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See detailConnected Motorized Riders - A Smart Mobility System to Connect Two and Three-wheelers
Sundharam, Sakthivel Manikandan UL; Fejoz, Loic; Navet, Nicolas UL

in Proceedings of 6th Intentional Symposium on Embedded computing & system Design (ISED 2016) (2016, December 15)

The Smart Cities Mission has been launched in India in 2015 to develop 100 cities, with smart mobility being one of the main topics in the mission. As urban areas are flooded with two (motorcycles) and ... [more ▼]

The Smart Cities Mission has been launched in India in 2015 to develop 100 cities, with smart mobility being one of the main topics in the mission. As urban areas are flooded with two (motorcycles) and three wheelers (auto-rickshaws), introducing smart control of such vehicles may reduce the congestion on the roads and the number of accidents. Indeed, over-speeding and drunken driving are common traffic violations. In this project we propose an IoT-based smart mobility system which tracks data, such as the vehicle location, vehicle speed, alcohol level of the driver, etc. efficiently over the internet. Our system has been conceived with CPAL, a high-level language meant to simulate and execute Cyber Physical Systems including IoT applications. A prototype running on ARM mbed IoT hardware, shows the feasibility of our concept. We believe that more efficient and interactive traffic management, more disciplined driving behaviors, reduction in accident rate, more controlled pollution, increased passenger safety can be achieved if systems like the one prototyped in this work deployed contributing to smarter cities. [less ▲]

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See detailRegime switching model for financial data: empirical risk analysis
Khaled, Salhi; Deaconu, Madalina; Lejay, Antoine et al

in Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications (2016), 461

This paper constructs a regime switching model for the univariate Value-at-Risk estimation. Extreme value theory (EVT) and hidden Markov models (HMM) are combined to estimate a hybrid model that takes ... [more ▼]

This paper constructs a regime switching model for the univariate Value-at-Risk estimation. Extreme value theory (EVT) and hidden Markov models (HMM) are combined to estimate a hybrid model that takes volatility clustering into account. In the first stage, HMM is used to classify data in crisis and steady periods, while in the second stage, EVT is applied to the previously classified data to rub out the delay between regime switching and their detection. This new model is applied to prices of numerous stocks exchanged on NYSE Euronext Paris over the period 2001–2011. We focus on daily returns for which calibration has to be done on a small dataset. The relative performance of the regime switching model is benchmarked against other well-known modeling techniques, such as stable, power laws and GARCH models. The empirical results show that the regime switching model increases predictive performance of financial forecasting according to the number of violations and tail-loss tests. This suggests that the regime switching model is a robust forecasting variant of power laws model while remaining practical to implement the VaR measurement. [less ▲]

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See detailModel Interpretation for an AUTOSAR compliant Engine Control Function
Sundharam, Sakthivel Manikandan UL; Altmeyer, Sebastian; Navet, Nicolas UL

in 7th International Workshop on Analysis Tools and Methodologies for Embedded and Real-time Systems (WATERS) (2016, July 05)

Model-Based Development (MBD) is a common practice in the automotive industry to develop complex software, for instance, the control software for automotive engines, which are deployed on modern multi ... [more ▼]

Model-Based Development (MBD) is a common practice in the automotive industry to develop complex software, for instance, the control software for automotive engines, which are deployed on modern multi-core hardware architectures. Such an engine control system consists of different sub-systems, ranging from air system to the exhaust system. Each of these subsystems, again, consists of software functions which are necessary to read from the sensors and write to the actuators. In this setting MBD provides indispensable means to model and implement the desired functionality, and to validate the functional, the non-functional, and in particular the real-time behavior against the requirements. Current industrial practice in model-based development completely relies on generative MBD, i.e., code generation to bridge the gap between model and implementation. An alternative approach, although not yet used in the automotive domain is model interpretation, the direct interpretation of the design models using interpretation engine running on top of the hardware. In this paper, we present a case study to investigate the applicability of model interpretation, in contrast to code generation, for the development of engine control systems. To this end, we model an engine cooling system, specifically the calculation of the engine-coolant temperature, using interpreted model based development, and discuss the benefits and low-lights compared to the existing code generation practice. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of simulation in the design of critical embedded systems
Navet, Nicolas UL

Scientific Conference (2016, June 09)

Les plate-formes virtuelles permettant de prédire par simulation numérique les performances deviennent peu à peu une réalité dans la conception des systèmes de contrôle les plus complexes et les plus ... [more ▼]

Les plate-formes virtuelles permettant de prédire par simulation numérique les performances deviennent peu à peu une réalité dans la conception des systèmes de contrôle les plus complexes et les plus contraints (automobile, aéronautique, contrôle de réseaux power-grid, etc). Dès les phases amont du cycle de conception, ces outils guident les concepteurs dans leurs choix de conception. Le premier objectif de cet exposé est de dresser un rapide panorama des modèles et techniques de simulation de l'embarqué critique: simulation du comportement fonctionnel (lois de contrôle), simulation "timing-accurate" des plate-formes d'exécution, de leur complémentarité et limites actuelles. Contrairement à des techniques mathématiques, la simulation ne fournit a priori aucune garantie sur la couverture de vérification et les situations pire-cas ("corner cases") ne sont pas nécessairement identifiées. Néanmoins la simulation est de plus en plus incontournable car les modèles analytiques ne sont généralement pas en mesure de capturer toute la complexité des systèmes réels. Le second objectif de cet exposé est d'identifier des bonnes pratiques méthodologiques pour l'utilisation de la simulation dans les systèmes critiques (ex: choix des temps de simulation et nombre d'expérimentations en fonction de caractéristiques structurelles des processus simulés, métriques de performances pour les événements rares, etc). [less ▲]

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See detailDemo: Applications of the CPAL language to model, simulate and program Cyber-Physical Systems
Fejoz, Loïc; Navet, Nicolas UL; Sundharam, Sakthivel Manikandan UL et al

Poster (2016, April 12)

CPAL is a new language to model, simulate, verify and program Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). CPAL serves to describe both the functional behaviour of activities (i.e., the code of the function itself) as ... [more ▼]

CPAL is a new language to model, simulate, verify and program Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). CPAL serves to describe both the functional behaviour of activities (i.e., the code of the function itself) as well as the functional architecture of the system (i.e., the set of functions, how they are activated, and the data flows among the functions). CPAL is meant to support two use-cases. Firstly, CPAL is a development and design-space exploration environment for CPS with main features being the formal description, the editing, graphical representation and simulation of CPS models. Secondly, CPAL is a real-time execution platform. The vision behind CPAL is that a model is executed and verified in simulation mode on a workstation and the same model can be later run on an embedded board with a timing-equivalent run-time behaviour. The design and development of CPAL have been organized around a set of realistic case-studies that will be demonstrated during the demo session. [less ▲]

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See detailPoster Abstract: An Optimizing Framework for Real-Time Scheduling
Sundharam, Sakthivel Manikandan UL; Altmeyer, Sebastian UL; Navet, Nicolas UL

in Proceedings of 22nd IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS 2016) (2016, April 12)

Scheduling is crucial in real-time applications. For any real-time system, the desired scheduling policy can be selected based on the scheduling problem itself and the underlying system constraints. This ... [more ▼]

Scheduling is crucial in real-time applications. For any real-time system, the desired scheduling policy can be selected based on the scheduling problem itself and the underlying system constraints. This paper discusses a novel optimization framework which automates the selection and configuration of the scheduling policy. The objective is to let designer state the permissible timing behavior of the system in a declarative manner. The system synthesis step involving both analysis and optimization then generates a scheduling solution which at runtime is enforced by the execution environment. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a declarative modeling and execution framework for real-time systems
Altmeyer, Sebastian UL; Navet, Nicolas UL

in ACM SIGBED Review (2016), 13(2), 30-33

Our work is a contribution towards addressing what Thomas Henziger called the grand challenge in embedded software design [5]: "offering high-level programming models that exposes the execution properties ... [more ▼]

Our work is a contribution towards addressing what Thomas Henziger called the grand challenge in embedded software design [5]: "offering high-level programming models that exposes the execution properties of a system in a way that permits the programmer to express desired reaction and execution requirements, permits the compiler and run-time systems to ensure that these requirements are satisfied". In the programming model we describe here, the developer states the permissible timing behavior of the system, a system synthesis step involving both analysis and optimization generates a scheduling solution which at run-time is enforced by the execution environment. With respect to the synchronous programming models, our approach implements a weaker version of time-determinism, still providing a form of timing-predictability sufficient in many applications while remaining closer to mainstay software development practices. This approach is currently being implemented and experimented in the CPAL language development tools and associated runtime environment. [less ▲]

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See detailTiming Analysis of Automotive Architectures and Software
Navet, Nicolas UL

Scientific Conference (2016, March 16)

This talk presents the general landscape of timing analysis as it is being used today in the design of automotive embedded systems, reviews the main timing verification techniques and discusses what we ... [more ▼]

This talk presents the general landscape of timing analysis as it is being used today in the design of automotive embedded systems, reviews the main timing verification techniques and discusses what we can expect from them and what their limitations are. We will then emphasize the need to question the models and their assumptions, and cross-validate their results. Finally, we will discuss the prerequisites for a safe use of timing-accurate simulation as verification technique and illustrate on case-studies from the automotive domains. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Case for FIFO Real-Time Scheduling
Altmeyer, Sebastian UL; Sundharam, Sakthivel Manikandan UL; Navet, Nicolas UL

Report (2016)

Selecting the right scheduling policy is a crucial issue in the development of an embedded real-time application. Whereas scheduling policies are typically judged according to their ability to schedule ... [more ▼]

Selecting the right scheduling policy is a crucial issue in the development of an embedded real-time application. Whereas scheduling policies are typically judged according to their ability to schedule task sets at a high processor utilizations, other concerns, such as predictability and simplicity are often overlooked.In this paper, we argue that FIFO scheduling with offsets is a suitable choice when these concerns play a key role. To this end, we examine the predictability of FIFO, present a schedulability analysis for it and evaluate both, performance and predictability of FIFO scheduling with and without offsets. Our results show that FIFO with offsets exhibits competitive performance for task with regular periods, at an unmatched predictability. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a safe CPS component: the hybrid parachute, a remote termination add-on improving safety of UAS
Ciarletta, Laurent; Fejoz, Loïc; Guenard, Adrien et al

Scientific Conference (2016, January 28)

The use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) can be leveraged in many application domains ranging from agriculture to industry, opening up a wealth of new possibilities. However, UAS obviously raise important ... [more ▼]

The use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) can be leveraged in many application domains ranging from agriculture to industry, opening up a wealth of new possibilities. However, UAS obviously raise important safety concerns and the use of the techniques, processes and standards developed for the aeronautic industry is not a feasible solution for most UAS. There is a need to bring in novel and pragmatic solutions to develop provably safe UAS in a time and cost-affordable manner. This paper reports on the development of a smart parachute which provides a safe-crash (termination) solution for UAS, one of the core safety requirements which can be complemented by other safety components in an incremental manner. The requirements elicitation phase, the design and partial verification of the termination system has been carried out using CPAL, a lightweight model-based design environment for embedded systems. The study illustrates on a specific requirement of the system how simulation and fault-injection on models can be used to provide evidence that the parachute system meets its design objectives. [less ▲]

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See detailTiming verification of real­time automotive Ethernet networks: what can we expect from simulation?
Navet, Nicolas UL; Seyler, Jan; Migge, Jörn

Scientific Conference (2016, January 28)

Switched Ethernet is a technology that is profoundly reshaping automotive communication architectures as it did in other application domains such as avionics with the use of AFDX backbones. Early stage ... [more ▼]

Switched Ethernet is a technology that is profoundly reshaping automotive communication architectures as it did in other application domains such as avionics with the use of AFDX backbones. Early stage timing verification of critical embedded networks typically relies on simulation and worst-case schedulability analysis. When the modeling power of schedulability analysis is not sufficient, there are typically two options: either make pessimistic assumptions or ignore what cannot be modeled. Both options are unsatisfactory because they are either inefficient in terms of resource usage or potentially unsafe. To overcome those issues, we believe it is a good practice to use simulation models, which can be more realistic, along with schedulability analysis. The two basic questions that we aim to study here is what can we expect from simulation, and how to use it properly? This empirical study explores these questions on realistic case-studies and provides methodological guidelines for the use of simulation in the design of switched Ethernet networks. A broader objective of the study is to compare the outcomes of schedulability analyses and simulation, and conclude about the scope of usability of simulation in the design of critical Ethernet networks. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformance impact of the interactions between time -triggered and rate-constrained transmissions in TTEthernet
Boyer, Marc; Daigmorte, Hugo; Navet, Nicolas UL et al

Scientific Conference (2016, January 27)

Switched Ethernet is becoming a de-facto standard in industrial and embedded networks. Many of today’s applications benefit from Ethernet’s high bandwidth, large frame size, multicast and routing ... [more ▼]

Switched Ethernet is becoming a de-facto standard in industrial and embedded networks. Many of today’s applications benefit from Ethernet’s high bandwidth, large frame size, multicast and routing capabilities through IP, and the availability of the standard TCP/IP protocols. There are however many variants of Switched Ethernet networks, just considering the MAC level mechanisms on the stations and communication switches. An important technology in that landscape is TTEthernet, standardized as SAE6802, which allows the transmission of both purely time-triggered (TT) traffic and sporadic (or rate-constrained - RC) traffic. To the best of our knowledge, the interactions between both classes of traffic have not been studied so far in realistic configurations. This work aims to shed some light on the kind of performances, in terms of latencies, jitters and useful bandwidth that can be expected from a mixed TT and RC configuration. The following issues will be answered in a quantified manner by sensitivity analysis: How do both classes of traffic interfere with each other? What are the typical worst-case latencies and useful bandwidth that can be expected for a RC stream for various TT traffic loads? What is the overall impact of TTEthernet integration policy for the RC traffic? This study builds on a worst-case traversal time analysis developed by the authors for SAE6802, and explores these questions by experiments performed configurations of various sizes. [less ▲]

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See detailLean Model-Driven Development through Model-Interpretation: the CPAL design flow
Navet, Nicolas UL; Fejoz, Loïc; Havet, Lionel et al

Scientific Conference (2016, January 27)

We introduce a novel Model-Driven Development (MDD) flow which aims at more simplicity, more intuitive programming, quicker turnaround time and real-time predictability by leveraging the use of model ... [more ▼]

We introduce a novel Model-Driven Development (MDD) flow which aims at more simplicity, more intuitive programming, quicker turnaround time and real-time predictability by leveraging the use of model-interpretation and providing the language abstractions needed to argue about the timing correctness on a high-level. The MDD flow is built around a language called Cyber-Physical Action Language (CPAL). CPAL serves to describe both the functional behaviour of activities (i.e., the code of the function itself) as well as the functional architecture of the system (i.e., the set of functions, how they are activated, and the data flows among the functions). CPAL is meant to support two use-cases. Firstly, CPAL is a development and design space exploration environment for CPS with main features being the formal description, the editing, graphical representation and simulation of CPS models. Secondly, CPAL is a real-time execution platform. The vision behind CPAL is that a model is executed and verified in simulation mode on a workstation and the same model can be later run on an embedded board with a timing-equivalent run-time time behaviour. [less ▲]

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See detailCPAL: High-Level Abstractions for Safe Embedded Systems
Navet, Nicolas UL; Fejoz, Loïc

in DSM 2016: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling (2016)

Innovation in the field of embedded systems, and more broadly in cyber-physical systems, increasingly relies on software. The productivity gain in software development can hardly keep up with the demand ... [more ▼]

Innovation in the field of embedded systems, and more broadly in cyber-physical systems, increasingly relies on software. The productivity gain in software development can hardly keep up with the demand for software despite the increasing adoption of Model-Driven Development (MDD). In this context, we believe that major productivity and quality improvements are still ahead of us through better programming languages and environments. CPAL, the Cyber-Physical Action Language, is a contribution in that direction with the objective to speed-up the development of embedded systems with dependability constraints. The objective of this paper is to present and illustrate the use-cases of the high-level abstractions offered to the developer in CPAL with respect to real-time scheduling, introspection mechanisms, native support of Finite State Machines (FSMs), abstracting the hardware and decoupling functional concerns from non-functional concerns. [less ▲]

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See detailLean Model-Driven Development through Model-Interpretation: the CPAL design flow
Navet, Nicolas UL; Fejoz, Loïc; Havet, Lionel et al

Report (2015)

We introduce a novel Model-Driven Development (MDD) flow which aims at more simplicity, more intuitive programming, quicker turnaround time and real-time predictability by leveraging the use of model ... [more ▼]

We introduce a novel Model-Driven Development (MDD) flow which aims at more simplicity, more intuitive programming, quicker turnaround time and real-time predictability by leveraging the use of model-interpretation and providing the language abstractions needed to argue about the timing correctness on a high-level. The MDD flow is built around a language called Cyber-Physical Action Language (CPAL). CPAL serves to describe both the functional behaviour of activities (i.e., the code of the function itself) as well as the functional architecture of the system (i.e., the set of functions, how they are activated, and the data flows among the functions). CPAL is meant to support two use-cases. Firstly, CPAL is a development and design space exploration environment for CPS with main features being the formal description, the editing, graphical representation and simulation of CPS models. Secondly, CPAL is a real-time execution platform. The vision behind CPAL is that a model is executed and verified in simulation mode on a workstation and the same model can be later run on an embedded board with a timing-equivalent run-time time behaviour. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing CPAL to model and validate the timing behaviour of embedded systems
Altmeyer, Sebastian UL; Navet, Nicolas UL; Fejoz, Loïc

in 6th International Workshop on Analysis Tools and Methodologies for Embedded and Real-time Systems (WATERS) (2015, July 07)

This work presents a solution to the Formal Methods for Timing Verification (FMTV) Challenge 2015 using CPAL. CPAL stands for the Cyber-Physical Action Language and is a novel language to model, simulate ... [more ▼]

This work presents a solution to the Formal Methods for Timing Verification (FMTV) Challenge 2015 using CPAL. CPAL stands for the Cyber-Physical Action Language and is a novel language to model, simulate and verify cyber-physical systems as those described in the challenge. We believe that the complexity of the challenge mainly stems from the complex interactions of the tasks and processes composing the aerial video tracking system of the challenge. Using CPAL we have derived a complete and unambiguous description of the system that supports timing verification. The different sub-challenges were solved by timing-accurate simulation and/or schedulability analysis. Even though simulation does not provide firm guarantees on the worst-case behaviour, it helps the system designer solve scheduling problems and validate the solutions, where verification tools can not be applied directly due to the complexity of the model as in the 2015 FMTV challenge. [less ▲]

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See detailTiming verification of real-time automotive Ethernet networks: what can we expect from simulation?
Navet, Nicolas UL; Seyler, Jan; Migge, Jörn

Scientific Conference (2015, May 23)

Switched Ethernet is a technology that may profoundly reshape automotive communication architectures as it did in other application domains such as avionics with the use of AFDX backbones. Ethernet is ... [more ▼]

Switched Ethernet is a technology that may profoundly reshape automotive communication architectures as it did in other application domains such as avionics with the use of AFDX backbones. Ethernet is meant in vehicles not only for the support of infotainment applications but also to transmit time-sensitive data used for the real-time control of the vehicle and ADAS functions. In such use-cases, the temporal behavior of the communication architecture must be carefully validated. Early stage timing verification of critical embedded networks typically relies on simulation and worst-case schedulability analysis, which basically consists in building a mathematical model of the worst possible situations that can be encountered at run-time. The two basic questions that we aim to study here is what can we expect from simulation? And how to use it properly? This empirical study explores these questions and provides methodological guidelines for the use of simulation in the design of switched Ethernet networks. A broader objective of the study is to compare the outcomes of schedulability analyses and simulation, and conclude about the scope of usability of simulation in the design of critical Ethernet networks. [less ▲]

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See detailInsights on the Configuration and Performances of SOME/IP Service Discovery
Seyler, Jan; Navet, Nicolas UL; Fejoz, Loïc

in SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars- Electronic and Electrical Systems (2015), 8(1), 124-129

Scalable Service-Oriented Middleware on IP (SOME/IP) is a proposal aimed at providing service-oriented communication in vehicles. SOME/IP nodes are able to dynamically discover and subscribe to available ... [more ▼]

Scalable Service-Oriented Middleware on IP (SOME/IP) is a proposal aimed at providing service-oriented communication in vehicles. SOME/IP nodes are able to dynamically discover and subscribe to available services through the SOME/IP Service Discovery protocol (SOME/IP SD). In this context, a key performance criterion to achieve the required responsiveness is the subscription latency that is the time it takes for a client to subscribe to a service. In this paper we provide a recap of SOME/SD and list a number of assumptions based on what we can foresee about the use of SOME/IP in the automotive domain. Then, we identify the factors having an effect on the subscription latency, and, by sensitivity analysis, quantify their importance regarding the worst-case service subscription latency. The analysis and experiments in this study provide practical insights into how to best configure SOME/IP SD protocol. [less ▲]

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See detailA Contract-Based approach to support Goal-Driven Analysis
Brau, Guillaume UL; Hugues, Jérôme; Navet, Nicolas UL

in Proceedings of the IEEE 18th International Symposium on Object/Component/Service-Oriented Real-Time Distributed Computing (ISORC) (2015, April)

In the design of real-time systems, models are usual artifacts to capture and represent the various features of the system. They are later analyzed to check for their correctness. A key issue is to handle ... [more ▼]

In the design of real-time systems, models are usual artifacts to capture and represent the various features of the system. They are later analyzed to check for their correctness. A key issue is to handle models and analyses in a systematic, consistent and efficient way. This paper presents an approach for the systematic and correct execution of analyses on real-time system models along with a proof-of-concept. The contribution aims at 1) directing the analyses targeting goals and 2) using contracts to reason about models, analyses and goals. An example of goal is to enrich a model with missing information or to obtain precise data to conclude about the system quality. In our approach, contracts are used to formally depict both the properties required and provided by the analyses ; but also models and goals. Through the concept of contracts, we identify all the feasible paths to execute the analyses in order to reach a goal. [less ▲]

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See detailFormal Analysis of the Startup Delay of SOME/IP Service Discovery
Seyler, Jan; Streichert, Thilo; Glaß, Michael et al

in Proceedings of the 2015 Design, Automation & Test in Europe Conference & Exhibition (2015)

An automotive network needs to start up within the millisecond range. This includes the physical startup, the software boot time, and the configuration of the network. The introduction of Ethernet into ... [more ▼]

An automotive network needs to start up within the millisecond range. This includes the physical startup, the software boot time, and the configuration of the network. The introduction of Ethernet into the automotive industry expanded the design space drastically and is increasing the complexity of configuring every element in the network. To add more flexibility to automotive Ethernet networks, the concept of Service Discovery was migrated from consumer electronics to AUTOSAR within the SOME/IP middleware. A network is not fully functional until every client has found its service. Consequently, this time interval adds to the startup time of a network. This work presents a formal analysis model to calculate the waiting time of every client to receive the first offer from its service. The model is able to determine the worst case of a given parameter set. Based on this, a method for calculating the total startup time of a system is derived. The model is implemented in a free-to-use octave program and validated by comparing the analytical results to a timing-accurate simulation and an experimental setup. In every case the worst-case assumption holds true -- the gap between the maximum of the simulation and the presented method is less than 1.3%. [less ▲]

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