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See detailAlcohol warning labels formulated as questions change alcohol-related outcome expectancies: A pilot study
Krischler, Mireille UL; Glock, Sabine

in Addiction Research and Theory (2015)

Alcohol consumption is a leading risk factor for major diseases, particularly among young adults who increasingly engage in binge drinking. Since positive outcome expectancies play a pivotal role in ... [more ▼]

Alcohol consumption is a leading risk factor for major diseases, particularly among young adults who increasingly engage in binge drinking. Since positive outcome expectancies play a pivotal role in alcohol consumption, we designed alcohol warning labels tailored toward young adults’ outcome expectancies. The warnings were formulated as questions or as statements that were accompanied by a picture. We implemented the warning labels on young adults’ favorite alcohol beverages (beer and alcopops) and presented them in the laboratory. One-hundred twenty-two young adults participated in the study. One third of the sample received the warning labels in question form, one third in statement form, and the final third received no warning labels. We assessed general outcome expectancies, individual outcome expectancies derived from a pre-study, and drinking intentions. The results of this experiment revealed that warning labels presented as statements had no influence on individual and general outcome expectancies and drinking intentions. Warnings posed in the form of questions showed some effectiveness as they increased individual negative outcome expectancy perception. Although only partially effective, the warning labels seem promising for future research. [less ▲]

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