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See detailLearning 2.0 in Higher Education. What pathways should academia take now?.
Max, Charles UL

Presentation (2013, February 07)

New media have become an essential part of everyday life and regular users are labeled as ‘(inter)net generation’ (Tapscott, 1998; Buckingham, 2007; Montgomery, 2007; Beetham & Sharpe, 2007) or ‘digital ... [more ▼]

New media have become an essential part of everyday life and regular users are labeled as ‘(inter)net generation’ (Tapscott, 1998; Buckingham, 2007; Montgomery, 2007; Beetham & Sharpe, 2007) or ‘digital natives’ (Prensky, 2001, 2009, 2010; Benett et al., 2008; Helsper et al., 2010). Interactive new media (Manovich, 2003; Crook, 2008; Redecker et al., 2009) and the social web (Bevan, 2010) are blurring the boundaries between learning and social or leisure activities. By transforming conventional media monologues into social media dialogues, they are expanding opportunities of collaborative authoring and peer exchange within communities of prod-users (Bruns, 2008; Rheingold, 2008). They generate a high growth of social interactions and mutual exchanges among members (Ito et al., 2009; Kirschner & Karpinski, 2010; Eynon & Malmberg, 2011). Participants feel some degree of social connection with one another, mutually value contributions and support less competent members through tutoring practices. On the basis of this “participatory culture” (Jenkins et al., 2007) radical new learning opportunities (Ala-Mutka, 2010) take shape. The participatory and active role, which these tools allow users to take, make them interesting for learner-centred approaches in higher education. The regular use of ICT and web technologies (Anderson, 2007) in educational institutions is far from common and rarely goes beyond rudimentary functions or the use of limited resources (Cox et al., 2003a, 2003b; Cuban, 2003). The present contribution discusses results achieved by students using web 2.0 applications within academic programs such as blogs, video sharing tools and social net working sites. They evidence beneficial effects on processes of learning, socialisation and conviviality (Caire 2010) and skills such as critical thinking, problem solving, communication, and collaboration as emphasised by 21st century frameworks (Voogt & Pareja Roblin, 2012) . Furthermore, the contribution will raise questions about barriers and strategies for integrating learning 2.0 effectively into higher educational contexts. It emphasises the systemic tensions to overcome, pedagogical practices to promote and conviviality potentials (Caire, 2010) to stimulate by fair digital participations, collaborations and interactions in highly multilingual and multicultural contexts. [less ▲]

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See detailFacial Physiology of Speech Errors
Albanese, Claudia UL; Max, Charles UL; Ziegler, Gudrun UL

Scientific Conference (2012, November)

We present the preliminary findings of a multilingual study on speech errors (‘lapsus linguae’ Meringer and Mayer 1895; Freud, 1901; Meringer, 1908). For the purpose of this presentation, we compiled and ... [more ▼]

We present the preliminary findings of a multilingual study on speech errors (‘lapsus linguae’ Meringer and Mayer 1895; Freud, 1901; Meringer, 1908). For the purpose of this presentation, we compiled and analyzed a corpus of video-recordings of twenty short sequences of talk in French, and twenty short sequences of talk in English; all containing mis-performances in oral delivery on behalf of TV hosts and presenters. While briefly discussing previous work and existing models for the classification of errors (Meringer and Mayer 1895; Freud, 1901; Fromkin, 1971, 1973; Dell, Juliano, and Govindjee, 1993; Dziekońska, 2012); we take a multimodal look at the sequential environment of errors in our corpus and analyze whether and how they are ‘acknowledged’ and are ‘repaired’ (Sacks, 1964; Sacks Schegloff, Jefferson, 1977). A close analysis of speakers’ face work reveals that, although not universally, they consistently place a brow raise on the ‘repaired’ material. At times, the lapsus is ‘acknowledged’ with the production of a response cry (Goffman, 1981), in which case, the brow raise is placed on the cry. Regardless of the response cry occurring synchronically with the brow raise; we discuss that it is possible to think of the brow raise as of a ‘change of state token’, (Heritage, 1984b; Schegloff, 2007); thus embodying the local change in speakers’ “state of knowledge, information, orientation or awareness” (Heritage, 1985: 299). Data also suggest a brow raise following the lapse, may transit from emotional display (i.e. surprise – Ekman, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2006) to face-keeping device. Different gestural and postural configurations may occur depending on whether the error is promptly repaired (i.e. straight positioning of the ‘body torque’- Schegloff, 1998) or whether develops into a laughter (i.e. presence of ‘self-adapters’ - Ekman, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2006). [less ▲]

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See detailPrivacy Awareness on Facebook - Engagement on an International Privacy Policy
Max, Charles UL; Albanese, Claudia UL

in Morelli, Pierre; Pignard-Cheynel, Nathalie; Baltazart, Didier (Eds.) Actes du colloque EUTIC 2012 Publics et pratiques médiatiques (2012, October)

This small-scale study aims to raise some critical insights into ‘privacy awareness’, It discusses the need to set up an International Legal Framework for a Privacy Policy, which intends to protect users ... [more ▼]

This small-scale study aims to raise some critical insights into ‘privacy awareness’, It discusses the need to set up an International Legal Framework for a Privacy Policy, which intends to protect users from disclosing personal information to the larger public, out of their control. A critical discourse analysis of Facebook ‘Data use Policy’ (2011) is targeting what FB declares as information they receive about users and the ways it is used by them and third parties. The analysis informed the drafting of a questionnaire which aimed, among other issues, to investigate the extent to which users know that i) Facebook collects data like time and place from content that users share and ii) users give Facebook permission to distribute information to third parties for developing new products and services or for advertisement by accepting the terms and conditions of ‘Facebook Data Use Policy’. The questionnaire was distributed to forty-nine Facebook users in Luxembourg. The analysis revealed that although 90% of the participants noticed the presence of user-tailored-advertisements, only 25% of them know that by accepting the terms and conditions of ‘Facebook Data Use Policy’, users give Facebook permission to distribute personal information to third parties for business purposes. While discussing some proposals and recommendations for user-based management of privacy settings, we conclude that information leakage in the form of distribution to third parties cannot be easily avoided if not by improving practices for drafting legally bounding policies. We call the attention of the scientific community for a more engaged and informed discussion concerning the setting up of an international legal framework for a privacy policy. [less ▲]

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See detailCouchsurfing - an empirical investigation into the online community as a platform for information sharing and tangential learning.
Max, Charles UL; Moreau, Richard UL

Scientific Conference (2012, October)

Couchsurfing is an online community with approximately 3 million profiles from over 230 countries worldwide (Del Rosso & Gréhan, 2010). Users can create a profile with minimal information about themselves ... [more ▼]

Couchsurfing is an online community with approximately 3 million profiles from over 230 countries worldwide (Del Rosso & Gréhan, 2010). Users can create a profile with minimal information about themselves free of charge, and post offers of free accommodation in their own homes for other users if desired. Interaction and exchange typically takes place around the activity of users negotiating accommodation in this manner. Users also avail of the online facilities to exchange and discuss topics of greatly diverse and dynamic nature (Peterson, & Siek, 2009). Communication practices in the Couchsurfing community are hybrid by nature given that interaction takes place not only online, but also between users who meet in physical life while travelling or for other social reasons (Pultar & Raubal, 2009). The present paper investigates processes of learning and knowledge sharing through socializing on the Couchsurfing website. We analyse the interactional features of online exchanges, discuss the key elements of the interaction and look at the outcomes and results. Our quest for prior research on the online activities of the Couchsurfing community yielded only few results (Lauterbach, 2009; Tan, 2010; Chowdhury, 2011), so that this study will hone further the specific interactions within this particular network. Research surrounding the topic of virtual/online communities is a relatively new field in social science (Tirado & Galvez, 2007) and is still busy to find consensual definitions for terms such as online communities, virtual spaces, and social media (Tirado & Galvez, 2007; Wilson et al., 2009; Kaplan & Haenlein 2010). Given this incipient phase of research in this field, the paper starts by defining the concept of virtual community more precisely for the present case. Second we investigate phenomena which were under low consideration so far, i.e. the field of learning and knowledge sharing within the social networking environment. According to Kaplan & Haenlein’s categories of social media (2010), the Couchsurfing online platform can be classified as both a content community and social networking site. The main objective of a content community is to share media content (text, photos, videos etc.) between users without obliging users to create a personal profile page. A social networking site encourages users to create personal profile sites and to invite friends and/or colleagues to follow the exchanges taking place at that page. As a combination of both, the Couchsurfing site is used for sharing a high amount of content between users, which facilitates learning as one of the primary focuses of our interaction analysis. More specifically, we use computer mediated discourse analysis (Herring, 2007) to look at interactions related to a) knowledge sharing b) learning, and c) (online) socializing Knowledge sharing has been defined by Wahlroos (2011) as that which “includes the exchange of information, ideas, opinion and expertise”. By analysing examples of online interactions from the website, we evidence how and to what extent knowledge sharing is of paramount importance and a primary outcome of these social exchanges. Informal and unintentional learning is increasingly emphasized with novel digital technologies, which are blurring the spheres of learning and everyday life. Often learning takes place in activities as a side-effect rather than a direct objective (UNESCO, 2005; Cross, 2007; Ala-Mutka, 2010). But, even failing to learn what is expected in a given situation usually involves learning something else instead (Wenger, 1998). Social networking sites promote engagement in communities (Rogoff, 1990), which are powerful means of creating and sharing new knowledge (Wahlroos, 2011). Forums and other tools through which members interact serve to stir discussion and spur interest. This ‘spidering of ideas’ evokes the contemporary notion of “tangential learning” (Portnow, 2008), which understands the instructor, tool, or learning environment to help familiarize learners with a body of knowledge rather than actively trying to teach them. The idea here is that learners will educate themselves if the tool can facilitate their introduction to topics they might like in a context that they already find engaging (Fischer, 2011). OUTCOMES The Couchsurfing website provides an abundance of resources about a broad number of topics. A thematic analysis of discussion threads revealed topics pertaining to world change, lifestyle improvement, and societal transformations. Our analysis has unveiled here a hosting ground for ‘virilisation’ of messages and ideas influencing movements such as occupy, anti-capitalism, vegetarianism or otherwise. The Couchsurfing website is in a sense a telling reflection of current societal issues, in all its dynamism, change and endless possibilities, generating radical ideas about how to live, where, how and what to be, regardless of age, background or otherwise (Chowdhury, 2011). Our analysis revealed a wealth of evidence of knowledge sharing, and unveiled many instances where we inferred that learning was happening as for example instances where one user acknowledges another user’s provision of information, or admits to have found it of interest. Labelling such interactions as instances of learning has to be done always with prudence as one can never witness learning per se, but only interactions whereby learning would be assumed to have taken place within the norms of social discourse and behaviour. Similar difficulties arose when endeavouring to identify the dynamics of knowledge sharing as an empirical phenomenon. However instances of knowledge sharing are more self-evident than learning, as sharing by definition does not require knowing whether the knowledge gets assimilated or not. Our analysis allows to characterize communities whose members interact in real and digital life more precisely as far as regards relationships between participants, interdependence during exchanges, accumulation of shared experience as grounds for membership. Hence, a qualitative study into the concept of tangential learning as a result of online social interactions is already in progress in order to further investigate to what extent people actually do learn, and acknowledge that they do so when interacting with other users through online platforms such as Couchsurfing. [less ▲]

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See detailEducating teachers as experts on learning a CHAT perspective on transforming ITE
Max, Charles UL

Scientific Conference (2012, April)

The ongoing demographic growth of Luxembourg and the increasing heterogeneity of its population raise considerable educational challenges, especially concerning the management of linguistic/cultural ... [more ▼]

The ongoing demographic growth of Luxembourg and the increasing heterogeneity of its population raise considerable educational challenges, especially concerning the management of linguistic/cultural diversity within educational contexts. With more than 45 % of students coming from abroad, teachers struggle to combine the students’ specific demands and diverse cultural resources with curricular requirements. Too often, the students’ heterogeneous backgrounds clash with a normative, teacher-centered instruction relying on prescriptive learning tasks, letting a quarter of a student intake falling behind after the first four years of fundamental school (MENFP, 2011). The professional know-how to develop culture-sensitive pedagogical practices calls for extended expertise about learning processes and reaches far beyond the range of didactical teaching skills. It embodies skills for reflective practice, on-the-job research, and continuous educational reform. Research on teacher professionalization (Hargreaves, 2000; Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 2009) further states that teachers should operate in an investigative or problem-solving stance and found their professional decisions on research-driven, evidence-based argumentations. With respect to these societal, professional and scientific challenges, the University of Luxembourg launched an innovative ITE program in 2005. It is governed by an overall ‘learning-how-to-learn’ approach and aims to train teachers as ‘experts on learning’ (Max, 2010, 2011). This paradigm underpins all the training practices, which strive to interconnect research-driven fieldwork on children’s and students’ learning with academic concerns of knowledge building across conventional boundaries. Starting first semester, participative internships and practitioner-oriented research create meaningful interactions between school interventions and academic work and stimulate the enactment of theory and vice versa. This paper investigates the potential of cultural-historical activity theory and dialectic learning approaches (Engeström & Sannino, 2010) for co-configuring expansive and context-sensitive study practices within (and beyond) the academic context, or for “creating new systems of human social-practical activities” (Yamazumi, 2005, p.14). The dialectical relationship between social acting and cultural appropriation works as a ‘germ cell’ for developing the study culture itself. On the one hand, the ITE program is understood as an activity that comes into existence as it is jointly completed between subjects and artefacts in interaction. On the other hand, the goal-directed acting of participants cannot be understood separately from the system(s) in which they are engaged. Their multiple voices, views and positionings of “how to train teachers” meet or/and collide. They transform the object of the program into a moving, multi-faceted and action-generating target. Drawing on these internal contradictions, a shared object on ITE has to be constructed through processes of dialogical interaction and meaning making in response (1) to fundamental societal and political requests on a general historical-political level and (2) to epistemological and methodological beliefs of various actors on a local genetic-developmental level. The paper explores these complex dynamics around the deployment of the program. By drawing on qualitative data gathered from various participant groups, it depicts zones of emerging contradictions and proximal development. The study’ outcomes inform us about obstacles and opportunities to transform academic cultures in ITE. ? [less ▲]

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See detailPromoting ‘learning for teaching’ across boundaries. Creating innovative spaces for competence development in initial teacher education
Max, Charles UL

in Hinger, Barbara (Ed.) Sprachen lernen: Kompetenzen entwickeln – Performanzen (über)prüfen. Tagungsband der 5. Tagung der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Sprachendidaktik (ÖGSD). (2012)

The present paper presents the development and implementation of a collaborative learning culture with the academic context of initial teacher education in Luxembourg. Drawing upon a sociocultural ... [more ▼]

The present paper presents the development and implementation of a collaborative learning culture with the academic context of initial teacher education in Luxembourg. Drawing upon a sociocultural framework and dialectical learning approaches, the program innovates in creating shared zones for learning and development for all participants and across disciplinary, institutional and semiotic boundaries. Furthermore, the paper discusses the range of initiatives to support the context-sensitive ‘learning-for-teaching’ and ‘teaching-for learning’ approach. [less ▲]

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See detailTracing science in the early childhood classroom: the historicity of multi-resourced discourse practices in multilingual interaction
Max, Charles UL; Ziegler, Gudrun UL; Kracheel, Martin UL

in Mansour, Nasser; Wegerif, Rupert (Eds.) Science Education for Diversity, Theory and Practice (2012)

This chapter presents research conducted in early childhood classrooms in Luxembourg, a European country with a complex multilingual situation. A multi-layered corpus of classroom interactions, consisting ... [more ▼]

This chapter presents research conducted in early childhood classrooms in Luxembourg, a European country with a complex multilingual situation. A multi-layered corpus of classroom interactions, consisting of photos, videos and audio recordings, was collected over a period of 6 months and then classified, annotated and partially transcribed. Drawing from this corpus, this study sheds light on the discursive practices of 6-12 year old children and examines the co-construction of the children’s growing understandings of science in collaborative inquiries. Arguing from a context-sensitive perspective, our research approaches the learning of science as an interactional achievement in situ, one that encompasses the enactment of science as shared discourse and therefore as a cultural accomplishment. [less ▲]

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See detail‘Doing science’ through discourse-in-interaction: Young children’s science investigations at the early childhood level.
Siry, Christina UL; Ziegler, Gudrun UL; Max, Charles UL

in Science Education (2012), 96(2), 311-326

This research investigates the interconnectedness of scientific inquiring at the early childhood level, as we explore the discourse-in-interaction processes occurring within small inquiry groups of 5- and ... [more ▼]

This research investigates the interconnectedness of scientific inquiring at the early childhood level, as we explore the discourse-in-interaction processes occurring within small inquiry groups of 5- and 6-year-old children. The rationale behind this research is to explore the nature of science-related discourse, and to that end, this work focuses on student-to-student interactions as they collaboratively investigate water. As we document the nature of children's ways of explaining, imagining, and representing the properties of water, we demonstrate the constructions of understandings as displayed and emergent from these interactions. The study has generated outcomes about the discursive ways of young children's enacting of knowledge about science, as the analysis reveals that by positioning scientific inquiry as a fluid process children were able to enact science collaboratively and through multimodal means. As such, the study reveals a wide range of indicators to children's understandings about water and to the processes in which students worked together to construct science within discourse-in-interaction [less ▲]

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See detailThe development of initial teacher education focusing on multilingualisms: the innovative approach of Luxembourg
Max, Charles UL

in ForumSprache (2011), 5(Ausgabe 05 / 2011), 59-78

This paper provides an overview of the innovative initial teacher education program ‘Bachelor en Sciences de l’Education’, which was launched in 2005 at the University of Luxembourg. Facing the challenges ... [more ▼]

This paper provides an overview of the innovative initial teacher education program ‘Bachelor en Sciences de l’Education’, which was launched in 2005 at the University of Luxembourg. Facing the challenges of a traditional multilingual curriculum, Luxembourg’s teaching professionals are facing multiple multilingualisms on a daily basis, stemming from diversified media-input, migration, commuting of parents and/or children and the divergent values attributed to languages within the national context. Therefore, teachers (in focus here: pre-primary, primary, lower secondary level) need to develop concepts, skills and tools for dealing with the realities of language and the learning of languages from a language integrated perspective. The paper presents the transdisciplinary architecture of the supportive and challenging initial teacher education (ITE) learning culture, i.e. the cultural-historical and sociocultural frameworks of the collaborative study approach and the innovative spaces for dialogue, meaning making and learning across boundaries. First hand experiences from the implementation of the program will elucidate horizontal forms of learning in a specific multilingual and multimodal ‘learning-for-teaching’ activity. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning-for-teaching across educational boundaries: An activity-theoretical analysis of collaborative internship projects in initial teacher education
Max, Charles UL

in Ellis, Viv; Edwards, Anne; Smagorinsky, Peter (Eds.) Cultural historical perspectives on teacher education and development: learning teaching. Learning teaching (2010)

The innovative Initial Teacher Education (ITE) programme at the University of Luxembourg strives to interrelate academic concerns with school activities through joint learning spaces where students ... [more ▼]

The innovative Initial Teacher Education (ITE) programme at the University of Luxembourg strives to interrelate academic concerns with school activities through joint learning spaces where students, academic tutor and internship teacher collaborate and create shared practices with regard to the core learning object of the semester. Conceived as a boundary crossing research assignment, the “Collaborative Classroom Inquiry” (CCI) mediates learning and development within and beyond this boundary zone. As an educational tool, the CCI crosses institutional boundaries and generates contradictions among the collaborating partners, which may be seen as a promising starting point for creating mutually relevant practices within and beyond this joint learning space, but also bearing considerable potential for breakdowns of further collaborations. The present paper scrutinises the innovative potential of the CCI for generating change and development among the interacting partners through [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 233 (1 UL)
See detailIntegrating Mahara as an e-portfolio system and social network in the BScE (slideshow)
Hoeppner, K.D.C.; Max, Charles UL; Reuter, Robert UL

Presentation (2009)

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See detailIntegrating ICT in Pre-service Teacher Training
Höppner, Kristina D. C. UL; Busana, Gilbert UL; Max, Charles UL et al

in Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2009 (2009)

The Bachelor in Educational Sciences at the University of Luxembourg is a four-year study program for students training to become nursery and elementary school teachers in Luxembourg. The program has ... [more ▼]

The Bachelor in Educational Sciences at the University of Luxembourg is a four-year study program for students training to become nursery and elementary school teachers in Luxembourg. The program has subscribed to an ICT-enriched study approach, meaning that students and teachers use a variety of (social) media tools for learning as well as for organizational planning. This best practice presentation will show how the tools used are intertwined. Furthermore, the presenters discuss the program's strategy of acquainting students with media tools, the support measures that are in place as well as the students' use and acceptance of ICT. The winter semester 2008/09 was important as the switch was made to a new ePortfolio system and increased inclusion of social media tools, especially with first-year students. The presentation will provide insight into first impressions of this change, touch upon pitfalls, and look at the plans for the coming semesters. [less ▲]

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See detailPlurilingualism and Multilingual Literacy among Young Learners in Luxembourg
Portante, Dominique UL; Max, Charles UL

in Kenner, Charmian; Hickey, Tina (Eds.) Multilingual Europe: Diversity and Learning (2008)

Detailed reference viewed: 155 (8 UL)
See detailBIMUZINE – Multilingual visual communication
Lensink, Wilco; Max, Charles UL; Ziegler, Gudrun UL

Book published by Bozen-Bolzano University Press (2007)

„bimuzine“ ist das Ergebnis einer engen Zusammenarbeit zwischen den mehrsprachigen Universitäten Bozen und Luxemburg. This project has been conducted by students from both universities. Pendant leurs ... [more ▼]

„bimuzine“ ist das Ergebnis einer engen Zusammenarbeit zwischen den mehrsprachigen Universitäten Bozen und Luxemburg. This project has been conducted by students from both universities. Pendant leurs rencontres ils ont discuté les différents aspects du plurilinguisme non seulement d'un point de vue linguistique. Ma hanno tentato di esplorare e di sperimentare altri approcci a questo tema riunendo riflessioni teoriche e momenti di gioco. Das Projekt wird im Rahmen der Tagung "BiMU" vorgestellt, die vom 20. bis 22. September 2007 stattfindet. Gli organizzatori sostengono "bimuzine" in tutti i modi e sperano che possa dare uno spunto per ulteriori riflessioni e anche per divertirsi con le lingue. [less ▲]

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See detailL’évaluation de la qualité de l’enseignement face à la dynamique et à la dialectique des pratiques pédagogiques.
Max, Charles UL

in PAQUAY, Léopold (Ed.) L'évaluation des enseignants - Tensions et enjeux. (2004)

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See detailEntwicklung von Kompetenz - ein neues Paradigma für das Lernen in Schule und Arbeitswelt. Ertrag und Perspektiven der französisch-sprachigen Kompetenzforschung und ihre Bedeutung als Gestaltungsprinzip von Bildung
Max, Charles UL

Book published by Peter Lang. (1999)

In den letzten beiden Jahrzehnten hat sich der Kompetenzbegriff in der Mehrzahl der OECD- Länder in unterschiedlichem Ausmaß und in sehr vielfältigen Formen im erziehungswissen-schaftlichen Feld ... [more ▼]

In den letzten beiden Jahrzehnten hat sich der Kompetenzbegriff in der Mehrzahl der OECD- Länder in unterschiedlichem Ausmaß und in sehr vielfältigen Formen im erziehungswissen-schaftlichen Feld implementiert. Insbesondere im französischen Sprachraum (Frankreich, Belgien, Schweiz, Québec), auf den sich die vorliegende Studie literarischer Quellen vorwie-gend konzentriert, ist der Kompetenzbegriff innerhalb eines knappen Jahrzehnts zum bestim-menden Gestaltungsprinzip des gesamten Bildungsbereichs aufgestiegen. Mit einer Fokussierung auf den Kompetenzbegriff versucht man in diesen Ländern, der aktu-ellen Sinnkrise des Schule und der drohenden Entwertung schulischer Qualifikationen ange-sichts des raschen und vielfältigen gesellschaftlichen Wandels wirksam entgegenzutreten. Im Hinblick auf eine künftig stärkere Kooperation zwischen den nationalen Bildungssystemen innerhalb der Europäischen Union lag ein erstes Anliegen der vorliegenden Studie in der Be-schreibung der unterschiedlichen schulexternen und -internen Einflußfaktoren, die zu einer entsprechenden Reformentscheidung im französischen Bildungswesen führten, einschließlich der damit verbundenen Ziele, Methoden, Inhalte und Entwicklungsperspektiven. Der spärli-che Forschungsaustausch zwischen den zwei benachbarten Sprachräumen prägte zudem eine weitere wesentliche Absicht unserer Studie: Das Bekanntmachen der diesbezüglichen, in Deutschland kaum veröffentlichten Literatur für die weitere erziehungswissenschaftliche For-schung und Theoriebildung bzw. das Anknüpfen an bestehende deutsche Ansätze. . Auslöser des erziehungswissenschaftlichen Interesses am Kompetenzkonstrukt waren über-greifende Neuorientierungen und Erkenntnisse in schulangrenzenden Domänen, die mit aktu-ellen schulspezifischen Problemen in Beziehung standen. So vollzogen sich einerseits in der Arbeitswelt eine Reihe von Entwicklungen, die unmittelbar auf die schulische Erstausbildung, sei es im technisch-beruflichen, sei es im allgemeinen Bildungsbereich zurückwirkten. Wir denken dabei an präzise Analysen der Arbeitsaktivitäten und das zunehmende Interesse an subjektspezifischem Handlungswissen, an die Evolutionen der Arbeitsstellen und der Qualifi-kationen innerhalb lernender Organisationen, an das Bestreben einer optimalen Nutzung und Organisation der menschlichen Ressourcen unter dem Paradigma einer lebenslangen Lernfä-higkeit... (vgl. Teil 3 der Arbeit). Andererseits gestatten die rezenten Forschungsarbeiten in den Kognitionswissenschaften bes-sere Einsichten in die Genese der Wissens- und Denkstrukturen, in die multiplen Repräsenta-tionsformen des menschlichen Wissens und dessen Übergangs in Handlung unter bestimmten situativen Bedingungen... (vgl. Teil 4 der Arbeit). Der schnelle Aufstieg des Kompetenzbegriffs im französischsprachigen Bildungsbereich be-legt eine bestimmte Evolution der Mentalitäten, die über rein terminologische Veränderungen hinausgehen und die man wie folgt charakterisieren kann (vgl. S.103ff. der Arbeit): – Die Gestaltung der Unterrichtssituationen orientiert sich an den Lernaktivitäten des ein-zelnen Schülers, den man als lernendes Subjekt auffaßt. – Die Konstruktion der Wissensstrukturen konzentriert sich von Anfang an auf die Wieder-verwendung des Gelernten in neuartigen schulischen und außerschulischen Situationen. – Die Organisation und Koordination sämtlicher subjektrelevanter Ressourcen (impliziter und expliziter, allgemeiner und bereichsspezifischer, automatisierter und metakognitiver) erfolgt im Hinblick auf die Steigerung des persönlichen Handlungspotentials innerhalb ei-nes soziokulturellen Rahmens. – Eine Pädagogik der Kompetenzen richtet sich auf den Prozeß des ‚Kompetentwerdens‘, als ‚Resultante‘ vorausgegangener komplexer Lernprozesse. In der vorgelegten Studie hinterfragen wir einerseits kritisch die vorschnelle Übertragung des Kompetenzbegriffs auf den Bereich der Erziehungswissenschaften sowie die aktuelle Ver-wendung des Konzepts in Frankreich. Andererseits versuchen wir sein Potential auszuloten, den veränderten Bildungsanforderungen moderner komplexer Gesellschaften zu genügen. Unsere Methode bestand in einer Querschnittstudie literarischer Quellen aus den arbeits- und sozialwissenschaftlichen Bereichen (vgl. Teil 3 der Arbeit), welche den Kompetenzbegriff intensiver und unter multiplen Perspektiven konzeptualisieren bzw. ihn im Rahmen der Kom-petenz- und Expertiseforschung untersuchen. Im einzelnen waren dies die Bereiche: Ergono-mie, Arbeitssoziologie, Unternehmensentwicklung und -organisation. Auf der Grundlage dieser Analyse schlagen wir einerseits eine eigene Definition des Begriffs (vgl. S.236) vor, die man sowohl auf das Individuum als auch auf ein Kollektiv beziehen kann. Andererseits kristallisieren wir einige aufeinander bezogene Grundorientierungen her-aus, denen ein Kompetenzansatz als wirksames, modernes und zukunftsorientiertes Konzept für eine allgemeine bzw. beruflich-technische Bildung unterliegen muß. Kompetenz verstehen wir wie folgt: Die Kompetenz eines Subjekts oder eines Kollektivs ist die vom soziokulturellen Umfeld ge-schätzte Qualität seines Handelnkönnens, d. h. der dynamischen Artikulierung und Neukom-binierung in der Situation aller verfügbaren Elemente hinsichtlich der Erfordernisse einer un-begrenzten Anzahl verschiedener Situationen des gleichen Typus. Die Entwicklung von Kompetenz als Paradigma für schulisches Lernen in der Gesellschaft der Zukunft muß nach unseren Erkenntnissen auf folgenden Grundorientierungen basieren (vgl. Punkt 3.8): 1. Kompetenz muß aus einem dynamischen Ansatz heraus gedacht werden, bei dem das Sub-jekt als ‚Produzent von Kompetenzen‘ heterogene Komponenten in der Situation aktuali-siert und auf kreative Weise neukombiniert. 2. Kompetenz ist an den Kontext gebunden und erfordert ein absicherndes, unterstützendes Trägerdispositiv mit Freiräumen, Entwicklungsperspektiven, Projekten, Verantwortungs-bereichen..., das sie erst ermöglicht bzw. legitimiert. 3. Kompetenz steht in einer dialektischen Interaktion mit der Handlung, durch die sie sich ausdrückt und mittels derer sie anerkannt wird. Ihrem Herausforderungscharakter fällt da-bei eine zentrale Rolle in der Entwicklung von Kompetenz zu. 4. Die Anerkennung von Kompetenz umfaßt eine kognitive und eine soziale Referenzdimen-sion, die bei der Konstruktion der Identität des Subjekts zusammenwirken. Die Anerken-nung der Kompetenz erfolgt mittels einer kontinuierlichen Aushandlungsarbeit. 5. Eine Pädagogik der Kompetenzentwicklung basiert auf einer Dialektik zwischen der or-ganisationellen (kollektiven) und individuellen Evolution. 6. Ein Entwicklungsansatz von Kompetenzen muß eine domänenübergreifende Praktik darstellen, welche bereits realisierte, in der Entwicklung befindliche sowie potentielle Lern- und Entwicklungsprozesse kontinuierlich aus dem schulischen in den arbeitsweltlichen Kontext überführt, ohne dabei die pädagogische Entwicklungsfunktion der Schule zu ungunsten einer funktionalen Anpassungslogik aufgeben zu müssen. Besonders die im vorletzten Punkt angesprochene Koevolution der individuellen und organi-sationellen Entwicklung unterstreichen wir nachdrücklich mit der Forderung nach einer parti-zipativen Lern- und Entwicklungskultur innerhalb des Schulsystems, bei der die Lernenden ihre persönlichen Entwicklung aktiv mitgestalten und selbst verantworten. Dabei erhalten sie zugleich die Möglichkeit, Erfahrungen aus anderen Erwerbskontexten in offiziell anerkannte Kompetenzen zu überführen. Eine entsprechende Lernkultur basiert zudem auf der Idee, die Autonomie und die Reformbe-strebungen der einzelnen Schulen im Sinne ‚lernender Organisationen‘ als ausdrücklich er-wünschte Systemeigenschaft auszubauen. Die Schulen arbeiten dabei kontinuierlich an der Erneuerung und dem Anwachsen ihrer kollektiven Kompetenz durch Förderung des parallelen Wachsens aller in der Organisation kooperierenden Lernpartner. Dabei stellen sie diese Kom-petenzen immer wieder durch öffentliches Beteiligen an authentischen, gesellschaftlich rele-vanten Sachverhalten und Problematiken unter Beweis. Diese Tragpfeiler unseres Kompetenzansatzes – insbesondere die domänenübergreifenden kognitiven und sozialen Dimensionen – haben wir im 4. Teil der Arbeit mit rezenten, interna-tional veröffentlichten Erkenntnissen der lern- und kognitionspsychologischen Forschung in Beziehung gesetzt, wobei wir auch hier vor allem auf französischsprachige Autoren zurück-gegriffen haben. Aus diesen Ansätzen eröffneten sich präzisere Einblicke in die ontologische Natur der Kompetenz, in die Essenz ihrer Dynamik, in die Genese der einzelnen Struktur-komponenten und ihrer reziproken Interaktionen, welche wir im anliegenden Schema (S.6) ein Stück weit veranschaulichen. Aus der Vielzahl der ausführlich kommentierten lerntheoretischen und -organisatorischen Folgerungen für die Lehr-Lern-Praktiken (vgl. Übersicht S.450 ff.), stellen wir neben den bereits erwähnten grundlegenden Leitideen für einen entsprechenden Ansatz zudem folgende Thesen für die anstehende Disputation zur Diskussion: 1. These: Kompetenz entwickeln heißt einen subjekt- und emanzipationsorientierten Entwicklungsan-satz verfolgen, bei dem der Schüler sich selbst als autonomes reflexives Subjekt wahrnimmt, selbstbestimmt handeln kann und bestrebt ist, sein Lernen und Denken besser zu verstehen bzw. selbständig zu steuern. Die lernorganisatorischen Bedingungen basieren dabei auf der Pluralisierung der Lernwege, der Legitimierung individuell geprägter intellektueller Stile so-wie dem Bewußtmachen der kontextuell ausgeprägten Intelligenzkomponenten und ihrer le-benslangen Entwicklungsfähigkeit. 2. These: Die Entwicklung von Schülerkompetenz vollzieht sich in einem dialektischen Verhältnis zwi-schen kontinuierlich komplexer werdenden sozialen Interaktionen und der Konstruktion kog-nitiver Strukturen. 3. These: Die Ausrichtung schulischer Lehr-Lern-Praktiken an der Ausformung von Kompetenzen för-dert den Aufbau intelligent und flexibel nutzbarer Wissens- und Denkstrukturen, die eine ra-sche Anpassung an neue Situationen erst ermöglichen. Dabei entwickelt sich eine dynamische Reziprozität zwischen der progressiven Konstruktion eines funktional organisierten bereichs-spezifischen Wissensnetzes und der Genese von Formen komplexen (kontextualisierten) Könnens. 4. These: Eine Logik der Kompetenzen initiieren erfordert das Loslösen von primär auf Wissensver-mittlung ausgerichteten Lehr-Lern-Praktiken zugunsten einer Orientierung an gründlichem Verstehen. Hauptschwerpunkte dabei sind das konsequente Einbeziehen der vielfältigen Kon-struktionsprozesse einer situationsadäquaten Repräsentation (Interpretation) sowie die sich daraus ableitende Konstruktion angemessener Handlungsschemata. 5.These: Die Demokratisierung des Kompetenzzugangs erfordert das systematische Explizieren der kontextuell mobilisierten Wissenskomponenten (idiosynkratischen und formalen, intuitiven und bewußten, spezifischen und allgemeinen), deren Integration und Kombination für den Aufbau von flexibler Lern-, Handlungs- und Sachkompetenz erforderlich sind. 6. These: Die Operationalisierung eines solchen Ansatzes erfordert ein evolutives Integrationskonzept von interdisziplinär aufeinander abgestimmten und progressiv umfassender werdenden kom-plexen Kompetenzen für eine bestimmte Bildungsstufe. Ein solches Integrationskonzept ge-stattet eine stärkere Orientierung an bildungsrelevanten Lernzusammenhängen und wirkt ei-nem überwiegend fachspezifischen, parzellierenden Lernen entgegen. Die vielfältigen inter-disziplinären Kooperationsmöglichkeiten fördern zusätzlich eine Dekontextualisierung spezi-fischer Kompetenzen und ermöglichen auf diese Weise, die Realität in ihrer Komplexität und Authentizität kontinuierlich unter multiplen Perspektiven und Logiken anzugehen. 7.These: Kompetenz muß als gemeinsames evolutives Konstrukt für Bildung und Arbeitswelt aufgefaßt werden. Sein domänenübergreifender Charakter gestattet, im Rahmen der Erziehungswissen-schaft die vielschichtigen, multidimensionalen Problematiken (sozialisatorisch-gesellschaftlich, kulturspezifisch, kognitionswissenschaftlich, handlungs- und lerntheoretisch, affektiv-persönlichkeitsbezogen) von Lernen, Bildung und Schulentwicklung angemessen zu artikulieren. Die kontinuierlich evoluierende, domänenspezifische Erforschung und Theoreti-sierung des Konzepts erlaubt zudem, neue Entwicklungen aus angrenzenden Wissensdomä-nen zu reflektieren bzw. progressiv in die Konzeptualisierung des Begriffs zu integrieren. [less ▲]

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See detailVerstehen heißt Verändern 'Conceptual Change' als didaktisches Prinzip des Sachunterrichts.
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in FAUST-SIEHL, Gabriele; MEIER, Richard; UNGLAUBE, Henning (Eds.) Sachunterricht in der Grundschule (1997)

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