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See detailImplicit and Explicit Age Stereotypes for Specific Life Domains Across the Life Span: Distinct Patterns and Age Group Differences
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Meissner, Franziska; Rothermund, Klaus

in Experimental Aging Research (2016), 42(2), 195-211

Background/Study Context: Drawing on research that shows the importance of age stereotypes across the life span, the authors investigated domain-specific implicit and explicit age stereotypes in different ... [more ▼]

Background/Study Context: Drawing on research that shows the importance of age stereotypes across the life span, the authors investigated domain-specific implicit and explicit age stereotypes in different age groups. Methods: Implicit (Implicit Association Test [IAT]; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464-1480) and explicit age stereotypes were assessed for the domains of family and health in a sample of N=90 younger, middle-aged, and older adults. Results: Overall, age stereotypes were negative for the health domain but not for the family domain. Distinct patterns of age group differences emerged depending on domain and assessment method. In the family domain, older participants held the least positive explicit age stereotypes, whereas implicit stereotypes in this domain were most positive for this age group compared with the young and middle-aged groups. For the health domain, implicit and explicit age associations indicated that middle-aged participants showed the most negative age-associations. Conclusions: These findings suggest that implicit and explicit age stereotypes in different life domains represent largely independent constructs. Differential age group effects are assumed to reflect the result of accommodative and assimilative processes that are used to cope with age-related changes. Implications for future studies of implicit and explicit age stereotypes and their influence on developmental regulation are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailDo age stereotypes as social role expectations for older adults influence personality development?
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL

in JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN PERSONALITY (2016), 60

Age stereotypes as social role expectations for older adults were hypothesized to influence personality development in later life for specific stereotype domain x personality trait combinations. N = 965 ... [more ▼]

Age stereotypes as social role expectations for older adults were hypothesized to influence personality development in later life for specific stereotype domain x personality trait combinations. N = 965 participants aged 50-60 from the Midlife Development in the U.S. (MIDUS) study provided ratings about "people in their late sixties" in four domains at T-1 and completed a personality questionnaire at T-1 and at T-2 ten years later. Personality at T-2 was regressed on age stereotypes and personality at baseline. Age stereotypes in the domains Family/Relationships and Wisdom were related to changes in both Agreeableness and Extraversion over ten years. The findings provide tentative support for the role of positive age stereotypes in personality development in older age. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLooking Beyond Chronological Age: Current Knowledge and Future Directions in the Study of Subjective Age
Kotter-Gruehn, Dana; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Stephan, Yannick

in GERONTOLOGY (2016), 62(1), 86-93

The notion of the heterogeneity of aging goes along with the awareness that every person experiences aging differently. Over the past years, scholars have emphasized that the assessment of these ... [more ▼]

The notion of the heterogeneity of aging goes along with the awareness that every person experiences aging differently. Over the past years, scholars have emphasized that the assessment of these subjective experiences of aging contributes to our understanding of a range of psychological and physiological processes and outcomes among older adults. One construct frequently used in this context is subjective age, that is, how old or young a person feels. Subjective age has been shown to be an important correlate as well as a predictor of markers of successful aging such as well-being, health, and longevity. However, less is known about the antecedents of subjective age and the mechanisms underlying the relationship between feeling younger and positive developmental outcomes. This article briefly summarizes and critically evaluates the empirical evidence on this topic and makes suggestions on how to address and potentially overcome currently existing theoretical, methodological, and psychometric challenges. Based on the discussion of these challenges, the paper provides directions for future research by outlining underexplored topics such as intraindividual variability and determinants of subjective age, the match between objective age indicators and subjective age, and how subjective age maps on behavior and functioning. (C) 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel [less ▲]

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See detailGENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL SOURCES OF VIEWS ON AGING: AGE- AND DOMAIN-SPECIFIC ANALYSES
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Kandler, Christian

in GERONTOLOGIST (2016), 56(3), 503-503

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See detailHope for the Best, Prepare for the Worst? Future Self-Views and Preparation for Age-Related Changes
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Voss, Peggy; Rothermund, Klaus

in PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING (2015), 30(4), 967-976

Extending research on the impact of views on aging and developmental regulation across the life span, we tested the hypothesis that more positive views of oneself as an older person predict more ... [more ▼]

Extending research on the impact of views on aging and developmental regulation across the life span, we tested the hypothesis that more positive views of oneself as an older person predict more preparation for age-related changes. Drawing on recent evidence regarding the domain specificity of aging-related developmental processes, we assumed this relationship to be moderated by the relevance of preparation in different life domains for different age groups. We investigated these research questions in a longitudinal study that assessed future self-views and preparation for different life domains in a sample covering a large part of the adult life span. Findings supported our hypotheses: More positive/negative personal views of one's own aging at T1 predicted subsequent increases/decreases in preparation, with influences being strongest for those domains in which relevant age-related changes are expected to occur for the respective age groups. Our study provides additional evidence for the idea that views on aging shape development, identifying age-related provision making as an important mediating process. Furthermore, our findings highlight the added value of a domain-specific approach that takes the differential relevance of life domains and age-related developmental tasks into account. [less ▲]

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See detailViews on aging: Domain-specific approaches and implications for developmental regulation
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Rothermund, Klaus

in Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics (2015)

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See detailPatterns and Sources of Personality Development in Old Age
Kandler, Christian; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Hagemeyer, Birk et al

in JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY (2015), 109(1), 175-191

Despite abundant evidence that personality development continues in adulthood, little is known about the patterns and sources of personality development in old age. We thus investigated mean-level trends ... [more ▼]

Despite abundant evidence that personality development continues in adulthood, little is known about the patterns and sources of personality development in old age. We thus investigated mean-level trends and individual differences in change as well as the genetic and environmental sources of rank-order continuity and change in several personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness, perceived control, and affect intensity) and well-being. In addition, we analyzed the interrelation between perceived control and change in other personality traits as well as between change in personality traits and change in well-being. We analyzed data from older adult twins, aged 64-85 years at Time 1 (N = 410; 135 males and 275 females; 134 monozygotic and 63 dizygotic twin pairs), collected at 2 different time points about 5 years apart. On average, neuroticism increased, whereas extraversion, conscientiousness, and perceived control significantly decreased over time. Change in perceived control was associated with change in neuroticism and conscientiousness, pointing to particular adaptation mechanisms specific to old age. Whereas individual differences in personality traits were fairly stable due to both genetic and environmental sources, individual differences in change were primarily due to environmental sources (beyond random error) indicating plasticity in old age. Even though the average level of well-being did not significantly change over time, individual well-being tended to decrease with strongly increasing levels of neuroticism as well as decreasing extraversion, conscientiousness, and perceived control, indicating that personality traits predict well-being but not vice versa. We discuss implications for theory on personality development across the lifespan. [less ▲]

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See detailPreparation for old age in different life domains Dimensions and age differences
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Rothermund, Klaus

in INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT (2014), 38(3), 228-238

We investigated preparation for age-related changes from a multidimensional, life span perspective and administered a newly developed questionnaire to a large sample aged 30-80 years. Preparing for age ... [more ▼]

We investigated preparation for age-related changes from a multidimensional, life span perspective and administered a newly developed questionnaire to a large sample aged 30-80 years. Preparing for age-related changes was organized by life domains, with domain-specific types of preparation addressing obstacles and opportunities in the respective domains. Preparing for a third (focusing on activities, leisure, work, fitness, appearance) and a fourth age (focusing on emergencies, dependence/independence, housing, financial arrangements) emerged as superordinate categories of preparation. Different age gradients were obtained for the factors, the former peaking around the age of 65, whereas the latter increased linearly up to the age of 80. Furthermore, preparation factors were characterized by distinct personality profiles. The findings attest to the importance of a differentiated view on preparation for age-related changes and its relevance across the life span. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Bedeutung von Altersbildern im Lebenslauf
Bowen, Catherine E.; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Kessler, Eva-Marie

in Wahl, Hans-Werner; Kruse, Andreas (Eds.) Lebensläufe im Wandel – Sichtweisen verschiedener Disziplinen (2014)

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See detailMultiple standards of aging: gender-specific age stereotypes in different life domains
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Voss, Peggy; Rothermund, Klaus

in EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF AGEING (2013), 10(4), 335-344

Whereas it is often stated that aging might have more negative consequences for the evaluation of women compared to men, evidence for this assumption is mixed. We took a differentiated look at age ... [more ▼]

Whereas it is often stated that aging might have more negative consequences for the evaluation of women compared to men, evidence for this assumption is mixed. We took a differentiated look at age stereotypes of men and women, assuming that the life domain in which older persons are rated moderates gender differences in age stereotypes. A sample of 298 participants aged 20-92 rated 65-year-old men and women on evaluative statements in eight different life domains. Furthermore, perceptions of gender-and domain-specific age-related changes were assessed by comparing the older targets to 45-year-old men and women, respectively. The results speak in favor of the domain specificity of evaluative asymmetries in age stereotypes for men and women, and imply that an understanding of gendered perceptions of aging requires taking into account the complexities of domain-specific views on aging. [less ▲]

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See detailNegative Automatic Evaluation and Better Recognition of Bodily Symptom Words in College Students with Elevated Health Anxiety
Schmidt, Erika; Witthoeft, Michael; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL et al

in Cognitive Therapy and Research (2013), 37(5), 1027-1040

This study explored whether better recognition of symptom words is associated with stronger negative automatic evaluations of these words. We compared participants with health anxiety (HA; N = 27) to ... [more ▼]

This study explored whether better recognition of symptom words is associated with stronger negative automatic evaluations of these words. We compared participants with health anxiety (HA; N = 27) to dysphoric (N = 29) and to non-health-anxious and non-dysphoric control participants (N = 28) in the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and in a word recognition task using health-threat-related, negative emotional, and neutral control words. Participants with HA made significantly more mistakes on the IAT than both other groups, in pairing the evaluation "harmless" with specific "symptoms" (p = .02, eta(2) = .10). Additionally, recognition performance was positively related to the IAT evaluation bias. The findings suggest that persons with HA automatically interpret symptoms as being more dangerous than the others saw them. This evaluation bias might explain the facilitation of access to symptom information in working memory that underlies cognitive biases observed in HA. [less ▲]

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See detailInternalization of Age Stereotypes Into the Self-Concept via Future Self-Views: A General Model and Domain-Specific Differences
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Rothermund, Klaus

in PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING (2012), 27(1), 164-172

We investigated a pathway through which age stereotypes (AS) become internalized into the self. Domain-specific AS, as well as future self-views (FS) and current self-views (CS), were assessed in a sample ... [more ▼]

We investigated a pathway through which age stereotypes (AS) become internalized into the self. Domain-specific AS, as well as future self-views (FS) and current self-views (CS), were assessed in a sample of middle-aged and older adults. AS were positively related to CS and this effect was mediated via FS. These relations were stronger for older persons, indicating that the internalization process depends on a self-categorization as being old. A comparison of life domains revealed that an age-dependent internalization of AS emerged mainly for those domains in which age-related changes are expected to occur during later phases of life. [less ▲]

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See detailContexts of Aging: Assessing Evaluative Age Stereotypes in Different Life Domains
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Rothermund, Klaus

in Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences (2011), 66(5), 547-556

Objectives. Research on age stereotypes suggests that views of older persons are complex and multidimensional. We investigated the positivity or negativity of age stereotypes with respect to different ... [more ▼]

Objectives. Research on age stereotypes suggests that views of older persons are complex and multidimensional. We investigated the positivity or negativity of age stereotypes with respect to different life domains. Method. A newly developed questionnaire assessing domain-specific age stereotypes was administered to a large sample of adults covering a wide age range. Results. Our findings confirm the existence of independent domain-specific age stereotypes, providing evidence for a multifaceted and complex view of old age and aging. "Old persons" were evaluated differently in the various life domains, and age thresholds for ascriptions of being old differed between domains. Furthermore, the positivity of domain-specific age stereotypes of a person predicted individual life satisfaction for the respective life domain. The strength of the relationship between age stereotypes and life satisfaction increased with participants' age. Discussion. Our results indicate the existence of domain-specific age stereotypes that become internalized into older persons' self-views. [less ▲]

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See detailDimensionen und Deutungsmuster des Alterns: Vorstellungen vom Altern, Altsein und der Lebensgestaltung im Alter.
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Rothermund, Klaus

in ZEITSCHRIFT FUR GERONTOLOGIE UND GERIATRIE (2011), 44(5), 291-296

Attitudes about older people and being old develop in the early and middle phases of life and influence the subsequent aging process. Because aging processes vary across different domains of life and ... [more ▼]

Attitudes about older people and being old develop in the early and middle phases of life and influence the subsequent aging process. Because aging processes vary across different domains of life and functioning, one cannot assume unanimously negative or positive attitudes towards old age and aging. Thus, in the psychological part of the project Zones of Transition ("Zonen des Ubergangs"), age stereotypes and views of the self in old age were assessed in different life domains and for different age groups, and their relation to wellbeing and the self-concept was investigated. The project also focused on the analysis of attitudes towards one's personal way of living in old age. A questionnaire was developed that assesses those attitudes on the basis of the dimensions "active commitment" and "pleasure and leisure". Our results support a multidimensional conception of attitudes towards aging and way of living in old age as well as of their influence on development across the lifespan. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Vielfältigkeit und Relevanz von Altersstereotypen.
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Rothermund, Klaus

in In Mind : the Inquisitive Mind, Social Psychology for You (2011)

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See detailThe moderating role of working memory load on affective attentional processes in health anxiety
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Witthoeft, Michael; Rist, Fred et al

in ZEITSCHRIFT FUR KLINISCHE PSYCHOLOGIE UND PSYCHOTHERAPIE (2009), 38(3), 194-202

Background: Cognitive-behavioral models of health anxiety propose selective attention as an important factor in the development and maintenance of the disorder. However, experimental evidence for this ... [more ▼]

Background: Cognitive-behavioral models of health anxiety propose selective attention as an important factor in the development and maintenance of the disorder. However, experimental evidence for this assumption is equivocal. It is possible that subjects with sub-threshold health anxiety are able to control attention to threat stimuli (cognitive compensation hypothesis). Simultaneous working memory load (WML) may be a factor restricting this control and increasing the attentional bias. Objectives: The aim of the current study was to investigate the cognitive compensation hypothesis for health anxiety in a student analog sample. Method: An emotional Stroop task (EST) with symptom and illness words was administered to students with elevated HA (N = 27), elevated depression (DY; N = 29), and controls (CG; N = 28). Compared to the standard condition, WML was increased by simultaneous rehearsing of a number. Results: A stronger attentional bias toward symptom words for the health anxious participants compared to the other two groups was only apparent in the no WML condition at the beginning of the experiment. Contrary to our assumptions, this group difference disappeared in the high WML condition. Conclusions: There was no experimental evidence for the cognitive compensation hypothesis in this study. WML might reduce the threat potential of symptom words for health anxious participants. This moderating role of WML in the context of affective attentional processes is in line with recent findings in emotion research. [less ▲]

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