References of "Heck, Sandra 50035349"
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See detailPreparing for Inclusive Physical Education in Secondary Schools – Development and ‘Status Quo’ of Teacher Training in Germany
Heck, Sandra UL

in Popovic; Antala; Bjelica (Eds.) et al Physical Education in Secondary School: Researches – Best Practices – Situation (2018)

The training of future physical education (PE) teachers has changed over the years. Different demands adapted to new social realities in schools and new curricula require the addition and/or cancellation ... [more ▼]

The training of future physical education (PE) teachers has changed over the years. Different demands adapted to new social realities in schools and new curricula require the addition and/or cancellation of contents at the universities and training colleges. While many school and university curricular programs worldwide already include the topic of inclusive PE, Germany has for a long time segregated pupils according to their intellectual capacities and not fully adapted the national curricula for PE at schools yet. This paper outlines the development and status quo of PE teacher training in Germany. Ministerial demands and orders as well as the curricula of schools, universities and teachers’ training colleges are analyzed to determine whether and/or how far inclusive PE is incorporated. The aim of this study is not to give a complete national overview of the implementation of inclusive PE in teacher training. However, through a regional focus, it shall rather be demonstrated how German ministries as well as other institutions related to education, and how university and teachers’ training colleges deal with the topic of inclusive PE. The present study thereby analyzes whether and if yes how far future PE teachers in secondary schools currently possess the option or the commitment to prepare themselves to teach inclusive classes. [less ▲]

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See detailSport and Urban Space in Europe: Facilities, Industries, Identities
Terret, Thierry; Heck, Sandra UL

Book published by Routledge (2016)

Filling a gap in the literature on the history of sport in Europe, the book brings together complementary studies on diverse aspects of the interrelation between sport and urban space. Going from ... [more ▼]

Filling a gap in the literature on the history of sport in Europe, the book brings together complementary studies on diverse aspects of the interrelation between sport and urban space. Going from geography to political science, from sports history to urban and transport history, it suggests a three-fold approach. A first thematic group of researches ranges around "Sport Development and Urban Spaces", exploring the impact of the city on the rise of sport. A second focal point is related to "Sport Policies and Local Identities" with a special attention given to the making of sport venues and competitions in the making of urban identity. A third thematic group includes studies on "Sport Facilities, Engineers and Workers". The articulation of the three parts builds a unique contribution to the process of identity making at a European level. [less ▲]

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See detailNature Conservation versus Event Organisation: ‘Madmen’s Diagonals’ on Reunion Island (1989-2014)
Heck, Sandra UL; Terret, Thierry

in Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events (2015), 8(1), 1832

Organising an outdoor event in a venue which has been assigned as a National Park is subject to a far greater number of constraints than in a non-protected area. By using the example of the ultramarathon ... [more ▼]

Organising an outdoor event in a venue which has been assigned as a National Park is subject to a far greater number of constraints than in a non-protected area. By using the example of the ultramarathon races across Reunion Island since 1989, this study aims at analysing the history of the event’s ecological policies with regard to the special vulnerability of the region, and the changes in status of the concerned landscapes and tourism strategies. The method embraces a study of the existing litera¬ture on the history of both the event’s organisation and the island’s environmental policies over the past 24 years, combined with a press content analysis. The results demonstrate that the creation of a National Park in 2007 and the nomi¬na¬tion of large parts of Reunion Island as UNESCO World Natural Heritage sites in 2010 indeed led to further nature conservation policies which were, from then on, followed empathically in order to harmonise ideas of nature conservation and event organisation. [less ▲]

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See detailA Sport for Everyone? Inclusion and Exclusion in the Organisation of the First Olympic Modern Pentathlon
Heck, Sandra UL

in International Journal of the History of Sport (2014), 31(5), 526541

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See detailLa France et les premières heures du pentathlon moderne olympique
Heck, Sandra UL

in STAPS: Revue Internationale des Sciences du Sport et de l'Education Physique (2014), (4), 73-88

Several factors contributed to the integration of the modern pentathlon in the Olympic program in 1912 with Swedish and French voices playing a significant role. This paper focuses specifically on the ... [more ▼]

Several factors contributed to the integration of the modern pentathlon in the Olympic program in 1912 with Swedish and French voices playing a significant role. This paper focuses specifically on the French impact on the modern pentathlon with a twofold approach, which explores both the preparation and the staging of the first modern Olympic pentathlon in Stockholm between 1909 and 1912. It is primarily based on French and international sources from the Comité nation-al olympique et sportif français (CNOSF), including documents of the Fédération française de pentathlon moderne (FFPM), the Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF), the IOC Olympic studies centres (OSC) in Lausanne and the Riksarkivet (national archives) of Sweden in Stockholm. France appears to have played a dominant role in the early hours of the modern pentathlon. This role was, however, undermined by Swedish sports and organizational successes. [less ▲]

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See detailWilliam Penny Brookes – the Founding Father of the Modern Pentathlon?
Heck, Sandra UL

in Sport in History (2014), 34(1), 7589

For a long time William Penny Brookes’ influence on the re-establishment of the Olympic Games has been neglected thanks to a focus on Pierre de Coubertin’s creative force. Meanwhile Brookes’ general work ... [more ▼]

For a long time William Penny Brookes’ influence on the re-establishment of the Olympic Games has been neglected thanks to a focus on Pierre de Coubertin’s creative force. Meanwhile Brookes’ general work for the Olympic movement has been officially acknowledged by the IOC. However, the British origins have not been proved yet for the modern pentathlon, which is – just like the Olympics – widely presented to be Coubertin’s child. The two sport officials had been in touch since the 1890s and while the Olympic Games did not include the modern pentathlon before 1912, a pentathlon was organised as early as 1868 on the occasion of the Wenlock Games. This combined event did not have the same shape as the later modern pentathlon, but the ideological similarities are as obvious as Brookes’ general impact on Coubertin. By analysing historical documents located in the IOC Archives in Lausanne, Switzerland, the Archives of the Wenlock Olympian Society in Much Wenlock, UK, and the National Archives of Sweden in Stockholm, this study aims to trace to what extent Brookes and the Much Wenlock Games impacted upon the birth of the modern pentathlon. Thus, the study reinterprets the genesis of a 100-year-old Olympic sport that has, until today, been exclusively dedicated to Coubertin. [less ▲]

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See detailVon spielenden Soldaten und kämpfenden Athleten: Die Genese des Modernen Fünfkampfs
Heck, Sandra UL

Book published by Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht (2013)

Die nationalistische Stimmung, die in Europa Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts vorherrschte, gab Raum für die Geburt eines Wettkampfs, der sowohl sportlichen als auch militärischen Nutzen versprach: 1912 feierte ... [more ▼]

Die nationalistische Stimmung, die in Europa Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts vorherrschte, gab Raum für die Geburt eines Wettkampfs, der sowohl sportlichen als auch militärischen Nutzen versprach: 1912 feierte der Moderne Fünfkampf in Stockholm sein olympisches Debüt und blieb mehr als 100 Jahre olympisch. Die Ursprünge der Sportart, die bis in die zweite Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts zurückreichen, sind aber bislang ununtersucht geblieben. Diese Lücke schließt der Band, der sowohl der militärischen als auch der olympischen Genese des Modernen Fünfkampfs gewidmet ist. Die Basis bilden Archivunterlagen, vor allem jene des Internationalen Olympischen Komitees, der Union Internationale de Pentathlon Moderne, des Schwedischen Organisationskomitees der Olympischen Spiele von 1912 und des Schwedischen Militärsportverbands, die die Autorin umfassend auswertet. Auch analysiert sie diverses Pressematerial aus mehreren Ländern, darunter Schweden, Frankreich, England, Deutschland, Österreich und die USA. [less ▲]

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See detailModern Pentathlon at the London 2012 Olympics: Between Traditional Heritage and Modern Changes for Survival
Heck, Sandra UL

in International Journal of the History of Sport (2013), 30(7),

In London, in 2012, the modern pentathlon (fencing, swimming, horse riding, shooting and running) celebrated its centenary. In its 100 years of Olympic history several rule changes have taken place ... [more ▼]

In London, in 2012, the modern pentathlon (fencing, swimming, horse riding, shooting and running) celebrated its centenary. In its 100 years of Olympic history several rule changes have taken place. Directly after its Olympic debut in Stockholm in 1912, the International Olympic Committee headed by Pierre de Coubertin evaluated the event and criticised the shortcomings between the supposed idea behind the sport and its implementation. After Coubertin's death, the sport continued to develop; recently running and shooting have been joined in a so called combined event. In all cases, the presidents of the Union Internationale de Pentathlon Moderne (UIPM) argued the associated rule changes by referring to the original idea of the modern pentathlon. The sport's insecure future after the Games in Rio in 2016 provides sufficient reason to investigate the discrepancy between the marketing strategy of the UIPM and the ideological origins of the modern pentathlon. It finally allows an analysis of select historical rule changes that fitted the original idea behind the events and those that served purely modern strategies of survival. Thus, the topic also stands as an example of the policies of a contemporary international sports federation that uses (select parts of its) history and (invented) traditions as strong and successful marketing tools. [less ▲]

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See detailModern Pentathlon
Heck, Sandra UL

in Nauright, J.; Parrish, C. (Eds.) Sports around the World: History, Culture, and Practice (2012)

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See detailBreaking down the Sex Barrier: The Emancipation of Female Modern Pentathlon in West Germany (1967-1981)
Heck, Sandra UL

in International Journal of the History of Sport (2012), 29(2), 318338

Fencing, shooting, horse-riding, swimming and running – five good reasons for men to argue that women are wrong when asking to be modern pentathletes but also five good reasons for women to counter that ... [more ▼]

Fencing, shooting, horse-riding, swimming and running – five good reasons for men to argue that women are wrong when asking to be modern pentathletes but also five good reasons for women to counter that they are definitely right. Even though as early as 1912 a British woman had asked to compete in the sport, another 69 years passed until the first female World Championships were held in London in 1981. This paper deals with women's struggle towards an equal participation in modern pentathlon. Whereas the development of men's modern pentathlon remained for the first 37 years exclusively within the Olympic domain, the female movement primary gained ground through regional and national activities. Germany was among the most active countries. After the president of the German Modern Pentathlon Federation had paved the way for women's participation by fighting for its administrative recognition at the end of the 1960s, the strength of female modern pentathlon slowly increased at home as well as abroad. However, men still stood against an equal sports practice of both sexes for more than a decade. The creation of female modern pentathlon World Championships in 1981 was finally not only a result of women's enthusiasm, tenacity and patience but also of men's concession to a female competency which could not be denied any longer. [less ▲]

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See detailThe History of the ‘Revier-Derby’ between Schalke 04 and Borussia Dortmund (1947-2007)
Heck, Sandra UL; Nierhaus, Paul; Luh, Andreas

in International Journal of the History of Sport (2012), 29(14), 20302049

For the Ruhr district, an urban area in the North-West of Germany, the meeting of the two most popular and successful football clubs in the region, Schalke 04 and Borussia Dortmund, has for years been a ... [more ▼]

For the Ruhr district, an urban area in the North-West of Germany, the meeting of the two most popular and successful football clubs in the region, Schalke 04 and Borussia Dortmund, has for years been a polarising, emotional and sensational sporting event. No where else in the country and in no other sport more than in football is the rivalry between the football clubs and its fans so strong still today. Is this so called Revier derby a constructed myth or real history? Considering the derbies in the regional print media with the help of a content analysis and facing them with sport and regional history show at least two things: from the 1930s till the 1970s a long period of friendly partnership existed between the two clubs. Later, the emotional derby character of the match increased while a general regional identity developed in the Ruhr district since the 1980s, and even more since the 1990s. The socio-economical crisis in the mining industry and the increasing violence in the football stadiums supported this trend. The claim of a ‘historical’ existence of the Revier derby traced back till the early period of the Revier football is hence a media-prone, artificially created myth. [less ▲]

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See detailPrologue: Sport and Urban Space in Europe: Facilities, Industries, Identities
Terret, Thierry; Heck, Sandra UL

in Terret, Thierry; Heck, Sandra (Eds.) Sport and Urban Space in Europe (2012)

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See detailOnly a Mayfly? Origins and ‘Rebirth’ of the Winter Pentathlon in St. Moritz in 1948
Heck, Sandra UL

in European Studies in Sports History (2011), 4

Among the demonstration sports of the Olympic Games in St. Moritz 1948 was the winter pentathlon, a combined event composed of cross country skiing, shooting, alpine skiing, fencing and horse-riding ... [more ▼]

Among the demonstration sports of the Olympic Games in St. Moritz 1948 was the winter pentathlon, a combined event composed of cross country skiing, shooting, alpine skiing, fencing and horse-riding. Differing from its summer cousin, the Olympic modern pentathlon, in its inclusion of snow sports, this newly introduced event was dominated by Swedish military men as was the summer version. However, as compared to the modern pentathlon which has been a stalwart at the Summer Games, the winter pentathlon was showcased only once on the Winter Olympic stage and failed to capture the imagination of future organizing committees. This study analyses the history of an (almost) forgotten winter sport, the winter pentathlon, and thereby aims to explore the background of its Olympic implementation, failure and ‘rebirth’. The negative experiences at the 1948 winter pentathlon in combination with a lack of tradition and attraction finally led to its cancellation from the program. The biathlon, however, a combination of its two core sports, profited from this development. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Olympic Games of Los Angeles 1932: a New Start in French and German Press Representations of the Former Enemy?
Heck, Sandra UL; Terret, Thierry

in Olympika: The International Journal of Olympic Studies (2011), XX

Previous works on German-French relationships in the sporting press prove that a time of open hostility in both countries until 1928 was followed in the mid-1930s by admiration of the French observers ... [more ▼]

Previous works on German-French relationships in the sporting press prove that a time of open hostility in both countries until 1928 was followed in the mid-1930s by admiration of the French observers towards Germany, whereas the Germans showed arrogance or indifference when mentioning France. Yet the exact turn in these media representations remains underexplored and suggests focusing on the Olympic Games of Los Angeles in 1932. At this time the contraction of the money supply, loss of purchasing power, unemployment and bankruptcies visited most of the industrialised world and led to a depression. How far did these events impact the respective representations of ‘the other’ in France’s and Germany’s discourses on sport during the summer of 1932? This question is in the focus of a press analysis based on a selection of French and German sport and generalist newspapers. It comes out that the press accounts of the 1932 Olympics reflected the ongoing process of redefining the relationship between France and Germany in a time of transition. [less ▲]

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See detailModern Pentathlon and World War I – When Athletes and Soldiers Meet to Practise Martial Manliness
Heck, Sandra UL

in International Journal of the History of Sport (2011), 28(3/4), 410428

In the nationalistic atmosphere of the early 20th Century, a nurturing medium for sports practising martial manliness abounded throughout Europe. This framework supported the invention of a new multi ... [more ▼]

In the nationalistic atmosphere of the early 20th Century, a nurturing medium for sports practising martial manliness abounded throughout Europe. This framework supported the invention of a new multi-disciplinary sport, aided by Baron Pierre de Coubertin himself: Modern Pentathlon. Though the idea of a new form of pentathlon was already born in 1894, it took thirty years, until Paris 1924 to establish Modern Pentathlon within the Olympic Games. This study is concerned with the reasons for that delay. It shall be investigated whether the active military preparations around World War I and the contemporary image of masculinity had a decisive influence on the early history of Modern Pentathlon. By including historical documents of the IOC archives in Lausanne/Switzerland, the research office for military history in Potsdam/Germany and the LA84 Foundation in Los Angeles/USA as well as literature on gender, military sport and Olympic history this study offers an entirely new view on the early history of a sport which was born in an atmosphere of glorifying manliness and apparent militarism. The history of Modern Pentathlon thereby provides a particular appropriate area for the analysis of connections between sport, militarism and masculinity. It was not by chance that the implementation of a combined sport, which included besides swimming and running the three cavalry disciplines of shooting, fencing and horse-riding, arose in a pre-war context. Though in 1912 the Great War had not yet begun, the awareness for an upcoming battle was rising and led to a higher attention to Coubertin’s almost forgotten assumption of a new sport. In 1924 the advantages were finally admitted on two sides: the army recruited modern pentathletes as future military officers; the sports community appointed skilled officers as successful competitors. Thus, the lobby for an Olympic recognition of Modern Pentathlon was found. [less ▲]

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See detailFünf Tage voller Kuriositäten – Der Olympische Winterfünfkampf 1948
Heck, Sandra UL

in FdSnow (2011), 38

The fifth Winter Games of St. Moritz were the first Olympic event organized after the Second World War. Clouded by the consequences of war – the lack of financial and human resources could still be felt ... [more ▼]

The fifth Winter Games of St. Moritz were the first Olympic event organized after the Second World War. Clouded by the consequences of war – the lack of financial and human resources could still be felt in 1948 –, the strict interpretation of the amateur rules raised additional conflicts. Even though Germany and Japan were excluded from the Games due to their war engagement, the organizers seemed not to care much about including demonstration events which were strongly military related and moreover practised by professional officers. Among was the winter pentathlon, a combined event composed of cross country skiing, shooting, alpine skiing, fencing and horse-riding. It only differed in the cross country and alpine skiing from the Olympic modern pentathlon which instead included swimming and a cross country run. Just like in summer times Swedish athletes also dominated the winter pentathlon but in comparison to its estival counterpart it was only one time in history realized during the Olympics. This paper analyzes the history of an (almost) forgotten winter sport and aims to prove the background of its Olympic implementation as well as reasons for its failure to be legitimized as permanent part of the Olympic program. [less ▲]

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See detailModern Pentathlon and Symbolic Violence – a History of Female Exclusion from Stockholm 1912 to Paris 1924
Heck, Sandra UL

in International Review on Sport and Violence (2011), (4), 4567

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See detail‘A Superfluous Appearance?’ – The Olympic Winter Pentathlon 1948
Heck, Sandra UL

in Kleppen, H. (Ed.) Winter Sports and Outdoor Life (2011)

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See detailL'institutionnalisation d'une idée. Le pentathlon moderne du programme olympique à une fédération internationale
Heck, Sandra UL

in Bauer, Thomas; Gomet, Doriane (Eds.) Histoire(s) de la performance du sportif de haut niveau (2011)

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See detail‘A blond, broad shouldered athlete with bright grey-blue eyes’: German Propaganda and Gotthardt Handrick’s Victory in Modern Pentathlon at the Nazis’ Olympics 1936
Heck, Sandra UL

in Journal of Sport History (2011), 38(2), 255274

Modern pentathlon requires mainly military skills and historically attracted the attention of officers only. Appropriately, the country that provided the best modern pentathletes simultaneously ... [more ▼]

Modern pentathlon requires mainly military skills and historically attracted the attention of officers only. Appropriately, the country that provided the best modern pentathletes simultaneously demonstrated its military strength. Gotthardt Handrick who interrupted a long-lasting Swedish hegemony over the modern pentathlon developed into Germany’s national pride. Surprisingly, his victory in the 1936 Olympics modern pentathlon competition is relatively unknown and under-investigated. This paper investigates how Handrick’s performance at the 1936 games was presented in Germany in various press documents and thereby gives insights into the Nazis’ instrumentalization of the sport. By analyzing different articles in German newspapers and journals it is aimed to detect the propaganda that possibly contributed to the construction of Handrick’s heroic image in an up-to- that-date minor sport. It is argued that the often criticized military links of modern pentathlon never turned out to be so true than in the pre-war atmosphere of the 1936 Olympics. [less ▲]

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