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See detailErratum: Integrated multi-omics of the human gut microbiome in a case study of familial type 1 diabetes.
Heintz, Anna UL; May, Patrick UL; Laczny, Cedric C. et al

in Nature microbiology (2016), 2

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See detailA novel Fanconi anemia subtype associated with a dominant-negative mutation in RAD51
Ameziane, Najim; May, Patrick UL; Van de Vrugt, Henri J. et al

in Nature Communications (2015), 6(8829),

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a hereditary disease featuring hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linker-induced chromosomal instability in association with developmental abnormalities, bone marrow failure and a strong ... [more ▼]

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a hereditary disease featuring hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linker-induced chromosomal instability in association with developmental abnormalities, bone marrow failure and a strong predisposition to cancer. 17 FA disease genes have been reported, all of which act in a recessive mode of inheritance. Here we report on a de novo g.41022153G>A; p.Ala293Thr (NM_002875) missense mutation in one allele of the homologous recombination DNA repair gene RAD51 in an FA-like patient. This heterozygous mutation causes a novel FA subtype, “FA-R”, which appears to be the first subtype of FA caused by a dominant-negative mutation. The patient, who features microcephaly and mental retardation, has reached adulthood without the typical bone marrow failure and pediatric cancers. Together with the recent reports on RAD51-associated congenital mirror movement disorders our results point to an important role for RAD51-mediated homologous recombination in neurodevelopment, in addition to DNA repair and cancer susceptibility. [less ▲]

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See detailProteomic analysis of Dhh1 complexes reveals a role for Hsp40 chaperone Ydj1 in yeast P-body assembly
Cary, Greg A.; Vinh, Dani B.H.; May, Patrick UL et al

in G3 (2015)

P-bodies (PB) are ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes that aggregate into cytoplasmic foci when cells are exposed to stress. While the conserved mRNA decay and translational repression machineries are known ... [more ▼]

P-bodies (PB) are ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes that aggregate into cytoplasmic foci when cells are exposed to stress. While the conserved mRNA decay and translational repression machineries are known components of PB, how and why cells assemble RNP complexes into large foci remain unclear. Using mass spectrometry to analyze proteins immunoisolated with the core PB protein Dhh1, we show that a considerable number of proteins contain low-complexity (LC) sequences, similar to proteins highly represented in mammalian RNP granules. We also show that the Hsp40 chaperone Ydj1, which contains an LC domain and controls prion protein aggregation, is required for the formation of Dhh1-GFP foci upon glucose depletion. New classes of proteins that reproducibly coenrich with Dhh1-GFP during PB induction include proteins involved in nucleotide or amino acid metabolism, glycolysis, tRNA aminoacylation, and protein folding. Many of these proteins have been shown to form foci in response to other stresses. Finally, analysis of RNA associated with Dhh1-GFP shows enrichment of mRNA encoding the PB protein Pat1 and catalytic RNAs along with their associated mitochondrial RNA-binding proteins. Thus, global characterization of PB composition has uncovered proteins important for PB assembly and evidence suggesting an active role for RNA in PB function. [less ▲]

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See detailRecessive mutations in SLC13A5 result in a loss of citrate transport and cause neonatal epilepsy, developmental delay and teeth hypoplasia
Hardies, Katia; de Kovel, Carolien G.F.; Weckhuysen, Sarah et al

in Brain : A Journal of Neurology (2015)

The epileptic encephalopathies are a clinically and aetiologically heterogeneous subgroup of epilepsy syndromes. Most epileptic encephalopathies have a genetic cause and patients are often found to carry ... [more ▼]

The epileptic encephalopathies are a clinically and aetiologically heterogeneous subgroup of epilepsy syndromes. Most epileptic encephalopathies have a genetic cause and patients are often found to carry a heterozygous de novo mutation in one of the genes associated with the disease entity. Occasionally recessive mutations are identified: a recent publication described a distinct neonatal epileptic encephalopathy (MIM 615905) caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the SLC13A5 gene. Here, we report eight additional patients belonging to four different families with autosomal recessive mutations in SLC13A5. SLC13A5 encodes a high affinity sodium-dependent citrate transporter, which is expressed in the brain. Neurons are considered incapable of de novo synthesis of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates; therefore they rely on the uptake of intermediates, such as citrate, to maintain their energy status and neurotransmitter production. The effect of all seven identified mutations (two premature stops and five amino acid substitutions) was studied in vitro, using immunocytochemistry, selective western blot and mass spectrometry. We hereby demonstrate that cells expressing mutant sodium-dependent citrate transporter have a complete loss of citrate uptake due to various cellular loss-of-function mechanisms. In addition, we provide independent proof of the involvement of autosomal recessive SLC13A5 mutations in the development of neonatal epileptic encephalopathies, and highlight teeth hypoplasia as a possible indicator for SLC13A5 screening. All three patients who tried the ketogenic diet responded well to this treatment, and future studies will allow us to ascertain whether this is a recurrent feature in this severe disorder. [less ▲]

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See detailDe novo loss- or gain-of-function mutations in KCNA2 cause epileptic encephalopathy
Syrbe, Steffen; Hedrich, Ulrike B.S.; Riesch, Erik et al

in Nature Genetics (2015), 47(4), 393-9

Epileptic encephalopathies are a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous group of severe epilepsies accompanied by intellectual disability and other neurodevelopmental features1–6. Using next ... [more ▼]

Epileptic encephalopathies are a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous group of severe epilepsies accompanied by intellectual disability and other neurodevelopmental features1–6. Using next-generation sequencing, we identified four different de novo mutations in KCNA2, encoding the potassium channel KV1.2, in six patients with epileptic encephalopathy (one mutation recurred three times independently). Four individuals presented with febrile and multiple afebrile, often focal seizure types, multifocal epileptiform discharges strongly activated by sleep, mild to moderate intellectual disability, delayed speech development and sometimes ataxia. Functional studies of the two mutations associated with this phenotype showed almost complete loss of function with a dominant-negative effect. Two further individuals presented with a different and more severe epileptic encephalopathy phenotype. They carried mutations inducing a drastic gain-of-function effect leading to permanently open channels. These results establish KCNA2 as a new gene involved in human neurodevelopmental disorders through two different mechanisms, predicting either hyperexcitability or electrical silencing of KV1.2-expressing neurons. [less ▲]

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See detailCHD2 myoclonic encephalopathy is frequently associated with self-induced seizures
Thomas, Rhys H.; Zhang, Lin Mei; Carvill, Gemma L. et al

in Neurology (2015), 84(9), 951-958

Objective: To delineate the phenotype of early childhood epileptic encephalopathy due to de novo mutations of CHD2, which encodes the chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 2. Methods: We analyzed the ... [more ▼]

Objective: To delineate the phenotype of early childhood epileptic encephalopathy due to de novo mutations of CHD2, which encodes the chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 2. Methods: We analyzed the medical history, MRI, and video-EEG recordings of 9 individuals with de novo CHD2 mutations and one with a de novo 15q26 deletion encompassing CHD2. Results: Seizures began at a mean of 26 months (12–42) with myoclonic seizures in all 10 cases. Seven exhibited exquisite clinical photosensitivity; 6 self-induced with the television. Absence seizures occurred in 9 patients including typical (4), atypical (2), and absence seizures with eyelid myoclonias (4). Generalized tonic-clonic seizures occurred in 9 of 10 cases with a mean onset of 5.8 years. Convulsive and nonconvulsive status epilepticus were later features (6/10, mean onset 9 years). Tonic (40%) and atonic (30%) seizures also occurred. In 3 cases, an unusual seizure type, the atonic-myoclonic-absence was captured on video. A phenotypic spectrum was identified with 7 cases having moderate to severe intellectual disability and refractory seizures including tonic attacks. Their mean age at onset was 23 months. Three cases had a later age at onset (34 months) with relative preservation of intellect and an initial response to antiepileptic medication. Conclusion: The phenotypic spectrum of CHD2 encephalopathy has distinctive features of myoclonic epilepsy, marked clinical photosensitivity, atonic-myoclonic-absence, and intellectual disability ranging from mild to severe. Recognition of this genetic entity will permit earlier diagnosis and enable the development of targeted therapies. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of Cell Line Suitability for Disease Specific Perturbation Experiments.
Biryukov, Maria UL; Antony, Paul UL; Krishna, Abhimanyu UL et al

in Lausen, Berthold; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine; Böhmer, Matthias (Eds.) Data Science, Learning by Latent Structures, and Knowledge Discovery (2015, February 20)

Cell lines are widely used in translational biomedical research to study the genetic basis of diseases. A major approach for experimental disease modeling are genetic perturbation experiments that aim to ... [more ▼]

Cell lines are widely used in translational biomedical research to study the genetic basis of diseases. A major approach for experimental disease modeling are genetic perturbation experiments that aim to trigger selected cellular disease states. In this type of experiments it is crucial to ensure that the targeted disease- related genes and pathways are intact in the used cell line. In this work we are developing a framework which integrates genetic sequence information and disease- specific network analysis for evaluating disease-specific cell line suitability. [less ▲]

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See detailThe phenotypic spectrum of SCN8A encephalopathy
Larsen, Jan; Carvill, Gemma L.; Gardella, Elena et al

in Neurology (2015), 84(5), 480-489

Objective: SCN8A encodes the sodium channel voltage-gated α8-subunit (Nav1.6). SCN8A mutations have recently been associated with epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders. We aimed to delineate the ... [more ▼]

Objective: SCN8A encodes the sodium channel voltage-gated α8-subunit (Nav1.6). SCN8A mutations have recently been associated with epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders. We aimed to delineate the phenotype associated with SCN8A mutations. Methods: We used high-throughput sequence analysis of the SCN8A gene in 683 patients with a range of epileptic encephalopathies. In addition, we ascertained cases with SCN8A mutations from other centers. A detailed clinical history was obtained together with a review of EEG and imaging data. Results: Seventeen patients with de novo heterozygous mutations of SCN8A were studied. Seizure onset occurred at a mean age of 5 months (range: 1 day to 18 months); in general, seizures were not triggered by fever. Fifteen of 17 patients had multiple seizure types including focal, tonic, clonic, myoclonic and absence seizures, and epileptic spasms; seizures were refractory to antiepileptic therapy. Development was normal in 12 patients and slowed after seizure onset, often with regression; 5 patients had delayed development from birth. All patients developed intellectual disability, ranging from mild to severe. Motor manifestations were prominent including hypotonia, dystonia, hyperreflexia, and ataxia. EEG findings comprised moderate to severe background slowing with focal or multifocal epileptiform discharges. Conclusion: SCN8A encephalopathy presents in infancy with multiple seizure types including focal seizures and spasms in some cases. Outcome is often poor and includes hypotonia and movement disorders. The majority of mutations arise de novo, although we observed a single case of somatic mosaicism in an unaffected parent. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative integrated omics: identification of key functionalities in microbial community-wide metabolic networks
Roume, Hugo UL; Buschart, Anna UL; Muller, Emilie UL et al

in Biofilms and Microbiomes (2015), 1(15007),

BACKGROUND: Mixed microbial communities underpin important biotechnological processes such as biological wastewater treatment (BWWT). A detailed knowledge of community structure and function relationships ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Mixed microbial communities underpin important biotechnological processes such as biological wastewater treatment (BWWT). A detailed knowledge of community structure and function relationships is essential for ultimately driving these systems towards desired outcomes, e.g., the enrichment in organisms capable of accumulating valuable resources during BWWT. METHODS: A comparative integrated omic analysis including metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and metaproteomics was carried out to elucidate functional differences between seasonally distinct oleaginous mixed microbial communities (OMMCs) sampled from an anoxic BWWT tank. A computational framework for the reconstruction of community-wide metabolic networks from multi-omic data was developed. These provide an overview of the functional capabilities by incorporating gene copy, transcript and protein abundances. To identify functional genes, which have a disproportionately important role in community function, we define a high relative gene expression and a high betweenness centrality relative to node degree as gene-centric and network topological features, respectively. RESULTS: Genes exhibiting high expression relative to gene copy abundance include genes involved in glycerolipid metabolism, particularly triacylglycerol lipase, encoded by known lipid accumulating populations, e.g., Candidatus Microthrix parvicella. Genes with a high relative gene expression and topologically important positions in the network include genes involved in nitrogen metabolism and fatty acid biosynthesis, encoded by Nitrosomonas spp. and Rhodococcus spp. Such genes may be regarded as ‘keystone genes’ as they are likely to be encoded by keystone species. CONCLUSION: The linking of key functionalities to community members through integrated omics opens up exciting possibilities for devising prediction and control strategies for microbial communities in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailRecessive loss-of-function mutations in AP4S1 cause mild fever-sensitive seizures, developmental delay and spastic paraplegia through loss of AP-4 complex assembly
Hardies, Katia; May, Patrick UL; Djémié, Tania et al

in Human Molecular Genetics (2015), 24(8), 2218-2227

We report two siblings with infantile onset seizures, severe developmental delay and spastic paraplegia, in whom whole genome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous mutations in the AP4S1 gene ... [more ▼]

We report two siblings with infantile onset seizures, severe developmental delay and spastic paraplegia, in whom whole genome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous mutations in the AP4S1 gene, encoding the sigma subunit of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). The effect of the predicted loss-of-function variants (p.Gln46Profs*9 and p.Arg97*) was further investigated in a patient's fibroblast cell line. We show that the premature stop mutations in AP4S1 result in a reduction of all AP-4 subunits and loss of AP-4 complex assembly. Recruitment of the AP-4 accessory protein, tepsin, to the membrane was also abolished. In retrospect, the clinical phenotype in the family is consistent with previous reports of the AP-4 deficiency syndrome. Our study reports the second family with mutations in AP4S1 and describes the first two patients with loss of AP4S1 and seizures. We further discuss seizure phenotypes in reported patients, highlighting that seizures are part of the clinical manifestation of the AP4-deficiency syndrome. We also hypothesize that endosomal trafficking is a common theme between heritable spastic paraplegia and some inherited epilepsies. [less ▲]

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See detailSystems genomics evaluation of the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line as a model for Parkinson’s disease
Krishna, Abhimanyu UL; Biryukov, Maria UL; Trefois, Christophe UL et al

in BMC Genomics (2014), 15(1154),

Background: The human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y, is a commonly used cell line in studies related to neurotoxicity, oxidative stress, and neurodegenerative diseases. Although this cell line is often ... [more ▼]

Background: The human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y, is a commonly used cell line in studies related to neurotoxicity, oxidative stress, and neurodegenerative diseases. Although this cell line is often used as a cellular model for Parkinson’s disease, the relevance of this cellular model in the context of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative diseases has not yet been systematically evaluated. Results: We have used a systems genomics approach to characterize the SH-SY5Y cell line using whole-genome sequencing to determine the genetic content of the cell line and used transcriptomics and proteomics data to determine molecular correlations. Further, we integrated genomic variants using a network analysis approach to evaluate the suitability of the SH-SY5Y cell line for perturbation experiments in the context of neurodegenerative diseases, including PD. Conclusions: The systems genomics approach showed consistency across different biological levels (DNA, RNA and protein concentrations). Most of the genes belonging to the major Parkinson’s disease pathways and modules were intact in the SH-SY5Y genome. Specifically, each analysed gene related to PD has at least one intact copy in SH-SY5Y. The disease-specific network analysis approach ranked the genetic integrity of SH-SY5Y as higher for PD than for Alzheimer’s disease but lower than for Huntington’s disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis for loss of function perturbation experiments. [less ▲]

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See detailMutations in STX1B, encoding a presynaptic protein, cause fever-associated epilepsy syndromes
Schubert, Julian; Siekierska, Aleksandra; Langlois, Melanie UL et al

in Nature Genetics (2014), 46(12), 1327-32

Febrile seizures affect 2–4% of all children1 and have a strong genetic component2. Recurrent mutations in three main genes (SCN1A, SCN1B and GABRG2)3, 4, 5 have been identified that cause febrile ... [more ▼]

Febrile seizures affect 2–4% of all children1 and have a strong genetic component2. Recurrent mutations in three main genes (SCN1A, SCN1B and GABRG2)3, 4, 5 have been identified that cause febrile seizures with or without epilepsy. Here we report the identification of mutations in STX1B, encoding syntaxin-1B6, that are associated with both febrile seizures and epilepsy. Whole-exome sequencing in independent large pedigrees7, 8 identified cosegregating STX1B mutations predicted to cause an early truncation or an in-frame insertion or deletion. Three additional nonsense or missense mutations and a de novo microdeletion encompassing STX1B were then identified in 449 familial or sporadic cases. Video and local field potential analyses of zebrafish larvae with antisense knockdown of stx1b showed seizure-like behavior and epileptiform discharges that were highly sensitive to increased temperature. Wild-type human syntaxin-1B but not a mutated protein rescued the effects of stx1b knockdown in zebrafish. Our results thus implicate STX1B and the presynaptic release machinery in fever-associated epilepsy syndromes. [less ▲]

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See detailCommunity-integrated omics links dominance of a microbial generalist to fine-tuned resource usage
Muller, Emilie UL; Pinel, Nicolas; Laczny, Cedric Christian UL et al

in Nature Communications (2014)

Microbial communities are complex and dynamic systems that are primarily structured according to their members’ ecological niches. To investigate how niche breadth (generalist versus specialist lifestyle ... [more ▼]

Microbial communities are complex and dynamic systems that are primarily structured according to their members’ ecological niches. To investigate how niche breadth (generalist versus specialist lifestyle strategies) relates to ecological success, we develop and apply an integrative workflow for the multi-omic analysis of oleaginous mixed microbial communities from a biological wastewater treatment plant. Time- and space-resolved coupled metabolomic and taxonomic analyses demonstrate that the community-wide lipid accumulation phenotype is associated with the dominance of the generalist bacterium Candidatus Microthrix spp. By integrating population-level genomic reconstructions (reflecting fundamental niches) with transcriptomic and proteomic data (realised niches), we identify finely tuned gene expression governing resource usage by Candidatus Microthrix parvicella over time. Moreover, our results indicate that the fluctuating environmental conditions constrain the accumulation of genetic variation in Candidatus Microthrix parvicella likely due to fitness trade-offs. Based on our observations, niche breadth has to be considered as an important factor for understanding the evolutionary processes governing (microbial) population sizes and structures in situ. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular and Clinical Evidence for an ARMC5 Tumor Syndrome: Concurrent Inactivating Germline and Somatic Mutations are Associated with both Primary Macronodular Adrenal Hyperplasia and Meningioma
Eibelt, Ulf; Trovato, Alissa; Kloth, Michael et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2014)

Context:Primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PMAH) is a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome (CS), which may present in the context of different familial multitumor syndromes. Heterozygous inactivating ... [more ▼]

Context:Primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PMAH) is a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome (CS), which may present in the context of different familial multitumor syndromes. Heterozygous inactivating germline mutations of armadillo repeat containing 5 (ARMC5) have very recently been described as cause for sporadic PMAH. Whether this genetic condition also causes familial PMAH in association with other neoplasias is unclear. Objective: The aim of the present study was to delineate the molecular cause in a large family with PMAH and other neoplasias. Patients and Methods: Whole genome sequencing and comprehensive clinical and biochemical phenotyping was performed in members of a PMAH affected family. Nodules derived from adrenal surgery and pancreatic and meningeal tumor tissue were analysed for accompanying somatic mutations in the identified target genes. Results: PMAH presenting either as overt or subclinical CS was accompanied by a heterozygous germline mutation in ARMC5 (p.A110fs*9) located on chromosome 16. Analysis of tumor tissue showed different somatic ARMC5 mutations in adrenal nodules supporting a “second hit” hypothesis with inactivation of a tumor suppressor gene. A damaging somatic ARMC5 mutation was also found in a concomitant meningioma (p.R502fs) but not in a pancreatic tumor suggesting biallelic inactivation of ARMC5 as causal also for the intracranial meningioma. Conclusions: Our analysis further confirms inherited inactivating ARMC5 mutations as a cause of familial PMAH and suggests an additional role for the development of concomitant intracranial meningiomas. [less ▲]

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See detailDe Novo Mutations in Synaptic Transmission Genes Including DNM1 Cause Epileptic Encephalopathies
Appenzeller, Silke; Balling, Rudi UL; Barisic, Nina et al

in American Journal of Human Genetics (2014), 4

Emerging evidence indicates that epileptic encephalopathies are genetically highly heterogeneous, underscoring the need for large cohorts of well-characterized individuals to further define the genetic ... [more ▼]

Emerging evidence indicates that epileptic encephalopathies are genetically highly heterogeneous, underscoring the need for large cohorts of well-characterized individuals to further define the genetic landscape. Through a collaboration between two consortia (EuroEPINOMICS and Epi4K/EPGP), we analyzed exome-sequencing data of 356 trios with the “classical” epileptic encephalopathies, infantile spasms and Lennox Gastaut syndrome, including 264 trios previously analyzed by the Epi4K/EPGP consortium. In this expanded cohort, we find 429 de novo mutations, including de novo mutations in DNM1 in five individuals and de novo mutations in GABBR2, FASN, and RYR3 in two individuals each. Unlike previous studies, this cohort is sufficiently large to show a significant excess of de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathy probands compared to the general population using a likelihood analysis (p = 8.2 × 10−4), supporting a prominent role for de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathies. We bring statistical evidence that mutations in DNM1 cause epileptic encephalopathy, find suggestive evidence for a role of three additional genes, and show that at least 12% of analyzed individuals have an identifiable causal de novo mutation. Strikingly, 75% of mutations in these probands are predicted to disrupt a protein involved in regulating synaptic transmission, and there is a significant enrichment of de novo mutations in genes in this pathway in the entire cohort as well. These findings emphasize an important role for synaptic dysregulation in epileptic encephalopathies, above and beyond that caused by ion channel dysfunction. [less ▲]

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See detailDe novo mutations in HCN1 cause early infantile epileptic encephalopathy
Nava, Caroline; Dalle, Carine; Rastetter, Agnès et al

in Nature Genetics (2014)

Detailed reference viewed: 216 (16 UL)