References of "Leist, Anja 50002195"
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See detailTackling the global challenge of dementia
Leist, Anja UL

Speeches/Talks (2016)

The talk gives an overview of the current activities of the World Young Leaders in Dementia and the newly formed World Dementia Council, along with recent findings in research on dementia (1) from a ... [more ▼]

The talk gives an overview of the current activities of the World Young Leaders in Dementia and the newly formed World Dementia Council, along with recent findings in research on dementia (1) from a social epidemiological and life course perspective, (2) with regard to societal and economic costs of dementia, and (3) with regard to delaying onset and progression of dementia. [less ▲]

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See detailInequality in old age cognition across the world
Olivera, Javier; Leist, Anja UL; Chauvel, Louis UL

in PAA website (2016)

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See detailCohort factors impinging on suicide rates in the United States, 1990-2010
Chauvel, Louis UL; Leist, Anja UL; Smith, Herbert

in PAA server (2016)

We use CDC microdata on cause of death and CPS data on populations by age to create suicide rates for five-year age groups at five-year intervals, further cross-classified by race/ethnicity, education ... [more ▼]

We use CDC microdata on cause of death and CPS data on populations by age to create suicide rates for five-year age groups at five-year intervals, further cross-classified by race/ethnicity, education, and marital status. We examine the suicide history 1990-2010 of U.S. birth cohorts, net of age and cohort linear trends. These de-trended cohort deviations follow familiar patterns: most pronounced in the Baby Boom, least pronounced during the Baby Bust, they illustrate the so-called Easterlin effect. Suicide rates for women show similar patterns as suicide patterns for men. We show persistence of those effects net of micro factors (especially education and marriage) implicated in suicide behavior and correlated at the macro level with relative cohort size. Analysis of suicide patterns over time for high- and low-educated men and women shows that white men with low education face a sharp increase, significantly above the linear time trends, in suicide rates among cohorts born between 1955 and 1970. This bump is mostly unrelated to secular trends of increasing average educational attainment rates, at least if no interaction between age and cohort is involved in the explanation. No obvious pattern related to cohort size is found for African-American high- and low-educated men, which makes sense given the very different historical dynamics for this minority sub-population. [less ▲]

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See detailCognitive inequalities in later life: Cross-country differences in the education-cognition gradient
Leist, Anja UL

in Gerontologist (2016), 56(S3), 428-429

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See detailIs income equality also better for your cognitive health? A multilevel analysis on trajectories of cognitive function at older ages
Leist, Anja UL; Chauvel, Louis UL

in PAA website (2016)

This paper contributes to research on contextual associations with older-age cognitive function by investigating to which extent country-level income inequality is associated with older-age cognitive ... [more ▼]

This paper contributes to research on contextual associations with older-age cognitive function by investigating to which extent country-level income inequality is associated with older-age cognitive function and decline. Data came from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), providing information on cognitive function (fluency, immediate and delayed recall) of respondents aged 50-80 years coming from a total of 16 European countries that participated in at least two waves of SHARE. A total of 44,303 observations were available at first and second measurement, 13,509 observations at third measurement, and 9,736 observations at fourth measurement. Three-level hierarchical models (measurements nested within individuals nested within countries) were run, showing that income inequality was negatively associated with cognitive level but not with decline. The findings suggest that income inequality is not associated with cognitive trajectories. Mechanisms of maintaining cognitive function at older ages may not be susceptible to country-level income inequalities. [less ▲]

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See detailEconomic recessions and cognitive function in older age. Evidence from SHARE and HRS
Leist, Anja UL

Presentation (2015, December)

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See detailDementia and cognitive function in old age
Leist, Anja UL

Speeches/Talks (2015)

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See detailEconomic recessions and later-life cognitive function. Evidence from SHARE and HRS
Leist, Anja UL

Presentation (2015, June 03)

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See detailSocial epidemiology
Chauvel, Louis UL; Leist, Anja UL

in Wright, James D. (Ed.) International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences (2015)

The search of social determinants of health and disease has advanced substantially over the last decade. We present recent theoretical advancements, methodological approaches, and a selection of empirical ... [more ▼]

The search of social determinants of health and disease has advanced substantially over the last decade. We present recent theoretical advancements, methodological approaches, and a selection of empirical evidence for the three main research strands: First, social inequalities can explain health differences. Here, we first focus on hierarchic social stratification with regard to socioeconomic and social class differences influencing health, then we extend the view towards non-hierarchic social stratification with regard to ethno-cultural differences, lifestyle, and cognitive and non-cognitive abilities. We shortly mention social relations and social network as determinants of health. Last, we use the concept of social times to distinguish age, period, and cohort effects in population health. After presenting evidence on contextual social determinants of health, we close with methodological challenges, social policy implications, and translation to practice. [less ▲]

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See detailHow can we promote cognitive reserve during the life course? Social, behavioral, contextual factors
Leist, Anja UL

in Gerontologist (2015), 55(Suppl 2), 210

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See detailIncreases in well-being after transition to retirement for unemployed. Catching up with formerly employed persons.
Ponomarenko, Valentina UL; Leist, Anja UL; Chauvel, Louis UL

E-print/Working paper (2015)

This paper examines the extent to which well-being levels change in the transition to retirement depending on transitioning from being employed, unemployed, or economically inactive. Whereas transitioning ... [more ▼]

This paper examines the extent to which well-being levels change in the transition to retirement depending on transitioning from being employed, unemployed, or economically inactive. Whereas transitioning from employment to unemployment has been found to cause an increase in depressive symptoms or decline in life satisfaction with more time spent in unemployment, it is not clear to which extent transitioning from unemployment to retirement affects well-being levels compared to retiring after being employed or economically inactive. We use two waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe monitoring respondents transitioning to retirement and use life satisfaction as well-being measure. The effect of the transition is captured with a difference-in-difference like approach to test if the change in well-being after retirement is different for persons who were formerly unemployed or inactive, respectively, compared to formerly employed retirees. Results indicate that retiring from unemployment is associated with an increase in life satisfaction, but presents mainly a catching-up effect compared to employed persons transitioning to retirement. Retirement from labour market inactivity, especially sick leave, does not lead to significant changes in well-being. Findings are robust to selection into unemployment and country differences. As well-being of unemployed persons recovers after transitioning to retirement, especially the currently unemployed population should be supported to prevent detrimental consequences of economically unfavourable conditions and lower well-being. [less ▲]

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See detailVariations of the stratification of health in more and less equal societies: The role of social origins
Chauvel, Louis UL; Leist, Anja UL

Scientific Conference (2015)

Full paper in press at International Journal for Equity in Health: Chauvel, L., & Leist, A. K. Socioeconomic hierarchy and health gradient in Europe: The role of income inequality and of social origins

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See detailIncome inequality and health: Age-related health gains for those better-off, in more equal societies
Chauvel, Louis UL; Leist, Anja UL

in Gerontologist (2015), 55(Suppl 2), 459-460

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See detailRecessions, unemployment and the brain: Do individual and aggregate economic shocks prior to retirement leave a cognitive ‘scar’?
Hessel, Philipp; Leist, Anja UL; Riumallo-Herl, Carlos J. et al

in http://paa2015.princeton.edu (2015)

Based on a linkage of state unemployment rates and individual-level data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), we assess whether exposure to unfavorable macroeconomic conditions in the years leading ... [more ▼]

Based on a linkage of state unemployment rates and individual-level data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), we assess whether exposure to unfavorable macroeconomic conditions in the years leading up to retirement affect both levels as well as changes in cognitive functioning after retirement. Our results suggest that recessions experienced in the years prior to retirement can have substantial negative effects on cognitive function at age 65 and beyond. Our results are robust to various specifications and suggest that these effects are particularly strong for older workers with unstable careers who are hit by a recession, while they are similar for individuals from different race or educational level. [less ▲]

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See detailSocioeconomic hierarchy and health gradient in Europe: The role of income inequality and of social origins
Chauvel, Louis UL; Leist, Anja UL

in International Journal for Equity in Health (2015), 14(132), 1-12

Introduction. Health inequalities reflect multidimensional inequality (income, education, and other indicators of socioeconomic position) and vary across countries and welfare regimes. To which extent ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Health inequalities reflect multidimensional inequality (income, education, and other indicators of socioeconomic position) and vary across countries and welfare regimes. To which extent there is intergenerational transmission of health via parental socioeconomic status has rarely been investigated in comparative perspective. The study sought to explore if different measures of stratification produce the same health gradient and to which extent health gradients of income and of social origins vary with level of living and income inequality. Method. A total of 299,770 observations were available from 18 countries assessed in EU-SILC 2005 and 2011 data, which contain information on social origins. Income inequality (Gini) and level of living were calculated from EU-SILC. Logit rank transformation provided normalized inequalities and distributions of income and social origins up to the extremes of the distribution and was used to investigate net comparable health gradients in detail. Multilevel random-slope models were run to post-estimate best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) and related standard deviations of residual intercepts (median health) and slopes (income-health gradients) per country and survey year. Results. Health gradients varied across different measures of stratification, with origins and income producing significant slopes after controls. Income inequality was associated with worse average health, but income inequality and steepness of the health gradient were only marginally associated. Discussion. Linear health gradients suggest gains in health per rank of income and of origins even at the very extremes of the distribution. Intergenerational transmission of status gains in importance in countries with higher income inequality. Countries differ in the association of income inequality and income-related health gradient, and low income inequality may mask health problems of vulnerable individuals with low status. Not only income inequality, but other country characteristics such as familial orientation play a considerable role in explaining steepness of the health gradient. [less ▲]

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See detailDo economic recessions during early and mid-adulthood influence cognitive function in older age?
Leist, Anja UL; Hessel, Philipp; Avendano, Mauricio

in Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health (2014), 68

Background. Fluctuations in the national economy shape labour market opportunities and outcomes, which in turn may influence the accumulation of cognitive reserve. This study examines whether economic ... [more ▼]

Background. Fluctuations in the national economy shape labour market opportunities and outcomes, which in turn may influence the accumulation of cognitive reserve. This study examines whether economic recessions experienced in early and mid-adulthood are associated with later-life cognitive function. Method. Data came from 12,020 respondents in 11 countries participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Cognitive assessments in 2004/5 and 2006/7 were linked to complete work histories retrospectively collected in 2008/9, and to historical annual data on fluctuations in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita for each country. Controlling for confounders, we assessed whether recessions experienced at ages 25-34, 35-44 and 45-49 were associated with cognitive function at ages 50-74. Results. Among men, each additional recession at ages 45-49 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b = -0.06, Confidence Interval [CI] -0.11, -0.01). Among women, each additional recession at ages 25-44 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b25-34 = -0.03, CI -0.04, -0.01; b35-44= -0.02, CI -0.04, -0.00). Among men, recessions at ages 45-49 influenced risk of being laid-off, whereas among women, recessions at ages 25-44 led to working part-time and higher likelihood of downward occupational mobility, which were all predictors of worse later-life cognitive function. Conclusions. Recessions at ages 45-49 among men and 25-44 among women are associated with later-life cognitive function, possibly via more unfavourable labour market trajectories. If replicated in future studies, findings may indicate that policies that ameliorate the impact of recessions on labour market outcomes may promote later-life cognitive function. [less ▲]

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See detailPerspectives on health and cognition in old age. Why we need multidisciplinary investigations.
Leist, Anja UL; Kulmala, Jenni; Nyqvist, Fredrica

in Leist, Anja; Kulmala, Jenni; Nyqvist, Fredrica (Eds.) Health and cognition in old age. From biomedical and life course factors to policy and practice. (2014)

Maintaining health and cognition is vital to ensure that individuals can live autonomously up to and including old age. One of the most pressing topics in today’s ageing societies is how to delay ... [more ▼]

Maintaining health and cognition is vital to ensure that individuals can live autonomously up to and including old age. One of the most pressing topics in today’s ageing societies is how to delay impairments in health and cognition in old age for as long as possible, with a particular focus on cognitive and physical functioning as these are of particular importance to maintain autonomy. This edited volume presents four different perspectives on developments in current aging research relating to health and cognition in old age. Using health as overarching concept, the volume addresses different components of health such as physical functioning, cognitive health, mental well-being, self-regulation, and others. First, it examines the role of biomedical factors in ageing by identifying crucial elements of the biological ageing process and presenting possible interventions which aim at ensuring a healthy and active old age. Second, the volume gives an overview of new findings on how influences across the life course contribute to cognition and health in old age. Third, it presents advancements in care and interventions, which aim at maintaining and improving impaired health and well-being of older individuals who are in need of care and assistance. Lastly, the volume illustrates approaches in policy and practice by presenting both individual resources and societal processes that shape the experience and images of old age. [less ▲]

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See detailHealth and cognition in old age: From biomedical and life course factors to policy and practice
Leist, Anja UL; Kulmala, Jenni; Nyqvist, Fredrica

Book published by Springer (2014)

- Covers qualitative and quantitative studies from broad range of disciplines - Covers all important layers on which healthy and active aging are affected and can be influenced​ - Addresses health ... [more ▼]

- Covers qualitative and quantitative studies from broad range of disciplines - Covers all important layers on which healthy and active aging are affected and can be influenced​ - Addresses health, cognition, and quality of life in older people In recent years, the aim of research on aging has shifted from prolonging life to fostering healthy and cognitively robust old age. In order to improve the quality of life of older people, we need to better understand cognitive aging as well as bodily aging. Health and Cognition in Old Age assembles the cream of research across varied medical, mental health, and social disciplines, and demonstrates how this knowledge can lead to improved outcomes for older people. The first half of this expert volume discusses biomedical and life course factors in aging, particularly as they affect cognition and well-being in later life. From there, effective solutions are the focus: interventions and care programs to improve mental functioning and general quality of life, and current policy and practice ideas in promoting healthy, active, and cognitively robust aging. Together, these diverse chapters offer a multi-faceted approach to understanding and modifying what was formerly the inevitable course of growing old. A sampling of the coverage: - How the aging process affects the immune system. - Occupational gerontology – work-related determinants of old age health and functioning. - Social, behavioral, and contextual influences on cognitive function and decline. - Lifestyle factors in the prevention of dementia. - Understanding long-term care outcomes: conventional and behavioral economics. - Social capital, mental well-being, and loneliness in older people. For gerontologists, sociologists, social workers, health psychologists, and others working to improve older people’s lives, Health and Cognition in Old Age brings expertise, versatility, and confidence to the table. [less ▲]

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