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See detailDie Corona-Pandemie und die ältere Bevölkerung: Psychologische Aspekte
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Boll, Thomas UL

in Mein, Georg; Pause, Johannes (Eds.) Self and Society in the Corona Crisis. Perspectives from the Humanities and Social Sciences (2020)

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See detailExamining the Relation Among Subjective Age and Working Memory in Old Age on a High-Frequency Basis Across 7 Days
Lücke, Anna; Siebert, Jelena; Schilling, Oliver et al

in Innovation in Aging (2020), 4(Supplement_1), 598-598

While increasing longitudinal evidence suggests that negative age views accelerate cognitive decline and increase dementia risk, we know little about such co-variance dynamics on a daily basis. We make ... [more ▼]

While increasing longitudinal evidence suggests that negative age views accelerate cognitive decline and increase dementia risk, we know little about such co-variance dynamics on a daily basis. We make use of subjective age and working memory performance data obtained six times a day over seven consecutive days as people went about their daily routines from 123 young-old (aged 66-69 years, 47.2% women) and 42 old-old (aged 86-90 years, 55.8% women) adults. Notably, multilevel models revealed considerably-sized short-term intra-individual variation of subjective age and working memory within days and these short-term within-day fluctuations in subjective age and working memory were coupled as expected. Hence, increased subjective age went along with lowered working memory confirming previous research. However, the respective between-day associations appeared reversed. Given this evidence of correlated short-term variability, we also discuss implications of different change dynamics that might explain moment-to-moment versus day-to-day associations between subjective age and working memory. [less ▲]

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See detailExamining the Interplay of Generalized and Personal Views on Aging on Physical and Mental Health Across 2.5 Years
Brothers, Allyson; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Nehrkorn-Bailey, Abigail et al

in Innovation in Aging (2020), 4(Supplement_1), 588-588

It remains unknown how distinct types of views on aging (VoA) are related to one another, and to aging outcomes. We used a latent-variable structural equation model to test the hypothesis that generalized ... [more ▼]

It remains unknown how distinct types of views on aging (VoA) are related to one another, and to aging outcomes. We used a latent-variable structural equation model to test the hypothesis that generalized views on aging (assessed as Age Stereotypes (AS)) would influence personal views on aging (assessed as Self-Perceptions of Aging (SPA)), which in-turn would influence later physical and mental health. Data came from a longitudinal survey on VoA (N= 537, MageT1 = 64.13, age rangeT1 = 40-98). As expected, SPA mediated the effect of AS on physical (loss-SPA: β = .23, p< .001; gain-SPA: β = .06, p< .001; R2 = .62) and mental health (loss-SPA: β = .13, p< .001; gain-SPA: β = .03, p< .01, ; R2 = .31). Congruent with theoretical assumptions, our findings provide empirical support for a directional pathway by which generalized views on aging affect health outcomes via personal views of aging. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial Isolation, Loneliness and Well-being in the Covid-19 Crisis: A Look at Nursing Home Residents in Luxembourg
Albert, Isabelle UL; Hoffmann, Martine; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL et al

in Innovation in Aging (2020), 4(Supplement_1), 957-958

During the COVID-19 crisis, older adults, in particular those with underlying health conditions, were at a special risk for severe illness and mortality, and efforts were made to shield them from exposure ... [more ▼]

During the COVID-19 crisis, older adults, in particular those with underlying health conditions, were at a special risk for severe illness and mortality, and efforts were made to shield them from exposure to the virus. While measures of physical distancing and reduction of in-person contacts were necessary to prevent contraction, they hit residents of care settings particularly hard since visits from family and friends were banned and the risk for loneliness and social isolation increased. In the present study, we therefore gave the voice to nursing home residents and focused on their perceived loneliness and subjective well-being during the crisis. We were both interested in difficulties but also in personal resources and resilience factors that might protect older adults from negative mental health outcomes and help to maintain subjective well-being. A sample of N = 76 residents in care homes in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were interviewed by use of a standardized questionnaire during July and August 2020. Participants reported on their loneliness and life satisfaction during the crisis, on their self-regulatory strategies as well as on personal and social resources (e.g. self-efficacy, generativity, social support). Data will be analyzed by use of regression analysis to predict loneliness and well-being by risk and protective factors. Results will be discussed applying a life-span developmental and systemic perspective to understand the mutual interplay of individual, social and institutional resources to mitigate negative side effects of protective measures on care home residents. [less ▲]

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See detailViews on Aging and Well-Being in the Covid Crisis – A Longitudinal Study in Luxembourg
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Hoffmann, Martine; Murdock, Elke UL et al

in Innovation in Aging (2020), 4(Supplement_1), 961-961

During the Covid-Crisis, stereotypes of older adults as helpless and vulnerable were spread, and intergenerational conflict was stirred more or less openly. We thus focused on perceived ageism during the ... [more ▼]

During the Covid-Crisis, stereotypes of older adults as helpless and vulnerable were spread, and intergenerational conflict was stirred more or less openly. We thus focused on perceived ageism during the crisis and its effects on well-being and health of older adults. Since views on aging are multifaceted and can be both, risk and resource for individual development, we assessed people’s self-perceptions of aging (SPA) as social loss, continued growth and physical decline and subjective age (SA). We hypothesized that people with SPA of social loss and physical decline would be more susceptible to negative effects of perceived ageism, whereas those with SPA of continued growth and younger SA would be less affected. NT1 = 611 community-dwelling adults aged 60 – 98 (Mage = 69.92 years) were recruited in June 2020 online and via phone in Luxembourg. In September 2020, participants will be contacted again for a follow-up. Analyses with cross-sectional data show that participants who felt more discriminated reported lower life satisfaction after the onset of the crisis (r = -.35) and worse subjective health (r = -.14). SPA of social loss and higher SA increased the negative effect of ageism on well-being (beta = -.57) and subjective health (beta = -.53), respectively. Our results point to mid- and long-term consequences of age discriminatory and stereotype-based crisis communication for the well-being of older adults and the importance of individual SPA in critical situations. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial Roles, Subjective Age, and Gender: Exploring the Links in Later Life
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL

in Innovation in Aging (2020), 4(Supplement_1), 556-556

Subjective age (SA) is strongly linked to positive developmental outcomes and successful aging. The social roles people assume are supposed to impact SA, since they incorporate age-graded social ... [more ▼]

Subjective age (SA) is strongly linked to positive developmental outcomes and successful aging. The social roles people assume are supposed to impact SA, since they incorporate age-graded social experiences and age-stereotypic role expectations. Social roles are also strongly gendered, providing the opportunity to understand gender-specific processes of SA. This study investigates a broad range of social roles and their relation to older men and women’s SA in later life. N = 285 participants aged 50 to 86 years (Mage = 65.04, SD = 8.88) reported on 19 social roles and their SA. Higher commitment to social roles of continued development and engagement was related to a younger subjective age, above and beyond sociodemographic variables, physical and mental health, but only for younger men. Commitment to family roles was related to a younger subjective age only for older men. Implications for the gender-specific understanding of antecedents of SA are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailSUBJECTIVE AGING: SOMETHING UNIQUE OR JUST ANOTHER EXPRESSION OF GENERAL SELF-BELIEFS?
Klusmann, Verena; Spuling, Svenja M.; Bowen, Catherine E. et al

in Innovation in Aging (2019), 3(Supplement_1), 786-787

Using data from the German Ageing Survey (adults aged 40‒85), this study tested the convergent and discriminant validity of subjective aging measures by comparing three different measures of subjective ... [more ▼]

Using data from the German Ageing Survey (adults aged 40‒85), this study tested the convergent and discriminant validity of subjective aging measures by comparing three different measures of subjective aging with one another and relating them to established measures of general self-beliefs (optimism, self-efficacy, subjective health) and subjective well-being (depression, affect). Correlations between subjective aging measures ranged from ‒.61 (amongst general self-perceptions of aging measures) to ‒.09, with subjective age being least related to the other measures. The highest overlap was observed between optimism and global self-perceptions of aging (.69) and it was for these global self-perceptions that the highest amount of variance could be explained by correlates in a regression analysis (R-square=.55). In contrast, only 10% of variance could be explained for subjective age. Our results underline the merit of taking the multidimensional nature of subjective aging into account since global measures appear less distinct from general personality traits. [less ▲]

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See detailPreparation for Old Age – The Role of Cultural Context and Future Perceptions
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Voss, Peggy; Fung, Helene H. et al

in The Journals of Gerontology. Series B. Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences (2019), 74(4), 609--619

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See detailThe interplay of personality and attitudes toward own aging across two decades of later life
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Siebert, Jelena S.; Wahl, Hans-Werner

in PLoS One (2019), 14(10),

Big Five personality traits are assumed to be linked with attitudes toward own aging. Since both constructs have central importance for the aging process, it is surprising that to our knowledge no study ... [more ▼]

Big Five personality traits are assumed to be linked with attitudes toward own aging. Since both constructs have central importance for the aging process, it is surprising that to our knowledge no study so far comprehensively addressed their mutual connection over time. We used data from the ILSE study, a longitudinal study capturing personality and attitudes toward own aging at four measurement occasions, spanning 20 years and including two participant cohorts in midlife (n = 501; born 1950–52) and later life (n = 500; born 1930–32). Dual latent change score models showed that personality was longitudinally related to change in attitudes toward own aging: Lower Neuroticism, higher Conscientiousness, and higher Openness predicted more positive attitudes, whereas the direction of the effect for Extraversion varied by time. Furthermore, the role of personality seems to be confined to certain sensitive periods in midlife and early old age. Contrary to our expectations, attitudes toward own aging had only marginal longitudinal impact on the Big Five. Our results shed light on the developmental co-dynamics of personality and subjective perceptions of aging across the second half of the lifespan. [less ▲]

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See detailPolygenic Scores for Education, Health, and Personality as Predictors of Subjective Age Among Older Individuals of European Ancestry: Evidence From the Health and Retirement Study
Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R.; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL et al

in PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING (2019), 34(1), 139-144

The present study aimed to identify whether polygenic scores (PGSs) for education, health and psychological factors are related to subjective age in a large sample of older adults. Participants were 7,763 ... [more ▼]

The present study aimed to identify whether polygenic scores (PGSs) for education, health and psychological factors are related to subjective age in a large sample of older adults. Participants were 7,763 individuals of European ancestry (57% women, Mean age = 69.15, SD = 10.18) from the Health and Retirement Study who were genotyped and provided subjective age data. Higher PGSs for educational achievement and well-being were related to a younger subjective age, whereas higher PGSs for neuroticism, body mass index, waist circumference, and depressive symptoms were associated with an older subjective age. This study provides new evidence on the potential genetic underpinnings of subjective age. [less ▲]

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See detailMultidimensional views on aging and old age.
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Wurm, Susanne

in Danan, Gu; Dupre, Matthew E (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Gerontology and Population Aging (2019)

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See detailSelf-perceptions of aging
Wurm, Susanne; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL

in Danan, Gu; Dupre, Matthew E (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Gerontology and Population Aging (2019)

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See detailLife span development
Wurm, Susanne; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL

in Danan, Gu; Dupre, Matthew E (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Gerontology and Population Aging (2019)

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See detailYOUNG PEOPLE FEEL WISE, OLD PEOPLE FEEL ENERGETIC: COMPARING AGE STEREOTYPES AND SELF-EVALUATIONS ACROSS ADULTHOOD
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Bowen, Catherine E.; Spuling, Svenja M. et al

in Innovation in Aging (2019), 3(Supplement_1), 787-787

Using questionnaire data from the MIDUS study (N=6.325) we examined the extent to which people in their late 20s, 40s, and 60s think that positive stereotypic “old” and “young” characteristics describe ... [more ▼]

Using questionnaire data from the MIDUS study (N=6.325) we examined the extent to which people in their late 20s, 40s, and 60s think that positive stereotypic “old” and “young” characteristics describe themselves, their age peers, and other age groups. A constellation of “old” characteristics (e.g., wise, caring, calm) was seen as more descriptive of older adults, while a constellation of “young” characteristics (e.g., healthy, energetic) was seen as more descriptive of younger adults. Self-evaluations were highly positive and largely consistent across age groups. Compared to their age peers, younger adults saw themselves as having as many positive “young” characteristics but more positive “old” characteristics whereas older adults saw themselves as having more positive “young” characteristics but fewer positive “old” characteristics. The results support the stability of the aging self despite the existence of age stereotypes and the role of negative age stereotypes as a frame of reference for making self-evaluations. [less ▲]

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See detailVIEWS ON AGING: NEW PERSPECTIVES FOR THEORY AND RESEARCH
Klusmann, Verena; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL

in Innovation in Aging (2019), 3(Supplement_1), 786-786

Over the past 20 years, research on views on aging has substantiated their importance for successful development and sustained quality of life over the full length of the life span. However, a deep ... [more ▼]

Over the past 20 years, research on views on aging has substantiated their importance for successful development and sustained quality of life over the full length of the life span. However, a deep understanding of the origins of views on aging and the underlying processes of their lifespan development and manifestation is lacking. Since 2017, the scientific network “Images of Aging” funded by the German Research Foundation (http://www.health.uni-konstanz.de/images-of-aging) assembles national and international renowned experts in the field. The network engages in empirical clarifications on both the distinctness and validity of the construct (contribution of Klusmann et al.) as well as in critically reviewing terminology and measures of views on aging (contribution of Notthoff et al.). The network aims to help clarifying the dynamic interplay of determinants and outcomes in the context of health (contribution of Wolff et al.) as well as disentangling intra- and intergenerational stereotypic perceptions (contribution of Kornadt et al.). Both of these are understudied issues with highly practical implications for two of the largest demographic challenges: shaping the coexistence of generations as well as providing adequate health care supply. Integrating both pertinent theoretical approaches and empirical findings the network regards views on aging under a lifespan perspective. Recently, it suggested three core principles of views on aging regarding lifelong bio-psycho-social development, their multidimensional nature, and their impact across life. These considerations provide a background for an integrative discussion of the symposium’s contributions. [less ▲]

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See detailSOCIAL ROLES AND PERSONALITY IN LATER LIFE
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL

in Innovation in Aging (2019), 3(Supplement_1), 729-730

Despite considerable stability of the Big Five personality traits, there is evidence for personality plasticity and change across the lifespan. In younger years, the investment in social roles, such as ... [more ▼]

Despite considerable stability of the Big Five personality traits, there is evidence for personality plasticity and change across the lifespan. In younger years, the investment in social roles, such as entering worklife or starting a family has been shown to drive personality change. With regard to personality in later life, the investigation of social roles has so far been neglected. A questionnaire was developed to assess a large number of social roles that can be assumed in the second half of life. N = 306 participants aged 50 to 86 years reported on their social roles and rated their personality traits. Results show that assuming and investing in certain social roles (e.g. friend, retiree, volunteer) mediated the effects of age on the Big Five, especially for the oldest participants and in the domains openness and extraversion. The findings support the importance of social roles for personality also in later life. [less ▲]

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See detailATTITUDES TOWARD OWN AGING AND PERSONALITY IN LATER LIFE: EXAMINATION OF BIDIRECTIONALITY OVER 20 YEARS
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Siebert, Jelena S.; Wahl, Hans-Werner

in Innovation in Aging (2019), 3(Supplement_1), 385-385

Big Five personality traits are assumed to be linked with attitudes toward own aging (ATOA). Both constructs have central importance for the aging process, it is thus important to comprehensively address ... [more ▼]

Big Five personality traits are assumed to be linked with attitudes toward own aging (ATOA). Both constructs have central importance for the aging process, it is thus important to comprehensively address their mutual connection over time. We used data from the ILSE study, a longitudinal study with four measurement occasions, spanning 20 years and including two participant cohorts (n = 501; born 1950-52 and n = 500; born 1930-32). Dual latent change score models showed that personality was longitudinally related to change in ATOA: Lower Neuroticism, higher Conscientiousness, and higher Openness predicted more positive attitudes; the effect for Extraversion varied by time. Furthermore, the role of personality seems to be confined to certain sensitive periods in midlife and early old age. ATOA had only marginal longitudinal impact on personality. Our results shed light on the developmental co-dynamics of personality and subjective perceptions of aging across the second half of life. [less ▲]

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See detailAge-Stereotype Internalization and Dissociation: Contradictory Processes or Two Sides of the Same Coin?
Weiss, David; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL

in Current Directions in Psychological Science (2018), 27(6), 477-483

There is overwhelming evidence that age stereotypes have systematic effects on older adults' development. Regarding the direction of these effects, two seemingly opposing phenomena can be observed. On the ... [more ▼]

There is overwhelming evidence that age stereotypes have systematic effects on older adults' development. Regarding the direction of these effects, two seemingly opposing phenomena can be observed. On the one hand, it has been shown that older adults engage in self-stereotyping and assimilate their self-views and behavior to commonly held age stereotypes, a process described as stereotype internalization. On the other hand, there is considerable evidence for age-group dissociation, showing that when confronted with negative age stereotypes, older adults tend to distance and dissociate themselves from this negative stereotype. In addition to reviewing evidence for both processes and their respective adaptivity, we propose an integrated model of age-stereotype internalization and dissociation to explain when and why older adults internalize or dissociate from negative age stereotypes. [less ▲]

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See detailSubjective Age Across the Life Span: A Differentiated, Longitudinal Approach
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Hess, Thomas M.; Voss, Peggy et al

in Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences (2018), 73(5), 767-777

Objectives: How old people feel compared with their actual age, their so-called "subjective age" (SA), is a central indicator of individual aging experiences and predicts developmental outcomes, such as ... [more ▼]

Objectives: How old people feel compared with their actual age, their so-called "subjective age" (SA), is a central indicator of individual aging experiences and predicts developmental outcomes, such as health and mortality, across the life span. We investigated the multidimensional structure of SA with respect to specific life domains, focusing on domain differences as well as age group differences and age-related changes. Furthermore, we inspected the relationship between SA and how people perceive their future as old persons (future self-views). Method: We assessed these variables in a sample of 593 persons who completed a questionnaire at two time points 4 years apart (baseline-T 1; follow up-T 2) and who were aged 30-80 years at T 1. Results: SA differed across life domains and age groups, and the amount of change in SA across time was also contingent on life domain. Future self-views at T 1 predicted subsequent changes in SA, with more negative self-views being associated with an increase in SA, especially for middle-aged participants for whom the transition to older age is imminent. Discussion: Our results provide support for a multidimensional view of subjective aging experiences. They highlight the importance of a differentiated investigation of subjective aging constructs and their relations for understanding how these variables shape the aging process. [less ▲]

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See detailSubjective remaining lifetime and concreteness of the future as differential predictors of preparation for age-related changes
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Voss, Peggy; Rothermund, Klaus

in EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF AGEING (2018), 15(1), 67-76

Demographic changes have been linked to the expectation of cuts in government-provided social security services, emphasizing individual responsibility to prepare for old age and concomitant challenges and ... [more ▼]

Demographic changes have been linked to the expectation of cuts in government-provided social security services, emphasizing individual responsibility to prepare for old age and concomitant challenges and changes. Accordingly, the identification of psychological variables predicting preparation is a matter of theoretical as well as practical importance. We thus consider different aspects of a person's future time as theoretically prominent psychological predictors of preparation. The subjectively perceived quantity of remaining lifetime, the concreteness of future time, and preparation for life domains indicative of an active third age as well as of a more dependent fourth age were assessed in a longitudinal study in a core sample of N = 593 participants (30-80 years old at T (1)) at two measurement occasions 4 years apart. The quantity of subjective remaining lifetime predicted subsequent changes in preparation, but this effect was restricted to preparation for the fourth age. In contrast, a more open and concrete outlook on ones' personal future predicted changes in preparation for an active third age. Our findings highlight the importance of distinguishing between different aspects of future time-its quantity versus its relation to goals and action plans-when predicting specific facets of developmental self-regulation. [less ▲]

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