References of "Michels, Andreas 50002669"
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See detailLong range magnetic interactions in nanocrystalline ferromagnets
Weissmüller, J.; Herr, U.; Fecht, J. et al

in Schimmel, Th.; von Löhneysen, H.; Obermair, Ch. (Eds.) et al Nanotechnology—Physics, Chemistry, and Biology of Functional Nanostructures (2008)

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See detailSpin structure of nanocrystalline gadolinium
Michels, Andreas UL; Döbrich, Frank UL; Elmas, M. et al

in Europhysics Letters [=EPL] (2008), 81

We report on magnetic-field–dependent small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments on nanocrystalline inert-gas condensed bulk Gd, which was synthesized using the low-capturing isotope 160Gd. The ... [more ▼]

We report on magnetic-field–dependent small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments on nanocrystalline inert-gas condensed bulk Gd, which was synthesized using the low-capturing isotope 160Gd. The angular dependency of the scattering cross-section is in very good agreement with recent theoretical predictions. Rather unexpected for this type of material, we observe a "clover-leaf–shaped" anisotropy in the SANS signal, the origin of which is attributed to the existence of longitudinal magnetization fluctuations associated with atomic site disorder and modified coupling inside the defect cores of grain boundaries. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic domains and annealing-induced magnetic anisotropy in nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials
Suzuki, K.; Ito, N.; Saranu, S. et al

in Journal of Applied Physics (2008), 103(7), 7301-7303

The magnetic domains of nanocrystalline Fe84Nb6B10 annealed under static and rotating magnetic fields have been investigated by means of magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) microscopy in order to clarify ... [more ▼]

The magnetic domains of nanocrystalline Fe84Nb6B10 annealed under static and rotating magnetic fields have been investigated by means of magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) microscopy in order to clarify the origin of the dramatic magnetic softening brought about by rotating field annealing. The coercivity (Hc) values after static- and rotating-magnetic field annealings are 5.9 and 3.0  A/m, respectively. The MOKE image after static field annealing implies a highly coherent uniaxial anisotropy (Ku) in the sample whereas no sign of such a strong Ku is evident in the domain configuration after rotating field annealing. Our analytical solution of the random anisotropy model with additional Ku predicts that the fluctuating amplitude of the effective anisotropy (δK) in nanocrystalline Fe84Nb6B10 decreases from 20 to 11 J/m3 by removing Ku. The observed reduction of Hc may be attributed to this decrease in δK induced by rotating field annealing. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic Nanorods: Genesis, Self-Organization and Applications
Birringer, R.; Wolf, H.; Lang, C. et al

in Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie (2008), 222(2-3), 229-255

Magnetic-field-assisted self-assembly of magnetic dipole moment carrying iron nanoparticles is shown to result in the formation of magnetic and mechanically stiff nanoscale rods. The cooperative behavior ... [more ▼]

Magnetic-field-assisted self-assembly of magnetic dipole moment carrying iron nanoparticles is shown to result in the formation of magnetic and mechanically stiff nanoscale rods. The cooperative behavior of an ensemble of such rods and bundles thereof exhibits self-organized pattern formation on different length scales. Pattern formation on large length scales reveals great similarity with physical systems undergoing spinodal decomposition. Possible applications for dipolar magnetic nanorods in the field of perpendicular storage media are highlighted. We discuss an aerosol-synthesis-route allowing to prepare ferrofluids (FF) with shape-anisotropic particles constituting the magnetic phase immersed in the nonmagnetic carrier fluid. These so-called nanorod FF unveil a two orders of magnitude increase of viscosity enforced by an applied field of 10mT even at shear rates larger than 10-2s. This raises prospects for applications in microfluidics and MEMS. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic-field-dependent small-angle neutron scattering on random anisotropy ferromagnets
Michels, Andreas UL; Weissmüller, J.

in Reports on Progress in Physics (2008), 71(6), 0665011-06650137

We report on the recently developed technique of magnetic-field-dependent small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), with attention to bulk ferromagnets exhibiting random magnetic anisotropy. In these ... [more ▼]

We report on the recently developed technique of magnetic-field-dependent small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), with attention to bulk ferromagnets exhibiting random magnetic anisotropy. In these materials, the various magnetic anisotropy fields (magnetocrystalline, magnetoelastic, and/or magnetostatic in origin) perturb the perfectly parallel spin alignment of the idealized ferromagnetic state. By varying the applied magnetic field, one can control one of the ordering terms which competes with the above-mentioned perturbing fields. Experiments which explore the ensuing reaction of the magnetization will therefore provide information not only on the field-dependent spin structure but, importantly, on the underlying magnetic interaction terms. This strategy, which underlies conventional studies of hysteresis loops in magnetometry, is here combined with magnetic SANS. While magnetometry generally records only a single scalar quantity, the integral magnetization, SANS provides access to a vastly richer data set, the Fourier spectrum of the response of the spin system as a function of the magnitude and orientation of the wave vector. The required data-analysis procedures have recently been established, and experiments on a number of magnetic materials, mostly nanocrystalline or nanocomposite metals, have been reported. Here, we summarize the theory of magnetic-field-dependent SANS along with the underlying description of random anisotropy magnets by micromagnetic theory. We review experiments which have explored the magnetic interaction parameters, the value of the exchange-stiffness constant as well as the Fourier components of the magnetic anisotropy field and of the magnetostatic stray field. A model-independent approach, based on the experimental autocorrelation function of the spin misalignment, provides access to the characteristic length of the spin misalignment. The field dependence of this quantity is in quantitative agreement with the predictions of micromagnetic theory. Experiments on nanocomposite ferromagnets reveal that the jump of the magnetization at internal phase boundaries leads to a significant magnetostatic perturbing field, with an unusual 'clover-leaf' SANS pattern as the experimental signature. Furthermore, SANS experiments have been used to monitor the orientation of magnetic domains as well as the length scale of intradomain spin misalignment. [less ▲]

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See detailAngular dependence of coercivity and remanence of Ni nanowire arrays and its relevance to magnetoviscosity
Günther, Annegret UL; Monz, S.; Tschöpe, A. et al

in Journal of Magnetism & Magnetic Materials (2008), 320(7), 1340-1344

Ni nanowire arrays with varying wire dimensions (diameter d, length l) and center-to-center distances dCC were synthesized by pulsed electrodeposition of Ni in porous Al templates. The magnetization ... [more ▼]

Ni nanowire arrays with varying wire dimensions (diameter d, length l) and center-to-center distances dCC were synthesized by pulsed electrodeposition of Ni in porous Al templates. The magnetization-reversal behavior of the arrays was investigated by means of magnetometry for different angles θ between the wire axes and the applied magnetic field. The functional dependences of the characteristic parameters coercivity HC(θ) and reduced remanence mR/mS(θ) exhibit a strong dependence on the wire dimensions and the center-to-center distance. For instance, for nanowire arrays with d=40 nm, dCC=100 nm, and for θ=0°, the coercivity takes on a rather large value of μ0HC=85 mT and mR/mS=94%; reducing dCC to 30 nm and d to 17 nm results in μ0HC=49 mT and mR/mS=57%, an observation which suggests an increasing magnetostatic interwire interaction at increased (d/dCC)-ratio. The potential application of nanowires as the constituents of ferrofluids is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of a nanorod ferrofluid and characterisation by magnetic-field-dependent small-angle X-ray scattering
Döbrich, Frank UL; Michels, Andreas UL; Birringer, R.

in Journal of Magnetism & Magnetic Materials (2007), 316(e), 779-782

Compared to conventional ferrofluids, which contain mostly spherical particles, a dispersion of highly anisometric particles such as rods or chains is expected to give rise to an enhancement or ... [more ▼]

Compared to conventional ferrofluids, which contain mostly spherical particles, a dispersion of highly anisometric particles such as rods or chains is expected to give rise to an enhancement or modification of well-known ferrofluid properties. This contribution reports on the synthesis of a ferrofluid containing stable chains of iron nanoparticles and on its microstructural characterisation by means of transmission electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The SAXS measurements develop a pronounced anisotropy of the scattering pattern as a function of an increasing external magnetic field. Evaluation of the radially averaged SAXS curves in terms of basic scattering functions is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailResonant microwave absorption determination of characteristic magnetic length in magnetic-field-annealed Vitroperm
Basheed, G. A.; Kaul, S. N.; Michels, Andreas UL

in Applied Physics Letters (2007), 91

The first direct resonant microwave absorption determination of the thermal renormalization of exchange stiffness, average magnetic anisotropy constant, and characteristic magnetic length in “field ... [more ▼]

The first direct resonant microwave absorption determination of the thermal renormalization of exchange stiffness, average magnetic anisotropy constant, and characteristic magnetic length in “field-annealed” Vitroperm samples with an initial magnetic permeability of μi = 20 000 and 150 000 has been presented and discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of magnetic field annealing on the soft magnetic properties of nanocrystalline materials
Ito, N.; Michels, Andreas UL; Kohlbrecher, J. et al

in Journal of Magnetism & Magnetic Materials (2007), 316(2), 458-461

The effects of static- and rotating-magnetic-field annealing on the magnetic softness and the magnetization alignments in nanocrystalline Fe84Nb6B10 have been investigated by means of DC magnetometry and ... [more ▼]

The effects of static- and rotating-magnetic-field annealing on the magnetic softness and the magnetization alignments in nanocrystalline Fe84Nb6B10 have been investigated by means of DC magnetometry and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). At the remanent state, the SANS pattern obtained from the static-field annealed sample exhibited an enhanced SANS signal in the direction normal to the uniaxial anisotropy (Ku) field direction, indicating a well-developed long-range magnetization alignment along the direction of Ku. Contrarily, the SANS pattern for the rotating-field annealed sample is virtually isotropic at zero field, reflecting the lack of anisotropic magnetization alignments. The soft magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe84Nb6B10 are improved dramatically by rotating-field annealing due to the suppression of Ku. [less ▲]

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See detailThe influence of spin-misalignment scattering on the SANS data evaluation of martensitic age-hardening steels
Bischof, M.; Staron, P.; Michels, Andreas UL et al

in Acta Materialia (2007), 55(8), 2637-2646

Small-angle neutron scattering has proved to be a valuable technique for probing precipitates in steels. The investigated sample is thereby exposed to a large magnetic field and is assumed to consist of a ... [more ▼]

Small-angle neutron scattering has proved to be a valuable technique for probing precipitates in steels. The investigated sample is thereby exposed to a large magnetic field and is assumed to consist of a single domain with all the magnetic moments perfectly aligned with the external field. In this situation the dominating magnetic scattering contrast is expected to stem from the differences between the magnetization values of matrix and particles. However, the present work shows that strong additional scattering can be present which is due to spin misalignment. The effects of this spin-misalignment scattering are discussed as being exemplary for differently heat-treated martensitic steel samples. It is revealed that the amount of spin-misalignment scattering is very sensitive to the applied heat treatment and is most pronounced in the as-quenched condition. In particular, when considering nuclear scattering curves the influence of spin-misalignment scattering may be very large and must not be neglected. [less ▲]

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See detailTemperature dependence of dipole-field scattering in Nanoperm
Michels, Andreas UL; Vecchini, C.; Moze, O. et al

in Journal of Magnetism & Magnetic Materials (2007), 316(2), 448-450

We present small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) data for the temperature variation of the recently observed dipole-field-induced spin-misalignment scattering in the soft magnetic nanocomposite Nanoperm ... [more ▼]

We present small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) data for the temperature variation of the recently observed dipole-field-induced spin-misalignment scattering in the soft magnetic nanocomposite Nanoperm (Fe89Zr7B3Cu1). The associated clover-leaf-shaped angular anisotropy of the SANS pattern, which is due to spin disorder arising from dipolar stray fields of the iron nanoparticles, persists up to several hundred Kelvin above the decoupling point of the intergranular amorphous matrix phase. This observation, in conjunction with the q-dependence of the scattering, suggests the existence of long-range magnetic correlations between the iron particles through the paramagnetic matrix, in agreement with previous investigations. The characteristic wavelength of the dipole-field-induced spin disorder appears to be temperature independent. [less ▲]

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See detailCreating local contrast in small-angle neutron scattering by dynamic nuclear polarization
van den Brandt, B.; Glattli, H.; Hautle, P. et al

in Journal of Applied Crystallography (2007), 40(s), 106-110

Low-resolution small-angle neutron scattering measurements can benefit from polarized protons to generate scattering contrast profiles. In a recently developed technique, time-resolved polarized SANS ... [more ▼]

Low-resolution small-angle neutron scattering measurements can benefit from polarized protons to generate scattering contrast profiles. In a recently developed technique, time-resolved polarized SANS tries to make use of spatial polarization gradients created around paramagnetic centres at the onset of dynamic nuclear polarization. The time constants which describe the build-up of polarization around the paramagnetic centre and the subsequent diffusion of polarization in the solvent were determined by analysing the temporal evolution of the nuclear polarization. The possible use and the limitations of this technique as a spectroscopic tool are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis and magnetic properties of cobalt nanocubes
Gräf, C. P.; Birringer, R.; Michels, Andreas UL

in Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics (2006), 73(21), 2124011-2124014

We report on the synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of cobalt nanoparticles with cubic shape. The nanoparticles with an average cube-edge length of about 50 nm were prepared by wet-chemical ... [more ▼]

We report on the synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of cobalt nanoparticles with cubic shape. The nanoparticles with an average cube-edge length of about 50 nm were prepared by wet-chemical processing and characterized by electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and magnetometry. The x-ray data indicate a mixture of hcp Co and ϵ-Co. From the magnetization measurements we deduce on the presence of a ferromagnet/antiferromagnet Co/CoO interface, which gives rise to a pronounced exchange-bias effect. Between 350 K and 5 K the coercivity HC increases by almost a factor of 6, whereas the exchange-bias field HE takes on a value of about 380 Oe at 5 K and vanishes above 75 K. The variation of HC with temperature cannot be understood in terms of the various conventional types of magnetic anisotropy. [less ▲]

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See detailA neutron-scattering investigation of the magnetic structure and magnetic excitations in nanocrystalline Tb
Vecchini, C.; Moze, O.; Hoser, A. et al

in Journal of Applied Physics (2006), 99(8), 5021-5023

The magnetic structure and magnetic excitations in nanocrystalline Tb have been investigated by neutron diffraction and neutron spectroscopy. This is a report on the long-range magnetic order and the ... [more ▼]

The magnetic structure and magnetic excitations in nanocrystalline Tb have been investigated by neutron diffraction and neutron spectroscopy. This is a report on the long-range magnetic order and the magnetic excitations in a nanocrystalline elemental rare earth. Refinement of the neutron-diffraction data reveals an “average” magnetic structure of each crystallite which contains a significant out-of-plane component to the magnetic moment as well as a suppression of the high-temperature antiferromagnetic phase observed for coarse-grained Tb. The inelastic-neutron-scattering measurements reveal the presence of a magnetic excitation of approximately 10 meV at 2.5 K. The excitation energy decreases with increasing temperature. The origins of this excitation are discussed with particular reference to the magnetic modes at the zone center observed for single-crystal Tb. [less ▲]

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See detailSmall angle neutron scattering investigations of spin disorder in nanocomposite soft magnets
Vecchini, C.; Moze, O.; Suzuki, K. et al

in Journal of Alloys & Compounds (2006), 423(1-2), 31-36

The technique of SANS (small angle neutron scattering) furnishes unique information on the characteristic magnetic length scales and local magnetic anisotropies at the nanoscale in nanocomposite ... [more ▼]

The technique of SANS (small angle neutron scattering) furnishes unique information on the characteristic magnetic length scales and local magnetic anisotropies at the nanoscale in nanocomposite ferromagnets. Such information is not presently available using any other microscopic technique. The basic principles and results of the technique will be presented with regard to a unique and unexpected observation of a dipole field controlled spin disorder in a prototypical soft nanocomposite ferromagnet of the Nanoperm type. [less ▲]

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See detailTime-resolved nuclear spin-dependent small-angle neutron scattering from polarised proton domains in deuterated solutions
van den Brandt, B.; Glättli, H.; Grillo, I. et al

in European Physical Journal B -- Condensed Matter (2006), 49(2), 157-165

We have investigated the process of dynamic proton polarisation by means of time-resolved polarised small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) on frozen solutions of EHBA-CrV molecules in glycerol-water ... [more ▼]

We have investigated the process of dynamic proton polarisation by means of time-resolved polarised small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) on frozen solutions of EHBA-CrV molecules in glycerol-water mixtures as a function of the concentration of EHBA-CrV and for different degrees of deuteration of the solvent. In the EHBA-CrV complex, the spins of the 20 protons which surround the paramagnetic CrV can be oriented using the method of dynamic nuclear polarisation (DNP), thereby offering the possibility to create locally a nuclear spin-dependent contrast for SANS. The time constants which describe the build-up of polarisation around the paramagnetic centre and the subsequent diffusion of polarisation in the solvent were determined by analysing the temporal evolution of the nuclear polarisation, which in turn was obtained by fitting a core-shell model to the time-dependent SANS curves. The results on the spin dynamics obtained using the scattering function of a core-shell could be independently confirmed by evaluating the integrated SANS intensity. A thermodynamic one-centre model is presented which is able to reproduce the observed dependence of the proton polarisation times on the proton concentration of the solvent. [less ▲]

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See detailDipolar correlations in a nanocomposite: A neutron scattering study of Nanoperm Fe89Zr7B3Cu
Michels, Andreas UL; Vecchini, C.; Moze, O. et al

in Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics (2006), 74(13), 1344071-13440713

We present results for the magnetic-field, temperature, and neutron-polarization dependence of the small-angle neutron scattering intensity in the soft magnetic iron-based nanocomposite Nanoperm ... [more ▼]

We present results for the magnetic-field, temperature, and neutron-polarization dependence of the small-angle neutron scattering intensity in the soft magnetic iron-based nanocomposite Nanoperm (Fe89Zr7B3Cu). An unusual “clover-leaf-shaped” intensity distribution on the detector is attributed to the dipolar stray fields around the nanosized iron particles, which are embedded in an amorphous magnetic matrix of lesser saturation magnetization. The dipole field induces spin disorder, correlating the spin misalignment of neighboring particles and matrix over several particle spacings. The clover-leaf-shaped anisotropy is observed over a wide range of applied magnetic field and momentum transfer. It persists up to several hundred degrees Kelvin above the Curie temperature of the matrix phase, indicating that some degree of magnetic coupling persists even when the matrix is paramagnetic. [less ▲]

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See detailProbing dipolar angles in soft magnetic nanocomposites by small-angle neutron scattering
Michels, Andreas UL; Weissmüller, J.

in Neutron News (2006), 71(6), 34-35

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See detailProduction of ultracold neutrons from a cold neutron beam on a 2H2 target
Atchison, F.; van den Brandt, B.; Brys, T. et al

in Physical Review. C : Nuclear Physics (2005), 71

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See detailNeutron scattering and modeling of dipole-field-induced spin disorder in Nanoperm
Vecchini, C.; Moze, O.; Suzuki, K. et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2005), 87

We present magnetic-field-dependent small-angle neutron scattering data for the ferromagnetic nanocomposite Nanoperm (Fe89Zr7B3Cu1). The spin-misalignment scattering in the approach-to-saturation regime ... [more ▼]

We present magnetic-field-dependent small-angle neutron scattering data for the ferromagnetic nanocomposite Nanoperm (Fe89Zr7B3Cu1). The spin-misalignment scattering in the approach-to-saturation regime unexpectedly reveals pronounced lobes of high intensity at angles ±30−40° relative to the magnetic-field axis. Based on numerical calculations, the four-fold angular symmetry of the scattering pattern can be explained in terms of local spin misalignment, which originates from dipolar stray fields due to the mismatch of the saturation-magnetization values between the bcc Fe particles and the amorphous magnetic matrix. [less ▲]

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