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See detailGetting What You Expect? Future Self-Views Predict the Valence of Life Events
Voss, Peggy; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Rothermund, Klaus

in Developmental Psychology (2017), 53(3), 567-580

Views on aging have been shown to predict the occurrence of events related to physical health in previous studies. Extending these findings, we investigated the relation between aging-related future self ... [more ▼]

Views on aging have been shown to predict the occurrence of events related to physical health in previous studies. Extending these findings, we investigated the relation between aging-related future self-views and life events in a longitudinal study across a range of different life domains. Participants (N = 593, age range 30 -80 years at t(1)) completed a survey at 2 measurement occasions that were separated by a 4-year interval (t1: 2009, t(2): 2013), providing information on domain-specific future self-views as well as on life events that had occurred in the respective domains in-between the 2 measurement occasions. Future self-views measured at t1 predicted the occurrence of subsequent life events corresponding in valence: Participants with more positive (negative) future self-views in a domain reported relatively more positive (negative) life events in the respective domain. In addition, individual differences in future self-views were reinforced by life events that were consistent with these self-views. Accordingly, future self-views can be interpreted in terms of self-fulfilling prophecies: They are related to the likelihood of encountering and remembering life events that further confirm the aging-related future self-views from which they originate. Our study demonstrates the importance of future self-views on aging for development-related outcomes that have an especially high impact on peoples' lives. [less ▲]

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See detailWork context and personality development across adulthood
Bowen, Catherine E.; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL

in Pachana, Nancy A. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Geropsychology (2017)

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See detailHow do views on aging affect health outcomes in adulthood and late life? Explanations for an established connection
Wurm, Susanne; Diehl, Manfred; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL et al

in Developmental Review (2017), 46

Personal views on aging, such as age stereotypes and subjective aging, can affect various health outcomes in later life. For the past 20 years or so, a large body of experimental and longitudinal work has ... [more ▼]

Personal views on aging, such as age stereotypes and subjective aging, can affect various health outcomes in later life. For the past 20 years or so, a large body of experimental and longitudinal work has provided ample evidence for this connection. Thus, it seems timely to better understand the pathways of this linkage. The majority of existing studies has either focused on age stereotypes or subjective aging. This theoretical paper provides a systematic comparison of major theoretical approaches that offer explanations through which different views on aging may affect health. After a short review of findings on the short- and long-term effects of different views on aging, we describe theoretical approaches that provide explanations of underlying mechanisms for the effect of both uni- and multidimensional views on aging on health outcomes. We compare the specific characteristics of these approaches, provide a heuristic framework and outline recommendations for future research routes. A better understanding of the impact of different views on aging on health outcomes is not only relevant for basic research in life-span developmental psychology, geropsychology and health psychology, it has also implications for intervention research and public health practices. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailAge Stereotypes and Self-Views Revisited: Patterns of Internalization and Projection Processes Across the Life Span
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Voss, Peggy; Rothermund, Klaus

in Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences (2017), 72(4), 582-592

We investigated processes of age stereotype internalization into the self and projection of self-views onto age stereotypes from a life-span perspective, taking age-related differences in the relevance of ... [more ▼]

We investigated processes of age stereotype internalization into the self and projection of self-views onto age stereotypes from a life-span perspective, taking age-related differences in the relevance of life domains into account. Age stereotypes and self-views in eight life domains were assessed in a sample of N = 593 persons aged 30-80 years (T-1) at two time points that were separated by a 4-year time interval. We estimated cross-lagged projection and internalization effects in multigroup structural equation models. Internalization and projection effects were contingent on age group and life domain: Internalization effects were strongest in the young and middle-aged groups and emerged in the domains family, personality, work, and leisure. Projection effects in different domains were most pronounced for older participants. Our findings suggest that the internalization of age stereotypes is triggered by domain-specific expectations of impending age-related changes and transitions during certain phases of the life span. Projection processes, however, seem to occur in response to changes that have already been experienced by the individual. Our study demonstrates the dynamic interrelation of age stereotypes and self-views across the life course and highlights the importance of a differentiated, life-span perspective for the understanding of these mechanisms. [less ▲]

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See detailMultidimensionality of Younger and Older Adults' Age Stereotypes: The Interaction of Life Domain and Adjective Dimension
Kuhlmann, Beatrice G.; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Bayen, Ute J. et al

in Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences (2017), 72(3), 436-440

Objectives: The authors investigated the sources of age-stereotype multidimensionality with the help of personal everyday statements that differed with respect to life domain (e.g., family and partnership ... [more ▼]

Objectives: The authors investigated the sources of age-stereotype multidimensionality with the help of personal everyday statements that differed with respect to life domain (e.g., family and partnership vs financial matters) and the adjective dimension reflected in the behavior (e.g., autonomous vs instrumental behavior). Method: A total of 368 statements reflecting autonomy-, instrumentality-, or integrity-related behaviors in five different life domains were generated. Sixty-nine younger (18-26 years) and 74 older (60-84 years) participants rated the typicality of each statement for either a "young adult" or an "old adult." Results: Occurrence and direction of age stereotypes varied by life domain and adjective dimension and ultimately depended on the specific combination of both factors (i.e., a significant interaction). For example, old adults were expected to be optimistic about religious aspects but not about their health, fitness, and appearance. Discussion: The findings highlight the multidimensionality and complexity of age stereotypes based on a wide array of personal everyday statements. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic and Environmental Sources of Individual Differences in Views on Aging
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Kandler, Christian

in PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING (2017), 32(4), 388-399

Views on aging are central psychosocial variables in the aging process, but knowledge about their determinants is still fragmental. Thus, the authors investigated the degree to which genetic and ... [more ▼]

Views on aging are central psychosocial variables in the aging process, but knowledge about their determinants is still fragmental. Thus, the authors investigated the degree to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual differences in various domains of views on aging (wisdom, work, fitness, and family), and whether these variance components vary across ages. They analyzed data from 350 monozygotic and 322 dizygotic twin pairs from the Midlife Development in the U.S. (MIDUS) study, aged 25-74. Individual differences in views on aging were mainly due to individual-specific environmental and genetic effects. However, depending on the domain, genetic and environmental contributions to the variance differed. Furthermore, for some domains, variability was larger for older participants; this was attributable to increases in environmental components. This study extends research on genetic and environmental sources of psychosocial variables and stimulates future studies investigating the etiology of views on aging across the life span. [less ▲]

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See detailContext Influences on the Subjective Experience of Aging: The Impact of Culture and Domains of Functioning
O'Brien, Erica L.; Hess, Thomas M.; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL et al

in GERONTOLOGIST (2017), 57(2), 127-137

Background and Objectives: Attitudes about aging influence how people feel about their aging and affect psychological and health outcomes in later life. Given cross-cultural variability in such attitudes ... [more ▼]

Background and Objectives: Attitudes about aging influence how people feel about their aging and affect psychological and health outcomes in later life. Given cross-cultural variability in such attitudes, the subjective experience of aging (e.g., subjective age [ SA]) may also vary, potentially accounting for culture-specific patterns of aging-related outcomes. Our study explored cultural variation in SA and its determinants. Research Design and Methods: American (N = 569), Chinese (N = 492), and German (N = 827) adults aged 30-95 years completed a questionnaire that included instruments measuring basic demographic information, SA, beliefs about thresholds of old age, control over life changes, and age dependency of changes in eight different life domains (i.e., family, work). Results: Analyses revealed consistency across cultures in the domain-specificity of SA, but differences in the amount of shared variance across domains (e.g., Chinese adults exhibited greater homogeneity across domains than did Americans and Germans). Cultural differences were also observed in levels of SA in some domains, which were attenuated by domain-specific beliefs (e.g., control). Interestingly, beliefs about aging accounted for more cultural variation in SA than did sociodemographic factors (e.g., education). Discussion and Implications: Our results demonstrate that subjective perceptions of aging and everyday functioning may be best understood from a perspective focused on context (i.e., culture, life domain). Given its important relation to functioning, examination of cross-cultural differences in the subjective experience of aging may highlight factors that determine variations in aging-related outcomes that then could serve as targets of culture-specific interventions promoting well-being in later life. [less ▲]

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See detailGENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL SOURCES OF VIEWS ON AGING: AGE- AND DOMAIN-SPECIFIC ANALYSES
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Kandler, Christian

in GERONTOLOGIST (2016), 56(3), 503-503

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See detailIMPLICIT AND EXPLICIT AGE STEREOTYPES FOR SPECIFIC LIFE DOMAINS ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Meissner, Franziska; Rothermund, Klaus

in GERONTOLOGIST (2016), 56(3), 313-313

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See detailImplicit and Explicit Age Stereotypes for Specific Life Domains Across the Life Span: Distinct Patterns and Age Group Differences
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Meissner, Franziska; Rothermund, Klaus

in Experimental Aging Research (2016), 42(2), 195-211

Background/Study Context: Drawing on research that shows the importance of age stereotypes across the life span, the authors investigated domain-specific implicit and explicit age stereotypes in different ... [more ▼]

Background/Study Context: Drawing on research that shows the importance of age stereotypes across the life span, the authors investigated domain-specific implicit and explicit age stereotypes in different age groups. Methods: Implicit (Implicit Association Test [IAT]; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464-1480) and explicit age stereotypes were assessed for the domains of family and health in a sample of N=90 younger, middle-aged, and older adults. Results: Overall, age stereotypes were negative for the health domain but not for the family domain. Distinct patterns of age group differences emerged depending on domain and assessment method. In the family domain, older participants held the least positive explicit age stereotypes, whereas implicit stereotypes in this domain were most positive for this age group compared with the young and middle-aged groups. For the health domain, implicit and explicit age associations indicated that middle-aged participants showed the most negative age-associations. Conclusions: These findings suggest that implicit and explicit age stereotypes in different life domains represent largely independent constructs. Differential age group effects are assumed to reflect the result of accommodative and assimilative processes that are used to cope with age-related changes. Implications for future studies of implicit and explicit age stereotypes and their influence on developmental regulation are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailDo age stereotypes as social role expectations for older adults influence personality development?
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL

in JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN PERSONALITY (2016), 60

Age stereotypes as social role expectations for older adults were hypothesized to influence personality development in later life for specific stereotype domain x personality trait combinations. N = 965 ... [more ▼]

Age stereotypes as social role expectations for older adults were hypothesized to influence personality development in later life for specific stereotype domain x personality trait combinations. N = 965 participants aged 50-60 from the Midlife Development in the U.S. (MIDUS) study provided ratings about "people in their late sixties" in four domains at T-1 and completed a personality questionnaire at T-1 and at T-2 ten years later. Personality at T-2 was regressed on age stereotypes and personality at baseline. Age stereotypes in the domains Family/Relationships and Wisdom were related to changes in both Agreeableness and Extraversion over ten years. The findings provide tentative support for the role of positive age stereotypes in personality development in older age. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLooking Beyond Chronological Age: Current Knowledge and Future Directions in the Study of Subjective Age
Kotter-Gruehn, Dana; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Stephan, Yannick

in GERONTOLOGY (2016), 62(1), 86-93

The notion of the heterogeneity of aging goes along with the awareness that every person experiences aging differently. Over the past years, scholars have emphasized that the assessment of these ... [more ▼]

The notion of the heterogeneity of aging goes along with the awareness that every person experiences aging differently. Over the past years, scholars have emphasized that the assessment of these subjective experiences of aging contributes to our understanding of a range of psychological and physiological processes and outcomes among older adults. One construct frequently used in this context is subjective age, that is, how old or young a person feels. Subjective age has been shown to be an important correlate as well as a predictor of markers of successful aging such as well-being, health, and longevity. However, less is known about the antecedents of subjective age and the mechanisms underlying the relationship between feeling younger and positive developmental outcomes. This article briefly summarizes and critically evaluates the empirical evidence on this topic and makes suggestions on how to address and potentially overcome currently existing theoretical, methodological, and psychometric challenges. Based on the discussion of these challenges, the paper provides directions for future research by outlining underexplored topics such as intraindividual variability and determinants of subjective age, the match between objective age indicators and subjective age, and how subjective age maps on behavior and functioning. (C) 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel [less ▲]

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See detailThe Impact of Age Stereotypes on Source Monitoring in Younger and Older Adults
Kuhlmann, Beatrice G.; Bayen, Ute J.; Meuser, Katharina et al

in PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING (2016), 31(8), 875-889

In 2 experiments, we examined reliance on age stereotypes when reconstructing the sources of statements. Two sources presented statements (half typical for a young adult, half for an old adult). Afterward ... [more ▼]

In 2 experiments, we examined reliance on age stereotypes when reconstructing the sources of statements. Two sources presented statements (half typical for a young adult, half for an old adult). Afterward, the sources' ages-23 and 70 years-were revealed and participants completed a source-monitoring task requiring attribution of statements to the sources. Multinomial model-based analyses revealed no age-typicality effect on source memory; however, age-typicality biased source-guessing: When not remembering the source, participants predominantly guessed the source for whose age the statement was typical. Thereby, people retrospectively described the sources as having made more statements that fit with stereotypes about their age group than they had truly made. In Experiment 1, older (60-84 years) participants' guessing bias was stronger than younger (17-26 years) participants', but they also had poorer source memory. Furthermore, older adults with better source memory were less biased than those with poorer source memory. Similarly, younger adults' age-stereotype reliance was larger when source memory was impaired in Experiment 2. Thus, age stereotypes bias source attributions, and individuals with poor source memory are particularly prone to this bias, which may contribute to the maintenance of age stereotypes over time. [less ▲]

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See detailPREPARATION FOR AGE-RELATED CHANGES-CROSS CULTURAL DIFFERENCES AND DETERMINANTS
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Voss, Peggy; Rothermund, Klaus

in GERONTOLOGIST (2016), 56(3), 657-657

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See detailHope for the Best, Prepare for the Worst? Future Self-Views and Preparation for Age-Related Changes
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Voss, Peggy; Rothermund, Klaus

in PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING (2015), 30(4), 967-976

Extending research on the impact of views on aging and developmental regulation across the life span, we tested the hypothesis that more positive views of oneself as an older person predict more ... [more ▼]

Extending research on the impact of views on aging and developmental regulation across the life span, we tested the hypothesis that more positive views of oneself as an older person predict more preparation for age-related changes. Drawing on recent evidence regarding the domain specificity of aging-related developmental processes, we assumed this relationship to be moderated by the relevance of preparation in different life domains for different age groups. We investigated these research questions in a longitudinal study that assessed future self-views and preparation for different life domains in a sample covering a large part of the adult life span. Findings supported our hypotheses: More positive/negative personal views of one's own aging at T1 predicted subsequent increases/decreases in preparation, with influences being strongest for those domains in which relevant age-related changes are expected to occur for the respective age groups. Our study provides additional evidence for the idea that views on aging shape development, identifying age-related provision making as an important mediating process. Furthermore, our findings highlight the added value of a domain-specific approach that takes the differential relevance of life domains and age-related developmental tasks into account. [less ▲]

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See detailViews on aging: Domain-specific approaches and implications for developmental regulation
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Rothermund, Klaus

in Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics (2015)

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See detailPatterns and Sources of Personality Development in Old Age
Kandler, Christian; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Hagemeyer, Birk et al

in JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY (2015), 109(1), 175-191

Despite abundant evidence that personality development continues in adulthood, little is known about the patterns and sources of personality development in old age. We thus investigated mean-level trends ... [more ▼]

Despite abundant evidence that personality development continues in adulthood, little is known about the patterns and sources of personality development in old age. We thus investigated mean-level trends and individual differences in change as well as the genetic and environmental sources of rank-order continuity and change in several personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness, perceived control, and affect intensity) and well-being. In addition, we analyzed the interrelation between perceived control and change in other personality traits as well as between change in personality traits and change in well-being. We analyzed data from older adult twins, aged 64-85 years at Time 1 (N = 410; 135 males and 275 females; 134 monozygotic and 63 dizygotic twin pairs), collected at 2 different time points about 5 years apart. On average, neuroticism increased, whereas extraversion, conscientiousness, and perceived control significantly decreased over time. Change in perceived control was associated with change in neuroticism and conscientiousness, pointing to particular adaptation mechanisms specific to old age. Whereas individual differences in personality traits were fairly stable due to both genetic and environmental sources, individual differences in change were primarily due to environmental sources (beyond random error) indicating plasticity in old age. Even though the average level of well-being did not significantly change over time, individual well-being tended to decrease with strongly increasing levels of neuroticism as well as decreasing extraversion, conscientiousness, and perceived control, indicating that personality traits predict well-being but not vice versa. We discuss implications for theory on personality development across the lifespan. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Bedeutung von Altersbildern im Lebenslauf
Bowen, Catherine E.; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Kessler, Eva-Marie

in Wahl, Hans-Werner; Kruse, Andreas (Eds.) Lebensläufe im Wandel – Sichtweisen verschiedener Disziplinen (2014)

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See detailPreparation for old age in different life domains Dimensions and age differences
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Rothermund, Klaus

in INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT (2014), 38(3), 228-238

We investigated preparation for age-related changes from a multidimensional, life span perspective and administered a newly developed questionnaire to a large sample aged 30-80 years. Preparing for age ... [more ▼]

We investigated preparation for age-related changes from a multidimensional, life span perspective and administered a newly developed questionnaire to a large sample aged 30-80 years. Preparing for age-related changes was organized by life domains, with domain-specific types of preparation addressing obstacles and opportunities in the respective domains. Preparing for a third (focusing on activities, leisure, work, fitness, appearance) and a fourth age (focusing on emergencies, dependence/independence, housing, financial arrangements) emerged as superordinate categories of preparation. Different age gradients were obtained for the factors, the former peaking around the age of 65, whereas the latter increased linearly up to the age of 80. Furthermore, preparation factors were characterized by distinct personality profiles. The findings attest to the importance of a differentiated view on preparation for age-related changes and its relevance across the life span. [less ▲]

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See detailNegative Automatic Evaluation and Better Recognition of Bodily Symptom Words in College Students with Elevated Health Anxiety
Schmidt, Erika; Witthoeft, Michael; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL et al

in Cognitive Therapy and Research (2013), 37(5), 1027-1040

This study explored whether better recognition of symptom words is associated with stronger negative automatic evaluations of these words. We compared participants with health anxiety (HA; N = 27) to ... [more ▼]

This study explored whether better recognition of symptom words is associated with stronger negative automatic evaluations of these words. We compared participants with health anxiety (HA; N = 27) to dysphoric (N = 29) and to non-health-anxious and non-dysphoric control participants (N = 28) in the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and in a word recognition task using health-threat-related, negative emotional, and neutral control words. Participants with HA made significantly more mistakes on the IAT than both other groups, in pairing the evaluation "harmless" with specific "symptoms" (p = .02, eta(2) = .10). Additionally, recognition performance was positively related to the IAT evaluation bias. The findings suggest that persons with HA automatically interpret symptoms as being more dangerous than the others saw them. This evaluation bias might explain the facilitation of access to symptom information in working memory that underlies cognitive biases observed in HA. [less ▲]

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