References of "Natarajan, Sundararajan"
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See detailOn the equivalence between the cell-based smoothed finite element method and the virtual element method
Natarajan, Sundararajan; Bordas, Stéphane UL; Ean Tat, Ooi

E-print/Working paper (2014)

We revisit the cell-based smoothed finite element method (SFEM) for quadrilateral elements and extend it to arbitrary polygons and polyhedrons in 2D and 3D, respectively. We highlight the similarity ... [more ▼]

We revisit the cell-based smoothed finite element method (SFEM) for quadrilateral elements and extend it to arbitrary polygons and polyhedrons in 2D and 3D, respectively. We highlight the similarity between the SFEM and the virtual element method (VEM). Based on the VEM, we propose a new stabilization approach to the SFEM when applied to arbitrary polygons and polyhedrons. The accuracy and the convergence properties of the SFEM are studied with a few benchmark problems in 2D and 3D linear elasticity. Later, the SFEMis combined with the scaled boundary finite element method to problems involving singularity within the framework of the linear elastic fracture mechanics in 2D. [less ▲]

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See detailsmooth nodal stress in the XFEM for crack propagation simulations
Peng, Xuan; Bordas, Stéphane UL; Natarajan, Sundararajan

Scientific Conference (2013, September)

In this paper, we present a method to achive smooth nodal stresses in the XFEM without post-processing. This method was developed by borrowing ideas from ``twice interpolating approximations'' (TFEM) [1 ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we present a method to achive smooth nodal stresses in the XFEM without post-processing. This method was developed by borrowing ideas from ``twice interpolating approximations'' (TFEM) [1]. The salient feature of the method is to introduce an ``average'' gradient into the construction of the approximation, resulting in improved solution accuracy, both in the vicinity of the crack tip and in the far field. Due to the high order polynomial basis provided by the interpolants, the new approximation enhances the smoothness of the solution without requiring an increased number of degrees of freedom. This is particularly advantageous for low-order elements and in fracture mechanics, where smooth stresses are important for certain crack propagation criteria, e.g. based on maximum principal stresses. Since the new approach adopts the same mesh discretization, i.e. simplex meshes, it can be easily extended into various problems and is easily implemented. We discuss the increase in the bandwidth which is the major drawback of the present method and can be somewhat alleviated by using an element-by-element solution strategy. Numerical tests show that the new method is as robust as XFEM, considering precision, model size and post-processing time. By comparing in detail the behaviour of the method on crack propagation examples, we can conclude that for two-dimensional problems, the proposed method tends to be an efficient alternative to the classical XFEM [2][3] especially when local, stress-based propagation criteria are used. [less ▲]

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See detailSupersonic flutter analysis of functionally graded material plates with cracks
Natarajan, Sundararajan; Manickam, Ganapathi; Bordas, Stéphane UL

in Frontiers in Aerospace Engineering (2013), 2(2), 91--97

In this paper, the flutter behaviour of functionally graded material plates immersed in a supersonic flow is studied. An enriched 4-noded quadrilateral element based on field consistency approach is used ... [more ▼]

In this paper, the flutter behaviour of functionally graded material plates immersed in a supersonic flow is studied. An enriched 4-noded quadrilateral element based on field consistency approach is used for this study. The crack is modelled independent of the underlying mesh using partition of unity method (PUM), the extended finite element method (XFEM). The material properties are assumed to be graded only in the thickness direction and the effective material properties are estimated using the rule of mixtures. The plate kinematics is described based on the first order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and the shear correction factors are evaluated employing the energy equivalence principle. The influence of the crack length, the crack orientation, the flow angle and the gradient index on the aerodynamic pressure and the frequency are numerically studied. The results obtained here reveal that the critical frequency and pressure decrease with increase in crack the length and are minimum when the crack is aligned to the flow angle. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical integration over arbitrary surfaces in partition of unity finite elements
Natarajan, Sundararajan; dal Pont, Stefano; Hung, Nguyen-Xuan et al

Scientific Conference (2009, September)

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See detailOn the Smoothed eXtended Finite Element Method for Continuum
Natarajan, Sundararajan; Bordas, Stéphane UL; Rabczuk, Timon et al

Scientific Conference (2009, April)

In this paper, we combine the strain smoothing technique proposed by Liu et al [1] coined as the smoothed finite element method (SFEM) to partition of unity methods, namely the extended finite element ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we combine the strain smoothing technique proposed by Liu et al [1] coined as the smoothed finite element method (SFEM) to partition of unity methods, namely the extended finite element method (XFEM) [2] to give birth to the smoothed extended finite element method (SmXFEM) [3]. SmXFEM shares properties both with the SFEM and the XFEM. The proposed method eliminates the need to compute and integrate the derivatives of shape functions (which are singular at the tip for linear elastic fracture mechanics). The need for isoparametric mapping is eliminated because the integration is done along the boundary of the finite element or smoothing cells, which allows elements of arbitrary shape. We present numerical results for various differential equations that have singularity or steep gradient at the boundary. The method is verified on several examples and comparisons are made to the conventional XFEM. [less ▲]

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See detailA novel numerical integration technique over arbitrary polygons
Natarajan, Sundararajan; Mahapatra, D Roy; Bordas, Stéphane UL et al

Scientific Conference (2009, April)

In this paper, a new numerical integration technique [1] on arbitrary polygons is presented. The polygonal do- main is mapped conformally to the unit disk using Schwarz-Christoffel mapping [2] and a ... [more ▼]

In this paper, a new numerical integration technique [1] on arbitrary polygons is presented. The polygonal do- main is mapped conformally to the unit disk using Schwarz-Christoffel mapping [2] and a midpoint quadrature rule defined on the unit circle is used. This method eliminates the need for a two level isoparametric mapping usuall required [3]. Moreover the positivity of the Jacobian is guaranteed. We present numerical results for a few benchmark problems in the context of polygonal finite elements that show the effectiveness of the method. [less ▲]

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See detailA new one point quadrature rule over arbitrary star convex polygon/polyhedron
Natarajan, Sundararajan; Francis, Amrita; Atroshchenko, Elena et al

E-print/Working paper (n.d.)

The Linear Smoothing (LS) scheme \cite{francisa.ortiz-bernardin2017} ameliorates linear and quadratic approximations over convex polytopes by employing a three-point integration scheme. In this work, we ... [more ▼]

The Linear Smoothing (LS) scheme \cite{francisa.ortiz-bernardin2017} ameliorates linear and quadratic approximations over convex polytopes by employing a three-point integration scheme. In this work, we propose a linearly consistent one point integration scheme which possesses the properties of the LS scheme with three integration points but requires one third of the integration computational time. The essence of the proposed technique is to approximate the strain by the smoothed nodal derivatives that are determined by the discrete form of the divergence theorem. This is done by the Taylor's expansion of the weak form which facilitates the evaluation of the smoothed nodal derivatives acting as stabilization terms. The smoothed nodal derivatives are evaluated only at the centroid of each integration cell. These integration cells are the simplex subcells (triangle/tetrahedron in two and three dimensions) obtained by subdividing the polytope. The salient feature of the proposed technique is that it requires only $n$ integrations for an $n-$ sided polytope as opposed to $3n$ in~\cite{francisa.ortiz-bernardin2017} and $13n$ integration points in the conventional approach. The convergence properties, the accuracy, and the efficacy of the LS with one point integration scheme are discussed by solving few benchmark problems in elastostatics. [less ▲]

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See detailLinear smoothed polygonal and polyhedral finite elements
Francis, Amrita; Ortiz-Bernardin, Alejandro; Bordas, Stéphane UL et al

E-print/Working paper (n.d.)

It was observed in [1, 2] that the strain smoothing technique over higher order elements and arbitrary polytopes yields less accurate solutions than other techniques such as the conventional polygonal ... [more ▼]

It was observed in [1, 2] that the strain smoothing technique over higher order elements and arbitrary polytopes yields less accurate solutions than other techniques such as the conventional polygonal finite element method. In this work, we propose a linear strain smoothing scheme that improves the accuracy of linear and quadratic approximations over convex polytopes. The main idea is to subdivide the polytope into simplicial subcells and use a linear smoothing function in each subcell to compute the strain. This new strain is then used in the computation of the stiffness matrix. The convergence properties and accuracy of the proposed scheme are discussed by solving few benchmark problems. Numerical results show that the proposed linear strain smoothing scheme makes the approximation based on polytopes to deliver improved accuracy and pass the patch test to machine precision. [less ▲]

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See detailLinear smoothing over arbitrary polytopes
Francis, Amrita; Natarajan, Sundararajan; Ortiz-Bernardin, Alejandro et al

Scientific Conference (n.d.)

The conventional constant strain smoothing technique yields less accurate solutions that other techniques such as the conventional polygonal finite element method [1, 2]. In this work, we propose a linear ... [more ▼]

The conventional constant strain smoothing technique yields less accurate solutions that other techniques such as the conventional polygonal finite element method [1, 2]. In this work, we propose a linear strain smoothing scheme that improves the accuracy of linear and quadratic approximations over convex poly- topes. The method relies on sub-division of the polytope into simplical subcells; however instead of using a constant smoothing function, we employ a linear smoothing function over each subcell. This gives a new definition for the strain to compute the stiffness matrix. The convergence properties and accuracy of the proposed scheme are discussed by solving few benchmark problems. Numerical results show that the proposed linear strain smoothing scheme makes the approximation based on polytopes able to deliver the optimal convergence rate as in traditional quadrilateral and hexahedral finite elements. The accuracy is also improved, and all the methods tested pass the patch test to machine precision. [less ▲]

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See detailLinear smoothed extended finite element method
Murugesan; Natarajan, Sundararajan; Gadyam, Palani et al

E-print/Working paper (n.d.)

The extended finite element method (XFEM) was introduced in 1999 to treat problems involving discontinuities with no or minimal remeshing through appropriate enrichment functions. This enables elements to ... [more ▼]

The extended finite element method (XFEM) was introduced in 1999 to treat problems involving discontinuities with no or minimal remeshing through appropriate enrichment functions. This enables elements to be split by a discontinuity, strong or weak and hence requires the integration of discontinuous functions or functions with discontinuous derivatives over elementary volumes. Moreover, in the case of open surfaces and singularities, special, usually non-polynomial functions must also be integrated.A variety of approaches have been proposed to facilitate these special types of numerical integration, which have been shown to have a large impact on the accuracy and convergence of the numerical solution. The smoothed extended finite element method (SmXFEM) [1], for example, makes numerical integration elegant and simple by transforming volume integrals into surface integrals. However, it was reported in [1, 2] that the strain smoothing is inaccurate when non-polynomial functions are in the basis. This is due to the constant smoothing function used over the smoothing domains which destroys the effect of the singularity. In this paper, we investigate the benefits of a recently developed Linear smoothing procedure [3] which provides better approximation to higher order polynomial fields in the basis. Some benchmark problems in the context of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) are solved to compare the standard XFEM, the constant-smoothed XFEM (Sm-XFEM) and the linear-smoothed XFEM (LSm-XFEM). We observe that the convergence rates of all three methods are the same. The stress intensity factors (SIFs) computed through the proposed LSm-XFEM are however more accurate than that obtained through Sm-XFEM. To conclude, compared to the conventional XFEM, the same order of accuracy is achieved at a relatively low computational effort. [less ▲]

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