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See detailFirst International Workshop on Bidirectional Transformations (BX 2012): Preface
Hermann, Frank UL; Voigtländer, Janis

in Electronic Communications of the EASST (2012), 49

Bidirectional transformations (bx) are a mechanism for maintaining the consistency of two (or perhaps more) related sources of information. Such sources can be databases, software models, documents, or ... [more ▼]

Bidirectional transformations (bx) are a mechanism for maintaining the consistency of two (or perhaps more) related sources of information. Such sources can be databases, software models, documents, or their abstract models like graphs or trees. BX are an emerging topic in a wide range of research areas with prominent presence at top conferences in different fields. The methodologies used for bx range from classical program transformation to graph transformation techniques, from ad-hoc techniques for data synchronization to the development of domain-specific languages and their integration. The First International Workshop on Bidirectional Transformations (BX 2012) established a dedicated venue for bx in all relevant areas. It was initiated by the participants of the Dagstuhl Seminar "Bidirectional Transformations" (bx) in Germany 2011, which continued the GRACE International Meeting on Bidirectional Transformations held in Japan 2008. The workshop BX 2012 took place at the Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia on the 25th of March 2012, as a satellite event of ETAPS 2012, the European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software. [less ▲]

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See detailConcurrent Model Synchronization with Conflict Resolution Based on Triple Graph Grammars
Hermann, Frank UL; Ehrig, Hartmut; Ermel, Claudia

in J. de Lara, A. Zisman (Ed.) Fundamental Approaches to Software Engineering (2012)

Triple graph grammars (TGGs) have been used successfully to analyse correctness of bidirectional model transformations. Recently, also a corresponding formal approach to model synchronization has been ... [more ▼]

Triple graph grammars (TGGs) have been used successfully to analyse correctness of bidirectional model transformations. Recently, also a corresponding formal approach to model synchronization has been presented, where updates on a given domain (either source or target) can be correctly (forward or backward) propagated to the other model. However, a corresponding formal approach ofconcurrentmodel synchronization, where a source and a target modification have to be synchronized simultaneously, has not yet been presented and analysed. This paper closes this gap taking into account that the given and propagated source or target model modifications are in conflict with each other. Our conflict resolution strategy is semi-automatic, where a formal resolution strategy – known from previous work – can be combined with a user-specific strategy. As first result, we showcorrectnessof concurrent model synchronization, that is, each result of our nondeterministic concurrent update leads to a consistent correspondence between source and target models, where consistency is defined by the TGG. As second result, we showcompatibilityof concurrent with basic model synchronization: concurrent model synchronization can realize both forward and backward propagation. The results are illustrated by a running example on updating organizational models. [less ▲]

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See detailConcurrent Model Synchronization with Conflict Resolution Based on Triple Graph Grammars-Extended Version
Hermann, Frank UL; Ehrig, Hartmut; Ermel, Claudia et al

Report (2011)

Triple graph grammars (TGGs) have been used successfully to analyse correctness of bidirectional model transformations. Most recently, also a corresponding formal approach to model synchronization has ... [more ▼]

Triple graph grammars (TGGs) have been used successfully to analyse correctness of bidirectional model transformations. Most recently, also a corresponding formal approach to model synchronization has been presented, where a forward propagation operation updates a source model modification from source to target, and symmetrically, a backward propagation operation takes care of updates from target to source models. However, a corresponding formal approach of concurrent model synchronization, where a source and a target modification have to be synchronized simultaneously, has not yet been presented and analysed. This paper closes this gap taking into account that the given and propagated source or target model modifications are in conflict with each other. Our conflict resolution strategy is semi-automatic, where a formal resolution strategy – known from previous work – can be combined with a user-specific strategy. As first main result, we show correctness of concurrent model synchronization with respect to the TGG. This means that each result of our nondeterministic concurrent update leads to a consistent correspondence between source and target models, where consistency is defined by the TGG. As second main result, we show compatibility of concurrent with basic model synchronization. In other words, concurrent model synchronization can be realized either to coincide with forward or with backward propagation. The main results are illustrated by a running example on updating organizational models. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom State- to Delta-Based Bidirectional Model Transformations: The Symmetric Case
Diskin, Zinovy; Xiong, Yingfei; Czarnecki, Krzysztof et al

in Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems (2011)

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See detailGeneration and Evaluation of Business Continuity Processes using Algebraic Graph Transformation and the mCRL2 Process Algebra
Brandt, Christoph UL; Hermann, Frank UL; Groote, Jan Friso

in Journal of Research & Practice in Information Technology (2011), 43(1), 65-86

Critical business processes can fail. Therefore, continuity processes are needed as back-up solutions. Today, those continuity processes are set up and maintained manually. They are mostly based on best ... [more ▼]

Critical business processes can fail. Therefore, continuity processes are needed as back-up solutions. Today, those continuity processes are set up and maintained manually. They are mostly based on best practices that focus on specific continuity scenarios, Nevertheless, failures can occur in new and unforeseen combinations. As a consequence, a given business continuity plan needs to handle such situations as well. For this purpose, we present a technique for the generation and validation of the universe of continuity processes given a critical business process at Credit Suisse. The presented approach uses a combination of formal methods in the area of algebraic graph transformation and process algebra encompassing modal logic. The overall approach prepares for a sound evaluation of the effectiveness and efficiency of such plans. It uses formal tools, not standard software engineering solutions, to benefit from formal guarantees that facilitate the implementation of local and global security requirements. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrectness of Model Synchronization Based on Triple Graph Grammars
Hermann, Frank UL; Ehrig, Hartmut; Orejas, Fernando et al

in Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems (2011)

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See detailAnalysis and Optimization of Visual Enterprise Models Based on Graph and Model Transformation
Hermann, Frank UL

Book published by TU Berlin (2011)

Security, risk and compliance are increasingly important issues in enterprise modelling. An analysis of real world scenarios for banking has shown that today's best practices'' based on informal ... [more ▼]

Security, risk and compliance are increasingly important issues in enterprise modelling. An analysis of real world scenarios for banking has shown that today's best practices'' based on informal techniques are insufficient and should be replaced by adequate formal approaches. For this purpose, visual enterprise models based on algebraic graph and model transformation are proposed in this thesis, where the following two typical problem areas are considered: (1) Behaviour Analysis and Optimization of Visual Enterprise Process Models (2) Conformance Analysis of Enterprise Process and Service Models The first problem is solved by new concepts and results concerning behaviour analysis of visual languages, especially analysis of permutation equivalence of graph transformations based on Petri nets. In order to tackle the second problem area, model transformations based on triple graph grammars are introduced with new results concerning analysis and optimization enabling automated support for sound integration and conformance checks between different models. The new results in the area of graph and model transformation are developed in the general framework of M-adhesive transformation systems. They can be instantiated to a large variety of high-level replacement systems and applied not only to enterprise modelling, but also to several other application domains. Last but not least, the new tool AGT-M provides automated tool support for simulation, analysis and optimization in various case studies. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrectness of Model Synchronization Based on Triple Graph Grammars - Extended Version
Hermann, Frank UL; Ehrig, Hartmut; Orejas, Fernando et al

Report (2011)

Success and efficiency of software and system design fundamentally relies on its models. The more they are based on formal methods the more they can be automatically transformed to execution models and ... [more ▼]

Success and efficiency of software and system design fundamentally relies on its models. The more they are based on formal methods the more they can be automatically transformed to execution models and finally to implementation code. This paper presents model transformation and model integration as specific problem within bidirectional model transformation, which has shown to support various purposes, such as analysis, optimization, and code generation. The main purpose of model integration is to establish correspondence between various models, especially between source and target models. From the analysis point of view, model integration supports correctness checks of syntactical dependencies between different views and models. The overall concept is based on the algebraic approach to triple graph grammars, which are widely used for model transformation. The main result shows the close relationship between model transformation and model integration. For each model transformation sequence there is a unique model integration sequence and vice versa. This is demonstrated by a quasi-standard example for model transformation between class models and relational data base models. [less ▲]

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See detailFormal Specification of Model Transformations by Triple Graph Grammars with Application Conditions
Golas, Ulrike; Ehrig, Hartmut; Hermann, Frank UL

in Electronic Communications of the EASST (2011), 39

Triple graph grammars are a successful approach to describe exogenous model transformations, i.e. transformations between models conforming to different meta-models. Source and target models are related ... [more ▼]

Triple graph grammars are a successful approach to describe exogenous model transformations, i.e. transformations between models conforming to different meta-models. Source and target models are related by some connection part, triple rules describe the simultaneous construction of these parts, and forward and backward rules can be derived modeling the forward and backward model transformations. As shown already for the specification of visual models by typed attributed graph transformation, the expressiveness of the approach can be enhanced significantly by using application conditions, which are known to be equivalent to first order logic on graphs. In this paper, we extend triple rules with a specific form of application conditions, which enhance the expressiveness of formal specifications for model transformations. We show how to extend results concerning information preservation, termination, correctness, and completeness of model transformations to the case with application conditions. We illustrate our approach and results with a model transformation from statecharts to Petri nets. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom state- to delta-based bidirectional model transformations: the symmetric case
Diskin, Zinovy; Xiong, Yingfei; Czarnecki, Krzysztof et al

Report (2011)

Success and efficiency of software and system design fundamentally relies on its models. The more they are based on formal methods the more they can be automatically transformed to execution models and ... [more ▼]

Success and efficiency of software and system design fundamentally relies on its models. The more they are based on formal methods the more they can be automatically transformed to execution models and finally to implementation code. This paper presents model transformation and model integration as specific problem within bidirectional model transformation, which has shown to support various purposes, such as analysis, optimization, and code generation. The main purpose of model integration is to establish correspondence between various models, especially between source and target models. From the analysis point of view, model integration supports correctness checks of syntactical dependencies between different views and models. The overall concept is based on the algebraic approach to triple graph grammars, which are widely used for model transformation. The main result shows the close relationship between model transformation and model integration. For each model transformation sequence there is a unique model integration sequence and vice versa. This is demonstrated by a quasi-standard example for model transformation between class models and relational data base models. [less ▲]

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See detailPropagation of Constraints along Model Transformations Based on Triple Graph Grammars
Ehrig, Hartmut; Hermann, Frank UL; Schölzel, Hanna et al

in Electronic Communications of the EASST (2011), 41

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See detailFormal Analysis of Functional Behaviour of Model Transformations Based on Triple Graph Grammars
Hermann, Frank UL; Ehrig, Hartmut; Orejas, Fernando et al

in Graph Transformation (2010)

Triple Graph Grammars (TGGs) are a well-established concept for the specification of model transformations. In previous work we have formalized and analyzed already crucial properties of model ... [more ▼]

Triple Graph Grammars (TGGs) are a well-established concept for the specification of model transformations. In previous work we have formalized and analyzed already crucial properties of model transformations like termination, correctness and completeness, but functional behaviour is missing up to now. In order to close this gap we generate forward translation rules, which extend standard forward rules by translation attributes keeping track of the elements which have been translated already. In the first main result we show the equivalence of model transformations based on forward resp. forward translation rules. This way, an additional control structure for the forward transformation is not needed. This allows to apply critical pair analysis and corresponding tool support by the tool AGG. However, we do not need general local confluence, because confluence for source graphs not belonging to the source language is not relevant for the functional behaviour of a model transformation. For this reason we only have to analyze a weaker property, called translation confluence. This leads to our second main result, the functional behaviour of model transformations, which is applied to our running example, the model transformation from class diagrams to database models. [less ▲]

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See detailIncremental Service Composition Based on Partial Matching of Visual Contracts
Naeem, Muhammad; Heckel, Reiko; Orejas, Fernando et al

in Fundamental Approaches to Software Engineering (2010)

Services provide access to software components that can be discovered dynamically via the Internet. The increasing number of services a requester may be able to use demand support for finding and ... [more ▼]

Services provide access to software components that can be discovered dynamically via the Internet. The increasing number of services a requester may be able to use demand support for finding and selecting services. In particular, it is unrealistic to expect that a single service will satisfy complex requirements, so services will have to be combined to match clients’ requests. In this paper, we propose a visual, incremental approach for the composition of services, in which we describe the requirements of a requester as a goal which is matched against multiple provider offers. After every match with an offer we decompose the goal into satisfied and remainder parts. We iterate the decomposition until the goal is satisfied or we run out of offers, leading to a resolution-like matching strategy. Finally, the individual offers can be composed into a single combined offer and shown to the requester for feedback. Our approach is based on visual specifications of pre- and postconditions by graph transformation systems with loose semantics, where a symbolic approach based on constraints is used to represent attributes and their computation in graphs. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficient Analysis of Permutation Equivalence of Graph Derivations Based on Petri Nets
Hermann, Frank UL; Corradini, Andrea; Ehrig, Hartmut et al

in Electronic Communications of the EASST (2010), 29

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See detailHow Far Can Enterprise Modeling for Banking Be Supported by Graph Transformation?
Brandt, Christoph; Hermann, Frank UL

in Ehrig, Hartmut; Rensink, Arend; Rozenberg, G. (Eds.) et al Int. Conf. on Graph Transformation (ICGT 2010) (2010)

This keynote paper presents results coming out of an ongoing research project between Credit Suisse Luxembourg and the University of Luxembourg. It presents an approach that shows good potential to ... [more ▼]

This keynote paper presents results coming out of an ongoing research project between Credit Suisse Luxembourg and the University of Luxembourg. It presents an approach that shows good potential to address security, risk and compliance issues the bank has in its daily business by the use of integrated organizational models build up by enterprise modeling activities. Such organizational models are intended to serve to describe, evaluate, automate, monitor and control as well as to develop an organization respecting given organizational security, risk and compliance side-constraints. Based on the empirical scenario at Credit Suisse, real-world requirements towards a modeling framework as well as the modeling process are developed. Graph Transformation techniques are proposed as formal framework for this purpose and they are evaluated in the sense of how far they can support the identified enterprise modeling activities in the context of the new enterprise modeling framework. [less ▲]

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See detailLow- and High-Level Petri Nets with Individual Tokens
Modica, Tony; Gabriel, Karsten; Ehrig, Hartmut et al

Report (2010)

In this article, we present a new variant of Petri nets with markings called Petri nets with individual tokens, together with rule-based transformation following the double pushout approach. The most ... [more ▼]

In this article, we present a new variant of Petri nets with markings called Petri nets with individual tokens, together with rule-based transformation following the double pushout approach. The most important change to former Petri net transformation approaches is that the marking of a net is no longer a collective set of tokens, but each each has an own identity leading to the concept of Petri nets with individual tokens. This allows us to formulate rules that can change the marking of a net arbitrarily without necessarily manipulating the structure. As a first main result that depends on nets with individual markings we show the equivalence of transition firing steps and the application of firing-simulating rules. We define categories of low-level and of algebraic high-level nets with individual tokens, called PTI nets and AHLI nets, respectively and relate them with each other and their collective counterparts by functors. To be able to use the properties and analysis results of \MCALM-adhesive HLR systems (formerly know as weak adhesive high-level replacement systems) we show in further main results that both categories of PTI nets and AHLI nets are \MCALM-adhesive categories. By showing how to construct initial pushouts we also give necessary and sufficient conditions for the applicability of transformation rules in these categories, known as gluing condition in the literature. [less ▲]

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See detailFormal Analysis of Functional Behaviour for Model Transformations Based on Triple Graph Grammars - Extended Version
Hermann, Frank UL; Ehrig, Hartmut; Orejas, Fernando et al

Report (2010)

Triple Graph Grammars (TGGs) are a well-established concept for the specification of model transformations. In previous work we have formalized and analyzed already crucial properties of model ... [more ▼]

Triple Graph Grammars (TGGs) are a well-established concept for the specification of model transformations. In previous work we have formalized and analyzed already crucial properties of model transformations like termination, correctness and completeness, but functional behaviour - especially local confluence - is missing up to now. In order to close this gap we generate forward translation rules, which extend standard forward rules by translation attributes keeping track of the elements which have been translated already. In the first main result we show the equivalence of model transformations based on forward resp. forward translation rules. This way, an additional control structure for the forward transformation is not needed. This allows to apply critical pair analysis and corresponding tool support by the tool AGG. However, we do not need general local confluence because confluence for source graphs not belonging to the source language is not relevant for the functional behaviour of a model transformation. For this reason we only have to analyze a weaker property, called translation confluence. This leads to our second main result, the functional behaviour of model transformations, which is applied to our running example, the model transformation from class diagrams to database models. [less ▲]

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See detailCategorical Frameworks for Graph Transformation and HLR Systems based on the DPO Approach
Ehrig, Hartmut; Golas, Ulrike; Hermann, Frank UL

in Bulletin of the EATCS (2010), 102

Several variants of high-level replacement (HLR) and adhesive categories have been introduced in the literature as categorical frameworks for graph transformation and HLR systems based on the double ... [more ▼]

Several variants of high-level replacement (HLR) and adhesive categories have been introduced in the literature as categorical frameworks for graph transformation and HLR systems based on the double pushout (DPO) approach. In addition to HLR, adhesive, and adhesive HLR categories several weak variants, especially weak adhesive HLR with horizontal and vertical variants, as well as partial variants, including partial map adhesive and partial VK square adhesive categories are reviewed and related to each other. We propose as weakest version the class of vertical weak adhesive HLR categories, short $\mathcalM$-adhesive categories, which are still sufficient to obtain most of the main results for graph transformation and HLR systems. The results in this paper are summarized in Fig.~f:hierarchy showing a hierarchy of all these variants of adhesive, adhesive HLR, and $\mathcalM$-adhesive categories, which can be considered as different categorical frameworks for graph transformation and HLR systems. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficient Analysis and Execution of Correct and Complete Model Transformations Based on Triple Graph Grammars - Extended Version
Hermann, Frank UL; Ehrig, Hartmut; Golas, Ulrike et al

Report (2010)

Triple Graph Grammars are a well-established, formal and intuitive concept for the specification and analysis of bidirectional model transformations. In previous work we have formalized and analyzed ... [more ▼]

Triple Graph Grammars are a well-established, formal and intuitive concept for the specification and analysis of bidirectional model transformations. In previous work we have formalized and analyzed already termination, correctness, completeness, local confluence and functional behaviour. In this paper, we show how to improve the efficiency of the execution and analysis of model transformations in practical applications by using triple rules with negative application conditions (NACs). In addition to specification NACs, which improve the specification of model transformations, the generation of filter NACs improves the efficiency of the execution and the analysis of functional behaviour supported by critical pair analysis of the tool AGG. We illustrate the results for the well-known model transformation from class diagrams to relation database models. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficient Process Analysis of Transformation Systems Based on Petri nets
Hermann, Frank UL; Corradini, Andrea; Ehrig, Hartmut et al

Report (2010)

In the framework of adhesive transformation systems with Negative Application Conditions (NACs), we show how the problem of computing the set of equivalent derivations to a given one can be reduced to the ... [more ▼]

In the framework of adhesive transformation systems with Negative Application Conditions (NACs), we show how the problem of computing the set of equivalent derivations to a given one can be reduced to the analysis of the reachability graph of a generated Place/Transition Petri net. This net encodes the dependencies among rule applications of the derivation, including the inhibiting e ects of the NACs. We show the e ectiveness of this approach by comparing the cost of a brute force-approach with the cost of the presented analysis applied to a derivation of a simple system, showing a signi cant improvement in speed. [less ▲]

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