8 myoblasts estrogen receptor ... [more ▼]

To determine the role of estrogen in skeletal muscle growth, we investigated estrogen receptor-mediated effects on proliferation in skeletal myoblasts. In L6, C2C12 and Sol8 myoblasts estrogen receptor was demonstrated by immunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy and transfection studies. Estrone induced a significant increase in myoblast growth whereas 17 beta-estradiol had no effect. Furthermore in L6-cells estrone (c-fos: 3.9-fold, egr-1: 4.6-fold) induced immediate-early gene induction significantly stronger than 17 beta-estradiol (c-fos: 1.7-fold, egr-1: 2.3-fold; p < 0.05). Skeletal myoblasts express functional estrogen receptors. Estrogens differ in the activation of skeletal myoblast growth and immediate-early gene induction. [less ▲]

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See detailModulation of cardiac hypertrophy by estrogens.
Pelzer, T.; Shamim, A.; Wolfges, S. et al

in Zanchetti, Alberto; Devereux, Richard B.; Hansson, Lennart (Eds.) et al Hypertension and the Heart (1997)

Gender-specific differences in heart disease have long been known but it has only been since the advent of molecular biology that it has become possible to investigate the molecular mechanisms. Most ... [more ▼]

Gender-specific differences in heart disease have long been known but it has only been since the advent of molecular biology that it has become possible to investigate the molecular mechanisms. Most biochemical work in the last 50 years has focused on the characterization of the steroid hormones involved in gender specificity. More recently, the cloning of the steroid receptors and characterization of the signaling pathways through these proteins has given new insights into the mechanisms underlying the mode of action of steroid hormones. It has also become clear that the steroid receptors can be classified into families (receptors for thyroid hormone, glucocorticoids, estrogens, androgens, retinoic acid, and so called orphan receptors of mostly unknown function). The structures of these receptors show very close resemblance and all are DNA-binding proteins acting as transcription factors. Some (if not all) act as repressors of transcription of some genes in the native state and are converted to activators (or perhaps repressors of other genes) upon binding of the cognate hormone. Naturally, classical target tissues for estrogens and androgens have been studied first and only in very recent years has it been recognized that estrogens and androgens act on a much wider spectrum of tissues. In the cardiovascular field, the beneficial effect of estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women which reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease by some 40% and the lower incidence of cardiovascular disease in premenopausal women have mostly been explained by the beneficial action of estrogens on the lipid profile (increase in HDL and decrease in LDL cholesterol). Recently, functional estrogen receptors have also been shown in vascular smooth muscle cells and in the endothelium. Our own group has characterized the presence of estrogen receptors in the myocardium and in cardiac fibroblasts. We have also shown that these receptors are transcriptionally active because they are able to drive a minigene composed of a triple estrogen responsive DNA regulatory element (promoter) coupled to the firefly luciferase gene which serves as a reporter by way of its ability to drive a light-emitting reaction. We are in the process of characterizing the target genes for estrogen in the myocardium. A specific series of immediate-early genes is induced by estradiol (the major premenopausal estrogen) and we have also characterized a number of tissue-specific genes whose expression is driven by estrogens in the myocardium. The ultimate goal of these investigations is to explore the use of estrogens in the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy (and failure) by way of their properties to counteract (at least some of) the pathological switches in gene expression in these disease entities. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of the Met-267 Arg exchange in isoform 1 of the human plasma membrane calcium pump in patients with essential hypertension by the amplification-created restriction site technique.
Benkwitz, C.; Kubisch, C.; Kraft, K. et al

in Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany) (1997), 75(1), 62-6

Alterations in Ca2+ homeostasis have been proposed to be a primary factor in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. In this disease increased intracellular Ca2+ levels have repeatedly been reported ... [more ▼]

Alterations in Ca2+ homeostasis have been proposed to be a primary factor in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. In this disease increased intracellular Ca2+ levels have repeatedly been reported in various cell types. Because of its prominent role in cellular calcium homeostasis in vascular smooth muscle cells, modifications of the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) pump have been suggested to contribute to an increased contractile tone of small blood vessels. This pump is a calmodulin-dependent Ca2+-ATPase that ejects Ca2+ from the cytosol into the extracellular space. Recently a mutational thymidine (T)-->guanosine (G) transversion in isoform 1 of the PMCA has been identified resulting in the substitution of a methionine (Met) by an arginine (Arg) at amino acid position 267 in a highly conserved domain of the pump molecule. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of this polymorphism in the normal population and to investigate whether the Met-267 Arg occurs more frequently in patients with essential hypertension than in normotensives. To detect the mutational change we modified a method based on the technique of amplification-created restriction sites (ACRS) using three base exchanges in the diagnostic primer. Samples from 100 hypertensive and 60 normotensive subjects revealed a thymidine at nucleotide position 981. These data suggest that ACRS is feasible in spite of extensive primer modifications (e.g., three mismatched bases) in contrast to the previously used one or two and may therefore be conceptually suitable to detect almost any base changes in the genome. The described T-->G transversion is a rare polymorphism and is presumably not related to common forms of essential hypertension. [less ▲]

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See detailCardiac myocytes and fibroblasts contain functional estrogen receptors.
Grohe, C.; Kahlert, S.; Lobbert, K. et al

in FEBS letters (1997), 416(1), 107-12

Gender-based differences found in cardiovascular diseases raise the possibility that estrogen may have direct effects on cardiac tissue. Therefore we investigated whether cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts ... [more ▼]

Gender-based differences found in cardiovascular diseases raise the possibility that estrogen may have direct effects on cardiac tissue. Therefore we investigated whether cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts express functional estrogen receptors. Immunofluorescence demonstrated estrogen receptor protein expression in both female and male rat cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts. Nuclear translocation of the estrogen receptor protein was observed after stimulation of cardiomyocytes with 17beta-estradiol (E2). Cells transfected with an estrogen-responsive reporter plasmid showed that treatment with E2 induced a significant increase in reporter activity. Furthermore, E2 induced a significant increase in expression of the estrogen receptors alpha and beta, progesterone receptor and connexin 43 in cardiac myocytes. Cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts contain functional estrogen receptors and estrogen regulates expression of specific cardiac genes. These data suggest that gender-based differences in cardiac diseases may in part be due to direct effects of estrogen on the heart. [less ▲]

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