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See detailCognitive Zone for Broadband Satellite Communication in 17.3-17.7 GHz Band
Maleki, Sina UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Krause, Jens et al

in IEEE Wireless Communications Letters (2015)

Deploying high throughput satellite systems in Ka band to accommodate the ever increasing demand for high data rates hits a spectrum barrier. Cognitive spectrum utilization of the allocated frequency ... [more ▼]

Deploying high throughput satellite systems in Ka band to accommodate the ever increasing demand for high data rates hits a spectrum barrier. Cognitive spectrum utilization of the allocated frequency bands to other services is a potential solution. Designing a cognitive zone around incumbent broadcasting satellite service (BSS) feeder links beyond which the cognitive fixed satellite service (FSS) terminals can freely utilize the same frequency band is considered in this paper. In addition, we show that there is a rain rate called rain wall, above which cognitive downlink communications becomes infeasible. [less ▲]

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See detailCooperative Power and DoT Estimation for a Directive Source
Maleki, Sina UL; Ciblat, Philippe; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers 2015 (2015)

Reliable estimation of the source power as well as the direction of transmission (DoT) is required in a large number of applications, e.g. radio environment mapping for cognitive radios, security, system ... [more ▼]

Reliable estimation of the source power as well as the direction of transmission (DoT) is required in a large number of applications, e.g. radio environment mapping for cognitive radios, security, system performance and interference monitoring. In this paper, we develop a multi-sensor cooperative estimation algorithm for joint power and DoT estimation of a source with a known location and equipped with a directive antenna pattern. The source signal is assumed to be known, e.g. a training sequence, and the channel is modeled by the free-space path loss. Simulation results show that the developed algorithm can deliver a reliable estimation accuracy. [less ▲]

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See detailTo AND or To OR: On Energy-Efficient Distributed Spectrum Sensing with Combined Censoring and Sleeping
Maleki, Sina UL; Leus, Geert; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (2015)

Distributed spectrum sensing improves the detection reliability of a cognitive radio network but generally comes at the price of a large power consumption. Since cognitive radios are generally low-power ... [more ▼]

Distributed spectrum sensing improves the detection reliability of a cognitive radio network but generally comes at the price of a large power consumption. Since cognitive radios are generally low-power sensors with limited batteries, a combined censoring and sleeping scheme is considered as an energy-efficient algorithm for distributed spectrum sensing. Each sensor switches off its sensing module with a specific sleeping rate. When the sensor is on, a censoring policy is employed in order to send the sensing result to the fusion center. The result is only transmitted, if it is deemed to be informative. Hence, the energy consumption of each sensor, including the sensing and transmission energies, is reduced. The underlying sensing parameters are derived by minimizing the maximum average energy consumption per sensor subject to a lower-bound on the global probability of detection and an upper-bound on the global probability of false alarm. We analyze the problem for the OR and the AND rule and provide a performance analysis for a case study based on the IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee standard. It is shown that the combined censoring and sleeping scheme achieves a significant energy saving compared to the case where no censoring or sleeping is taken into account. [less ▲]

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See detailFeasibility study of full-duplex relaying in satellite networks
Bhavani Shankar, M. R.; Zheng, G.; Maleki, Sina UL et al

in IEEE Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications, SPAWC (2015), 2015-August

With the successful implementation of full-duplex radio prototypes, traditional orthogonal half-duplex communications is deemed to be inefficient in certain terrestrial applications. While full-duplex ... [more ▼]

With the successful implementation of full-duplex radio prototypes, traditional orthogonal half-duplex communications is deemed to be inefficient in certain terrestrial applications. While full-duplex techniques are gaining interest in terrestrial communications, thanks to the trend of short-distance and low-power transmissions, their application to satellite communications has drawn little attention. Motivated by this, the paper explores the use of the full-duplex relaying operation on-board the satellite in a DVB-S2 compliant network. Self-interference, whose management is the key component of a full-duplex communication, is the focus of study in this paper. Modelling the effects of self-interference and power amplifier nonlinearities on the quality of the received signal in undertaken. Subsequently, closed-form expressions for the various interference components are derived. The numerical evaluations of derived expressions rely on realistic link budgets and indicate substantial gains in spectral efficiency when self-interference can be well calibrated and measured. This confirms that the satellite full-duplex communications could be a promising solution for the efficient use of satellite spectrum, at least from a technical point of view. © 2015 IEEE. [less ▲]

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See detailJoint Power Control in Wiretap Interference Channels
Kalantari, Ashkan UL; Maleki, Sina UL; Zheng, Gan et al

in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (2015)

Interference in wireless networks degrades the signal quality at the terminals. However, it can potentially enhance the secrecy rate. This paper investigates the secrecy rate in a two-user interference ... [more ▼]

Interference in wireless networks degrades the signal quality at the terminals. However, it can potentially enhance the secrecy rate. This paper investigates the secrecy rate in a two-user interference network where one of the users, namely user 1, requires to establish a confidential connection. User 1 wants to prevent an unintended user of the network to decode its transmission. User 1 has to transmit such that its secrecy rate is maximized while the quality of service at the destination of the other user, user 2, is satisfied, and both user's power limits are taken into account. We consider two scenarios: 1) user 2 changes its power in favor of user 1, an altruistic scenario, 2) user 2 is selfish and only aims to maintain the minimum quality of service at its destination, an egoistic scenario. It is shown that there is a threshold for user 2's transmission power that only below or above which, depending on the channel qualities, user 1 can achieve a positive secrecy rate. Closed-form solutions are obtained in order to perform joint optimal power control. Further, a new metric called secrecy energy efficiency is introduced. We show that in general, the secrecy energy efficiency of user 1 in an interference channel scenario is higher than that of an interference-free channel. [less ▲]

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See detailFeasibility Study of Full-duplex Relaying in Satellite Networks
Shankar, Bhavani UL; Zheng, Gan; Maleki, Sina UL et al

in The 16th IEEE International Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications, SPAWC 2015 (2015)

With the successful implementation of full-duplex radio prototypes, traditional orthogonal half-duplex communications is deemed to be inefficient in certain terrestrial applications. While full-duplex ... [more ▼]

With the successful implementation of full-duplex radio prototypes, traditional orthogonal half-duplex communications is deemed to be inefficient in certain terrestrial applications. While full-duplex techniques are gaining interest in terrestrial communications, thanks to the trend of short-distance and low-power transmissions, their application to satellite communications has drawn little attention. Motivated by this, the paper explores the use of the full-duplex relaying operation on-board the satellite in a DVB-S2 compliant network. Self-interference, whose management is the key component of a full-duplex communication, is the focus of study in this paper. Modelling the effects of self-interference and power amplifier nonlinearities on the quality of the received signal in undertaken. Subsequently, closed-form expressions for the various interference components are derived. The numerical evaluations of derived expressions rely on realistic link budgets and indicate substantial gains in spectral efficiency when self-interference can be well calibrated and measured. This confirms that the satellite full-duplex communications could be a promising solution for the efficient use of satellite spectrum, at least from a technical point of view. [less ▲]

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See detailHow many bits should be reported in quantized cooperative spectrum sensing?
Nguyen-Thanh, Nhan; Ciblat, Philippe; Maleki, Sina UL et al

in IEEE Wireless Communications Letters (2015)

We introduce an algorithm for optimizing sensing parameters including the number of sensing samples and the number of reporting bits of a quantization-based cooperative spectrum sensing scheme in ... [more ▼]

We introduce an algorithm for optimizing sensing parameters including the number of sensing samples and the number of reporting bits of a quantization-based cooperative spectrum sensing scheme in cognitive radio networks. This is obtained by maximizing the network throughput subject to a target detection probability. With Rayleigh fading and energy detector, the proposed algorithm simultaneously optimizes the number of sensing samples at a local node, the number of bits for quantizing local sensing data and the global threshold at a fusion center. [less ▲]

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See detailResource allocation for cognitive satellite uplink and fixed-service terrestrial coexistence in ka-band
Lagunas, E.; Sharma, Shree Krishna UL; Maleki, Sina UL et al

in Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, LNICST (2015), 156

This paper addresses the cognitive Geostationary Orbit (GSO) satellite uplink where satellite terminals reuse frequency bands of Fixed-Service (FS) terrestrial microwave links which are the incumbent ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses the cognitive Geostationary Orbit (GSO) satellite uplink where satellite terminals reuse frequency bands of Fixed-Service (FS) terrestrial microwave links which are the incumbent users in the Ka 27.5-29.5 GHz band. In the scenario considered herein, the transmitted power of the cognitive satellite user has to ensure that the interference impact on potentially present FS links does not exceed the regulatory interference limitations. In order to satisfy the interference constraint and assuming the existence of a complete and reliable FS database, this paper proposes a Joint Power and Carrier Allocation (JPCA) strategy to enable the cognitive uplink access to GSO Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) terminals. The proposed approach identifies the worst FS link per user in terms of interference and divides the amount of tolerable interference among the maximum number of FSS terminal users that can potentially interfere with it. In so doing, the cognitive system is guaranteed to never exceed the prescribed interference threshold. Subsequently, powers and carriers are jointly allocated so as to maximize the throughput of the FSS system. Supporting results based on numerical simulations are provided. It is shown that the proposed cognitive approach represents a promising solution to significantly boost the performance of conventional satellite systems. © Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering 2015. [less ▲]

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See detailSpectrum Awareness and Exploitation for Cognitive Satellite Communications
Guidotti, Alessandro; Icolari, Vincenzo; Tarchi, Danielle et al

in European Conference on Networks and Communications (EuCNC), Paris, France, Jun 2015. (2015)

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See detailFeasibility of Positive Secrecy Rate in Wiretap Interference Channels
Kalantari, Ashkan UL; Maleki, Sina UL; Zheng, Gan et al

in IEEE Global Conference on Signal and Information Processing (GlobalSIP) (2014, December 03)

Interference usually is an adverse phenomenon in wireless networks. However, the interference can potentially be used to boost the secrecy rate in wireless interference channels. This work studies the ... [more ▼]

Interference usually is an adverse phenomenon in wireless networks. However, the interference can potentially be used to boost the secrecy rate in wireless interference channels. This work studies the secrecy rate in a two-user interference network where unintended user may overhear one of the users, namely user 1. User 1 tunes its transmission power in order to maximize its secrecy rate as well as to maintain the quality of service at the other user’s destination, user 2, while both user’s power limits are considered. It is demonstrated that achieving a positive secrecy rate for user 1 only depends on the channel conditions and user 2’s transmission power. Consequently, depending on the channel conditions, the exact threshold for user 2’s transmission power which leads to a positive secrecy rate for user 1 is derived. [less ▲]

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See detailImplementation Issues of Cognitive Radio Techniques for Ka-band (17.7-19.7 GHZ) SatComs
Sharma, Shree Krishna UL; Maleki, Sina UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in Proceedings of 7th ASMS/13th SPSC (2014, September)

The usable satellite spectrum has become scarce due to continuously increasing demand for broadband multimedia, broadcast and interactive services. In this context, investigating efficient spectrum ... [more ▼]

The usable satellite spectrum has become scarce due to continuously increasing demand for broadband multimedia, broadcast and interactive services. In this context, investigating efficient spectrum coexistence techniques is a crucial challenge in order to enhance the spectral efficiency of future satellite systems. Herein, we study a satellite-terrestrial coexistence scenario where a Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) downlink coexists with the Fixed Service (FS) point to point microwave links in the Ka-band (17.7-19.7 GHz). First, we identify various practical challenges and provide possible solutions in order to allow this coexistence. Then we propose four different sensing and avoidance schemes in order to protect FSS satellite terminals from the harmful FS interference. Further, we evaluate the performance of one of the proposed solutions in the considered scenario with the help of theoretical and numerical analysis. More specifically, we focus on harmful FS detection problem in order to guarantee the sufficient protection of FSS terminals. It is shown that the FS harmful interference can be reliably detected with the help of an additional dipole antenna and this solution further overcomes the noise uncertainty problem encountered while sensing with the satellite dish. [less ▲]

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See detailCognitive Radio for Ka Band Satellite Communications
Maleki, Sina UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Sharma, Shree Krishna UL et al

in 32nd AIAA International Communications Satellite Systems Conference, August 2014 (2014, August)

The satellite communication data traffic is increasing dramatically over the coming years. High throughput multibeam satellite networks in Ka band are potentially able to accommodate the upcoming high ... [more ▼]

The satellite communication data traffic is increasing dramatically over the coming years. High throughput multibeam satellite networks in Ka band are potentially able to accommodate the upcoming high data rate demands. However, there is only 500 MHz of exclusive band for download and the same amount for upload. This spectrum shortage impose a barrier in order to satisfy the increasing demands. Cognitive satellite communication in Ka band is considered in this paper in order to potentially provide an additional 4.4 GHz bandwidth for downlink and uplink fixed-satellite-services. In this way, it is expected that the problem of spectrum scarcity for future generation of satellite networks is alleviated to a great extent. The underlying scenarios and enabling techniques are discussed in detail, and finally we investigate the implementation issues related to the considered techniques. [less ▲]

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See detailTo AND or To OR: How Shall the Fusion Center Rule in Energy-Constrained Cognitive Radio Networks?
Maleki, Sina UL; Leus, Geert; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), 10-14 June 2014, Sydney, Australia (2014, June)

Distributed spectrum sensing enhances the detection reliability of a cognitive radio network. However, this comes at the price of a higher energy consumption. To solve this problem, a combined censoring ... [more ▼]

Distributed spectrum sensing enhances the detection reliability of a cognitive radio network. However, this comes at the price of a higher energy consumption. To solve this problem, a combined censoring and sleeping scheme is considered where the cognitive radios switch off their sensing module with a specific sleeping rate in each sensing period. The awake cognitive radios send their local decisions to the fusion center only if it is deemed to be informative. The fusion center either employs the OR or the AND rule to make the final decision about the presence or absence of the primary user. This paper investigates which rule performs better in terms of energy efficiency under various conditions. The underlying sensing parameters are derived by minimizing the maximum average energy consumption per sensor subject to a constraint on the probabilities of false alarm and detection. This way, it can be ensured that the spectrum opportunities are utilized efficiently while the primary users are not interfered with. A case study based on IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee is considered for performance evaluation. It is shown that significant energy savings can be obtained by employing combined censoring and sleeping. [less ▲]

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See detailTechnical Challenges for Cognitive Radio Application in Satellite Communications
Tarchi, Daniele; Guidotti, Alessandro; Icolari, Vincenzo et al

in 9th International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communications (CROWNCOM), 2014 (2014, June)

During the last years, spectrum scarcity has become one of the major issues for the development of new communication systems. Cognitive Radio (CR) approaches have gained an ever increasing attention from ... [more ▼]

During the last years, spectrum scarcity has become one of the major issues for the development of new communication systems. Cognitive Radio (CR) approaches have gained an ever increasing attention from system designers and operators, as they promise a more efficient utilization of the available spectral resources. In this context, while the application of CRs in terrestrial scenarios has been widely considered from both theoretical and practical viewpoints, their exploitation in satellite communications is still a rather unexplored area. In this paper, we address the definition of several satellite communications scenarios, where cognitive radio techniques promise to introduce significant benefits, and we discuss the major enablers and the associated challenges [less ▲]

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See detailPower Allocation for Energy-Constrained Cognitive Radios in the Presence of an Eavesdropper
Maleki, Sina UL; Kalantari, Ashkan UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in 2014 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP) (2014, May)

Reliable and agile spectrum sensing as well as secure communication are key requirements of a cognitive radio system. In this paper, secrecy throughput of a cognitive radio is maximized in order to ... [more ▼]

Reliable and agile spectrum sensing as well as secure communication are key requirements of a cognitive radio system. In this paper, secrecy throughput of a cognitive radio is maximized in order to determine the sensing threshold, the sensing time, and the transmission power. Constraints of the problem are defined as a lower-bound on the detection probability, an upper-bound on the average energy consumption per time-frame, and the maximum transmission power of the cognitive radio. We show that the problem can be solved by an on-off strategy where the cognitive radio only performs sensing and transmits data if the cognitive channel gain is greater than the average eavesdropper channel gain. The problem is then solved by a line-search over sensing time. Eventually, the secrecy throughput of the cognitive radio is evaluated employing the IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee standard. [less ▲]

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See detailDistributed Wideband Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radio Networks
Arroyo-Valles, Rocio; Maleki, Sina UL; Leus, Geert

in 2014 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP) (2014, May)

Wideband spectrum sensing improves the agility of spectrum sensing and spectrum hand-off in cognitive radio systems. In this paper, a distributed wideband spectrum sensing technique over adaptive ... [more ▼]

Wideband spectrum sensing improves the agility of spectrum sensing and spectrum hand-off in cognitive radio systems. In this paper, a distributed wideband spectrum sensing technique over adaptive diffusion networks is proposed. Considering unknown and different channels between the primary and the cognitive users, an averaged received power spectrum across all the cognitive users is estimated by each user using diffusion adaptation techniques. This averaged power spectrum estimate is reliable enough for the users to perform spectrum sensing and make a decision regarding the presence or the absence of the primary user. The simulation results show that the detection performance of the system improves with the number of iterations. Further, a satisfactory detection performance at low SNRs is achieved after a few iterations, which is a desired characteristic for cognitive radio systems. Finally, it is shown that the cooperative technique outperforms the non-cooperative one in terms of estimation accuracy and detection performance. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of hard fusion based spectrum sensing for energy-constrained cognitive radio networks
Maleki, Sina UL; Prabhakar Chepuri, Sundeep; Leus, Geert

in Physical Communication (2013), 9

The detection reliability of a cognitive radio network improves by employing a cooperative spectrum sensing scheme. However, increasing the number of cognitive radios entails a growth in the cooperation ... [more ▼]

The detection reliability of a cognitive radio network improves by employing a cooperative spectrum sensing scheme. However, increasing the number of cognitive radios entails a growth in the cooperation overhead of the system. Such an overhead leads to a throughput degradation of the cognitive radio network. Since current cognitive radio networks consist of low-power radios, the energy consumption is another critical issue. In this paper, throughput optimization of the hard fusion based sensing using the k-out-of-N rule is considered. We maximize the throughput of the cognitive radio network subject to a constraint on the probability of detection and energy consumption per cognitive radio in order to derive the optimal number of users, the optimal k and the best probability of false alarm. The simulation results based on the IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee standard, show that the majority rule is either optimal or almost optimal in terms of the network throughput. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy-Efficient Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radio Networks
Maleki, Sina UL

Book published by ipskampdrukkers (2013)

Dynamic spectrum access employing cognitive radios has been proposed, in order to opportunistically use underutilized spectrum portions of a heavily licensed electromagnetic spectrum. Cognitive radios ... [more ▼]

Dynamic spectrum access employing cognitive radios has been proposed, in order to opportunistically use underutilized spectrum portions of a heavily licensed electromagnetic spectrum. Cognitive radios opportunistically share the spectrum, while avoiding any harmful interference to the primary licensed users. One major category of cognitive radios consists of is interweave cognitive radios. In this category, cognitive radios employ spectrum sensing to detect the empty bands of the radio spectrum, also known as spectrum holes. Upon detection of such a spectrum hole, cognitive radios dynamically share this empty band. However, as soon as the primary user appears in the corresponding band, cognitive radios have to vacate the band and look for a new spectrum hole. This way, reliable spectrum sensing becomes a key functionality of a cognitive radio network. The hidden terminal problem and fading effects have been shown to limit the reliability of spectrum sensing. Distributed cooperative detection has therefore been proposed to improve the detection performance of a cognitive radio network. In this thesis, a distributed detection scheme based on hard fusion of local results is considered. Each cognitive radio senses the spectrum and sends the result to the fusion center, and there the final decision is made about the presence or absence of the primary user. Note that, in general, cognitive radios are low-power sensors and thus energy consumption becomes a critical issue. In this thesis, several energy-efficient approaches are proposed, in order to minimize the maximum average energy consumption per sensor, while satisfying the sensing reliability of the cognitive radio network. The sensing reliability is defined by a lower bound on the probability of detection and an upper bound on the probability of false alarm. This way, the primary user is protected from the cognitive radio transmitter’s interference and also the chance of losing spectrum access through erroneous detection of the primary user in an empty band is constrained. First, a censoring scheme is considered where cognitive radios send their results to the fusion center only if they are deemed to be informative. Second, a combined censoring and truncated sequential sensing scheme is depicted which is shown to be more energy-efficient than the former case due to the sensing energy reduction. And third, a combined censoring and sleeping scheme is discussed where on top of censoring, each cognitive radio switches off its sensing module with a specific sleeping rate, in order to save energy both on transmission and sensing. It is shown that all the proposed schemes, particularly combined censoring and sleeping as well as censored truncated sequential sensing delivers significant energy savings. Further, we conclude that when a cognitive radio system is appropriately well-designed in terms of energy efficiency, increasing the number of cooperative cognitive sensors, not only improves the detection performance, but also reduces the average energy consumption of individual cognitive radios. Finally, an optimal fusion strategy for energy-constrained hard-fusion based cognitive radio networks is presented, which optimizes the network throughput subject to a constraint on the average energy consumption of individual radios and a constraint on the amount of interference to the primary user. It is shown that the majority rule is either optimal or close to optimal in terms of the network throughput. [less ▲]

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See detailA censoring strategy for decentralized estimation in energy-constrained adaptive diffusion networks
Arroyo-Valles, Rocio; Maleki, Sina UL; Leus, Geert

in IEEE 14th Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications (SPAWC), 2013 (2013, June)

This paper presents a censoring strategy for distributed estimation over adaptive networks in scenarios where energy resources are limited. Sensors apply selective communication policies in order to save ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a censoring strategy for distributed estimation over adaptive networks in scenarios where energy resources are limited. Sensors apply selective communication policies in order to save energy for being able to transmit more important information later. Simulation results show an enhancement in network lifetime, by reducing communication processes among nodes with a slightly degraded result, compared with energy unconstrained schemes. [less ▲]

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See detailCensored Truncated Sequential Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radio Networks
Maleki, Sina UL; Leus, Geert

in IEEE Journal on Selected Areas In Communications (2013), 31(3), 364-378

Reliable spectrum sensing is a key functionality of a cognitive radio network. Cooperative spectrum sensing improves the detection reliability of a cognitive radio system but also increases the system ... [more ▼]

Reliable spectrum sensing is a key functionality of a cognitive radio network. Cooperative spectrum sensing improves the detection reliability of a cognitive radio system but also increases the system energy consumption which is a critical factor particularly for low-power wireless technologies. A censored truncated sequential spectrum sensing technique is considered as an energy-saving approach. To design the underlying sensing parameters, the maximum average energy consumption per sensor is minimized subject to a lower bounded global probability of detection and an upper bounded false alarm rate. This way both the interference to the primary user due to miss detection and the network throughput as a result of a low false alarm rate are controlled. To solve this problem, it is assumed that the cognitive radios and fusion center are aware of their location and mutual channel properties. We compare the performance of the proposed scheme with a fixed sample size censoring scheme under different scenarios and show that for low-power cognitive radios, censored truncated sequential sensing outperforms censoring. It is shown that as the sensing energy per sample of the cognitive radios increases, the energy efficiency of the censored truncated sequential approach grows significantly. [less ▲]

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